Zeiler's father was an exile from Upper Styria, forced to emigrate due to his protestant confession. Zeiler was schooled in Ulm, moving to Wittenberg in 1608 to study jurisprudence and history. He worked several jobs as private teacher and notary. He lived in Ulm from 1629, working as teacher and inspector at local schools.
Zeiler was very productive as an author, meeting the template of the Baroque polyhistor. The Ulm city library lists 90 works authored by Zeiler. His productivity was recognized by his contemporaries; Georg Philipp Harsdörffer mentions Herrn Zeillers proverbial industriousness in one of his poems. Zeiler ist best known for his contribution to Matthäus Merian's Topographia Germaniae (16 vol., 1642–1654).