|The martini is one of the most widely known cocktails|
|Primary alcohol by volume|
|Served||straight (or on the rocks)|
|Standard drinkware||Cocktail glass|
|Commonly used ingredients|
|Preparation||Straight: Pour all ingredients into mixing glass with ice cubes. Stir well. Strain in chilled martini cocktail glass. Squeeze oil from lemon peel onto the drink, or garnish with olive. (On the rocks: Pour all ingredients over ice cubes in old-fashioned glass, garnish as above and serve.)|
The martini is a cocktail made with gin and vermouth, and garnished with an olive or a lemon twist. Over the years, the martini has become one of the best-known mixed alcoholic beverages. H. L. Mencken called the martini "the only American invention as perfect as the sonnet" and E. B. White called it "the elixir of quietude".
The traditional method of preparation is to pour gin and dry vermouth into a mixing glass with ice cubes, stir, strain into chilled cocktail glass, and garnish with a green olive or a twist of lemon peel.
The ratio of gin to vermouth has been steadily increasing since the cocktail was created. A ratio of 1:1 was common at the turn of the 20th century, and 3:1 or 4:1 martinis were typical during the 1930s and 1940s. During the latter part of the 20th century, 6:1, 8:1, 12:1, or even 50:1 or 100:1 martinis became considered the norm. And there have always been those who advocated the elimination of vermouth altogether: Noël Coward suggested that the ideal martini should be made by "filling a glass with gin then waving it in the general direction of Italy" (a major producer of vermouth). Luis Buñuel used the dry martini as part of his creative process, regularly using it to sustain ‘a reverie in a bar’.  He offers his own recipe, involving Angostura bitters, in his memoir.
There are a number of variations on the traditional martini. The fictional spy James Bond sometimes asked for his vodka martinis to be "shaken, not stirred," following Harry Craddock's Savoy Cocktail Book (1930), which prescribes shaking for all its martini recipes.  The proper name for a shaken Martini is a Bradford. However, Somerset Maugham is often quoted as saying that "a martini should always be stirred, not shaken, so that the molecules lie sensuously on top of one another". A martini may also be served on the rocks, that is, with the ingredients poured over ice cubes and served in an Old-Fashioned glass. A dirty martini contains a splash of olive brine or olive juice and is typically garnished with an olive. A "perfect" martini uses equal amounts of sweet and dry vermouth.
Origins and mixology
The exact origin of the martini is unclear. Numerous cocktails with names and ingredients similar to the modern-day martini were first seen in bartending guides of the late 19th century. For example, in the 1888 Bartender's Manual there was a recipe for a drink that consisted of half a wine glass of Old Tom Gin and a half a wine glass of vermouth. In 1863, an Italian vermouth maker started marketing their product under the brand name of Martini. This product is still available today, although it is now better known as Martini & Rossi.
Another popular theory suggests it evolved from a cocktail called the Martinez served at the Occidental Hotel in San Francisco sometime in the early 1860s, which people frequented before taking an evening ferry to the nearby town of Martinez. Alternatively, the people of Martinez say the drink was first created by a bartender in their town, or maybe the drink was named after the town. Another theory links the first dry martini to the name of a bartender who concocted the drink at the Knickerbocker Hotel in New York City in 1911 or 1912.
During Prohibition the relative ease of illegal gin manufacture led to the martini's rise as the predominant cocktail of the mid 20th century in the United States. With the repeal of Prohibition, and the ready availability of quality gin, the drink became progressively dryer. In the 1970s and 80s, the martini came to be seen as old-fashioned and was replaced by more intricate cocktails and wine spritzers, but the mid-1990s saw a resurgence in the drink and an explosion of new versions.
Some newer drinks include the word "martini" or the suffix "-tini" in the name (e.g., appletini, peach martini, chocolate martini, espresso martini). These are named after the martini cocktail glass they use and generally contain vodka like the kangaroo cocktail, but share little else with the drink.
- Martini & Rossi
- Martini (vermouth)
- Three-martini lunch
- Gibson (cocktail)
- Vesper (cocktail)
- Bronx (cocktail)
- List of cocktails
- List of martini variations
- Martini Shot, a film industry term for the last shot of the day, because "the next shot is out of a glass"
- Edmunds, Lowell (1981). Martini, Straight Up: The Classic American Cocktail. Johns Hopkins University Press. ISBN 0-8018-5971-9.
- Conrad, Barnaby, III (1995). The Martini: An Illustrated History of an American Classic. Chronicle Books. pp. 10–11. ISBN 0-8118-0717-7.
- "COCKTAILS: The Wet Martini". 16 June 2009.
- Buñuel (1985). My Last Breath. Trans. Abigail Israel. Flamingo, imprint of Fontana Paperbacks. pp. 44–45.
- Craddock, Harry (2011). The Savoy Cocktail Book. Pavilion Books. pp. 102–103. ISBN 9-781862-052963.
- ^ Embury, David (1948). The Fine Art of Mixing Drinks. Garden City, NY: Doubleday. p. 101. LCC TX951 .E55.
- See, e.g., Schott’s Food & Drink Miscellany” (2004)
- The old-fashioned glass "is increasingly used these days [mid-1970s] by people who prefer their martinis 'on the rocks' instead of 'up' - that is, in the rather more fussy and more precise cocktail-glass type of preparation." Irma Rombauer & Marion Rombauer Becker, The Joy of Cooking (1975 ed.), p. 49.
- Bloom, Dave. The Complete Bartender's Guide. Carlton Books. p. 95. ISBN 1-84222-736-X.
- Edmunds, Lowell (1998). Martini, Straight Up: The Classic American Cocktail. Johns Hopkins University Press. p. 81. ISBN 978-0-8018-7311-9.
- "Shaken or Stirred? A Short History to Celebrate National Martini Day". Retrieved 19 July 2012.
- Taylor, David (2002). Martini. Silverback Books. p. 8. ISBN 978-1-930603-03-5.
- Gasnier, Vincent (2007). Drinks. DK Adult. p. 376.
- Media related to Martini (cocktail) at Wikimedia Commons
- Cocktails/Martini at Wikibooks
- Gadberry, Brad (2008-01-12). "The Martini FAQ". Retrieved 2008-08-10.
- History of the Martini: A talk with Max Rudin, 29 December 1997 (RealAudio format)