Martine Aubry

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Martine Aubry
Aubry-et-officier de sécurité.jpg
First Secretary of the Socialist Party
In office
26 November 2008* – 12 September 2012
Preceded by François Hollande
Succeeded by Harlem Désir
Mayor of Lille
Incumbent
Assumed office
25 March 2001
Preceded by Pierre Mauroy
Minister of Social Affairs
In office
2 June 1997 – 18 October 2000
Prime Minister Lionel Jospin
Preceded by Jean-Claude Gaudin
Succeeded by Élisabeth Guigou
Minister of Labour, Employment and Vocational Training
In office
15 May 1991 – 28 March 1993
Prime Minister Édith Cresson
Pierre Bérégovoy
Preceded by Jean-Pierre Soisson
Succeeded by Michel Giraud
Member of the National Assembly
for Nord's 5th Constituency
In office
12 June 1997 – 4 July 1997
Preceded by Bernard Davoine
Succeeded by Bernard Davoine
Personal details
Born (1950-08-08) 8 August 1950 (age 63)
Paris, France
Political party Socialist Party
Alma mater Pantheon-Assas University
Institute of Political Studies, Paris
National School of Administration, Strasbourg
Signature
* Harlem Désir served as Acting Leader from 30 June 2011 – 16 October 2011.

Martine Aubry (French pronunciation: ​[maʁtin obʁi]; née Delors; born 8 August 1950) is a French politician. She has been the First Secretary of the French Socialist Party (Parti Socialiste, or PS) since November 2008 and Mayor of Lille (Nord) since March 2001. Her father, Jacques Delors, served as Minister of Finance under President François Mitterrand and was also President of the European Commission.

Aubry joined the PS in 1974 and was appointed Minister of Labour by Prime Minister Édith Cresson in 1991, but lost her position in 1993 after the Right won the legislative elections. However, she became Minister of Social Affairs when Lionel Jospin was appointed Prime Minister in 1997. She is mostly known for having pushed the popular 35-hour workweek law, known as the "Loi Aubry", reducing the nominal length of the normal full-time working week from 39 to 35 hours, and the law that created the Couverture maladie universelle (Universal health care coverage).

Aubry stepped down from her Cabinet post in 2001 to be elected Mayor of Lille in place of Pierre Mauroy. Aubry subsequently lost her seat in the National Assembly in the general election of 2002. In March 2008, she was reelected Mayor of Lille, with 66.55% of the votes.

In November 2008, she was elected to lead the Socialist Party, narrowly defeating Ségolène Royal; while Royal disputed the results, the Socialist Party declared on November 25, 2008 that Aubry had won the contested election. On 28 June 2011, Martine Aubry announced she would seek the Socialist nomination to run in the 2012 presidential election, ultimately losing to her predecessor as First Secretary, François Hollande.

Biography[edit]

Born in Paris, Aubry is the daughter of French Minister of Finance (1981–1985) and European Commission President (1985–1995) Jacques Delors. She is divorced from Xavier Aubry and married to Jean-Louis Brochen

Education and professional career[edit]

Aubry was educated at the lycée Notre-Dame-des-Oiseaux[1] and the lycée Paul-Valéry (in Paris);[2] she holds a degree in economic science from Panthéon-Assas University,[3] a diploma from the Institut des Sciences Sociales du Travail, and one from the Institut d'Études Politiques de Paris (or Sciences Po) in 1972.

Between 1973 and 1975, she studied at the École nationale d'administration (ÉNA, National School of Administration). She became a civil administrator at the Ministry of Labor and Social Affairs (France) (Ministère du Travail et des Affaires sociales), during which time she was active within the French Democratic Confederation of Labour (CFDT). She became a professor at ÉNA in 1978, and was seconded to the State Council between 1980 and 1981.

Following the election of François Mitterrand to the French presidency in 1981, she successively held several posts at the Ministry of Social Affairs, in the cabinets of Jean Auroux and Pierre Bérégovoy. In 1984, she investigated French asbestos policy for the Comité Permanent Amiante (Permanent Asbestos Committee, an informal public-private working group formed to manage the health problems of workers affected by asbestos). The group's deputy director, Jean-Luc Pasquier, testified before the courts to account for the group's members' actions.

After the defeat of the socialists in the French legislative election of 1986, she was named Master of Requests at the State Council. From 1989 to 1991, she took up the post of Assistant Director at Pechiney, working with Jean Gandois. She was involved with the opening of a plant at Dunkerque and the closure of the aluminium works at Noguères.[4]

Political career[edit]

Minister of Labour, Employment and Vocational Training: 1991-1993[edit]

Aubry was named Minister of Labour, Employment and Vocational Training by Édith Cresson, and carried on in this capacity in the Bérégovoy ministry until March 1993. According to Jean-Luc Pasquier,[5] she supported the controlled use of asbestos whilst all other members of the EEC supported an outright ban, thus effectively vetoing a European decree against asbestos.[6] France did not ban asbestos until 1997.[7] In January 2010, a public health judge charged with investigating former government measures on asbestos had Aubry interrogated by gendarmes in Lille.[8]

When the right came into power at the French legislative election in 1986, she started the Fondation Agir Contre l'Exclusion (FACE, the Act Against Exclusion Foundation). In 1995, Pierre Mauroy named her as the first deputy to the Mayor of Lille, thus giving her a foothold in the department of Nord.

Lionel Jospin, who became the socialist candidate as French President in 1995, made her his campaign spokesman during the presidential campaign. Upon his defeat, Jospin became first secretary of the Socialist Party, and offered her the number two spot, which Aubry refused.

Although she had good relations with part of the establishment, especially with her former Pechiney boss, Jean Gandois, and the Parti communiste francais, she did not get on well with the unions, in particular with Nicole Notat, the former General Secretary of the CFDT[citation needed]

She has been described as hard and demanding. She counters, "Je dis les choses en face, je ne suis pas faux-cul. Mais je crois être bien moins dure que beaucoup de gens en politique. Je suis même peut-être trop sensible. (I'm up-front, and I'm not a hypocrite. But I think I'm much less hard than many politicians. I may even be too sensitive.)[4]"

Minister of Employment and Solidarity: 1997-2000[edit]

Elected as member of the National Assembly, she became minister of Employment and Solidarity, the most important minister after the prime minister in 1997. The same year, to fight unemployment, she created a new employment contract for young people (Emplois-jeunes) with a financial help from the government. In 1998, a law establishing the 35-hour workweek was adopted. In 1999, the Couverture maladie universelle (CMU), a program that reimburses medical expenses through Social security for everyone, was voted through. Furthermore, for people on low incomes, the CMU also offers complementary health cover of 100%, which is added to standard Social Security payments; this avoids the necessity for additional private (top-up) insurance.

2012 Presidential candidacy[edit]

On June 28, 2011, Aubry said in a televised address from the former train station of Lille-Saint-Sauveur : "I have decided to propose my candidacy to the presidential election".[9]

Following the first round of the citizens primary, she faced François Hollande in the second round of voting on October 16 in a two-way runoff. In the final round of voting, her opponent won the nomination with 56,6% of the vote.

After her defeat in the primaries, she became one of the main supporters of the Francois Hollande presidential campaign. Aubry's name had been mentioned as a potential prime minister for François Hollande.[10] However after Hollande was elected President, he chose Jean-Marc Ayrault as Prime Minister and Aubry then refused to join his cabinet.[11]

Political career[edit]

Bibliography[edit]

  • 1982 : Pratique de la fonction personnel : le management des ressources humaines ; Martine Aubry, Pierre Balloy, Robert Bosquet, Pierre Cazamian... [etc.] sous la direction de Dimitri Weiss... avec la collaboration de Pierre Morin ; Publication : Paris : Éditions d'Organisation, 1982 ; Description matérielle : 644 p. : ill. ; 25 cm ; ISBN 2-7081-0477-2
  • 1992 : Le chômage de longue durée : comprendre, agir, évaluer : actes du Colloque Agir contre le chômage de longue durée, les 18 et 19 novembre 1991 à la Maison de la chimie à Paris / [organisé par le Ministère du travail, Délégation à l'emploi et la Mission interministérielle Recherche expérimentation, MIRE ; textes réunis par Patricia Bouillaguet et Christophe Guitton ; préf. par Martine Aubry ; Colloque Agir contre le chômage de longue durée (1991 ; Paris) France. Mission interministérielle recherche-expérimentation ; Publication : Paris : Syros-Alternatives, 1992 ; Description matérielle : 745 p. : graph. ; 24 cm ; ISBN 2-86738-745-0
  • 1994 : Le choix d'agir ; Aubry, Martine ; Publication : Albin Michel, 1994 ; ISBN 2-226-06801-5
  • 1995 : Carnet de route d'un maire de banlieue : entre innovations et tempêtes ; Picard, Paul (préf. de Martine Aubry) ; Publication : Syros, 1995 ; ISBN 2-84146-205-6
  • 1995 : Petit dictionnaire pour lutter contre l'extrême droite ; Aubry, Martine; Duhamel, Olivier ; Publication : Éd. du Seuil, 1995 ; ISBN 2-02-028127-9
  • 1996 : Pauvretés ; sous la dir. de Claire Brisset, préf. de Martine Aubry ; Publication : Hachette, 1996 ; ISBN 2-01-235180-8
  • 1997 : Il est grand temps ; Aubry, Martine ; Publication : A. Michel, 1997 ; ISBN 2-226-09228-5
  • 1997 : La nouvelle Grande-Bretagne : vers une société de partenaires ; Tony Blair (préf. de Martine Aubry) ; Publication : La Tour-d'Aigues : Éd. de l'Aube, 1997 ; ISBN 2-87678-310-X
  • 1997 : Martine Aubry : enquête sur une énigme politique ; Burel, Paul; Tatu, Natacha ; Publication : Calmann-Lévy, 1997 ; ISBN 2-7021-2792-4
  • 1998 : Il est grand temps ; Aubry, Martine ; Publication : Librairie générale française, 1998 ; ISBN 2-253-14376-6
  • 2002 : C'est quoi la solidarité ? ; Aubry, Martine ; Publication : A. Michel, 2000 ; ISBN 2-226-11018-6
  • 2000 : Emploi et travail [Texte imprimé] : regards croisés ; Olivier Bertrand, Denis Clerc, Yves Clot... [et al.] ; sous la dir. de Jean Gadrey (préf. par Martine Aubry) ; Publication : Montréal (Québec) : l'Harmattan, 2000 ; ISBN 2-7384-9096-4
  • 2002 : La Ville à mille temps ; Sous la direction de Jean-Yves Boulin (préface de Martine Aubry) ; ISBN 2-87678-694-X
  • 2002 : Notre-Dame de la Treille, du rêve à la réalité ; Frédéric Vienne (préface de Martine Aubry) ; ISBN 2-912215-08-0
  • 2003 : L'important, c'est la santé ; coordonné par Martine Aubry ; Publication : La Tour d'Aigues : Éd. de l'Aube, 2003 ; ISBN 2-87678-944-2
  • 2004 : Démocratie participative : Promesses et ambiguïté ; Michel Falise (préface de Martine Aubry) ; Publication : Aube (5 février 2004) ; ISBN 2-87678-916-7
  • 2004 : Notre Sébasto...pol : Mémoire d'un Théâtre 1903-2003 ; Edgar Duvivier (préface de Martine Aubry) ; Publication Publi-Nord (1 mars 2004) ; ISBN 2-902970-56-0
  • 2004 : Culture toujours : et plus que jamais ! ; coordonné par Martine Aubry ; Publication : La Tour-d'Aigues : Éd. de l'Aube, 2004 ; ISBN 2-87678-990-6
  • 2004 : Réduire les fractures nord/sud : Une utopie ? ; sous la direction de Martine Aubry ; Publication : L'Aube (20 août 2004) ; ISBN 2-7526-0017-8
  • 2004 : Muscler sa conscience du bonheur en trente jours ; Martine Aubry ; Publications : Holoconcept (1 septembre 2004) ; ISBN 2-913281-39-7
  • 2004 : Quel projet pour la gauche ? ; Martine Aubry ; Publication : L'Aube (19 novembre 2004) ; ISBN 2-7526-0056-9
  • 2004 : Une vision pour espérer, une volonté pour transformer ; Martine Aubry ; Publication : La Tour-d'Aigues : Éd. de l'Aube, 2004 ; ISBN 2-7526-0031-3
  • 2005 : Un nouvel art de ville : Le projet urbain de Lille ; Pierre Saintignon (préface de Martine Aubry) ; Publication : Editions Ville de Lille (janvier 1, 2005) ; ISBN 2-9523506-0-4
  • 2005 : Le Maître au Feuillage brodé : Primitifs flamands. Secrets d'ateliers Florence Combert, Didier Martens (préface de Martine Aubry) ; Publication : RMN (26 mai 2005) ; ISBN 2-7118-4891-4
  • 2005 : Felice Beato en Chine : Photographier la guerre en 1860 ; Annie-Laure Wanaverbecq (préface de Martine Aubry) ; Publication : Somogy (22 septembre 2005) ; ISBN 2-85056-895-3
  • 2006 : Agir contre les discriminations ; Martine Aubry ; Publication : L'Aube (9 mars 2006) ; ISBN 2-7526-0223-5
  • 2008 : "Et si on se retrouvait..." ; Martine Aubry, Stéphane Paoli, et Jean Viard ; Publication : L'Aube (21 août 2008) ; ISBN 2-7526-0497-1

References[edit]

  1. ^ it was there that she met and became friends with Chantal Goya
  2. ^ [1] Site of the lycée, citing her as an alumna
  3. ^ Mathieu, Béatrice; Deschamps, Pascale-Marie; Mas, Isabelle; Collomp, Florentin; Steinmann, Lionel (18 December 1997). "Où étaient-ils ?". L'Expansion (in French). 
  4. ^ a b Jean-Michel Aphatie et Corinne Lhaik, « Une femme ambitieuse », L'Express, 28 August 1997 (French)
  5. ^ Cité par François Malye
  6. ^ Pierre Mabut, France : Amiante: manifestation de travailleurs français demandant que justice soit faite contre les empoisonneurs, WSWS amiante, 26 octobre 2005
  7. ^ [2] Newsletter of the Asbestos Institute
  8. ^ [3] Translation of article by François Malye in Le Point
  9. ^ French Socialist Chief Aubry Seeks Party Backing For 2012 Election
  10. ^ Aubry, bien placée pour Matignon ?
  11. ^ Samuel, Henry (16 May 2012). "Francois Hollande chooses first cabinet as Martine Aubry is snubbed". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 4 September 2012. 

External links[edit]

This article incorporates information from the revision as of 5 November 2009 of the equivalent article on the French Wikipedia.
Political offices
Preceded by
Jean-Pierre Soisson
Minister of Labour, Employment and Vocational Training
1991–1993
Succeeded by
Michel Giraud
Preceded by
Jean-Claude Gaudin
Minister of Social Affairs
1997–2000
Succeeded by
Élisabeth Guigou
Preceded by
Pierre Mauroy
Mayor of Lille
2001–present
Incumbent
Party political offices
Preceded by
François Hollande
First Secretary of the Socialist Party
2008–2012
Succeeded by
Harlem Désir