Martinique

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For the New York City nightclub of the 1940s, see La Martinique.
Martinique
Overseas region of France
Flag of Martinique
Flag
Coat of arms of Martinique
Coat of arms
Martinique in France.svg
Country  France
Prefecture Fort-de-France
Departments 1
Government
 • President Serge Letchimy
Area
 • Total 1,128 km2 (436 sq mi)
Population (Jan. 2013)[1]
 • Total 386,486
 • Density 340/km2 (890/sq mi)
Demonym Martinican (Martiniquaís in French)
Time zone ECT (UTC-04)
ISO 3166 code MQ
GDP (2012)[2] Ranked 23rd
Total €8.35 billion (US$10.7 bn)
Per capita €21,527 (US$27,688)
NUTS Region FR9
Website Prefecture, Region, Department

Martinique (French pronunciation: ​[maʁ.tiˈnik]) is an island in the Lesser Antilles in the eastern Caribbean Sea, with a land area of 1,128 square kilometres (436 sq mi) and a population of 386,486 inhabitants (as of Jan. 2013).[1] Like Guadeloupe, it is an overseas region of France, consisting of a single overseas department. One of the Windward Islands, it is directly north of Saint Lucia, northwest of Barbados, and south of Dominica.

As with the other overseas departments, Martinique is one of the twenty-seven regions of France (being an overseas region) and an integral part of the French Republic. As part of France, Martinique is part of the European Union, and its currency is the euro. The official language is French, although many of its inhabitants also speak Antillean Creole (Créole Martiniquais).

Etymology[edit]

Martinique owes its name to Christopher Columbus, who sighted the island in 1493 and finally landed on 15 June 1502. The island was then called "Jouanacaëra-Matinino", which came from a mythical island described by the Tainos of Hispaniola. According to historian Sydney Daney, the island was called "Jouanacaëra" by the Caribs, which would mean "the island of iguanas". After Columbus' initial discovery, the name then evolved into Madinina ("Island of Flowers"), Madiana, and Matinite. When Columbus returned to the island in 1502, he rechristened the island as Martinica. Finally, through the influence of the neighboring island of Dominica (La Dominique), it came to be known as Martinique.

History[edit]

Main article: History of Martinique

Pre-European contact[edit]

The island was occupied first by Arawaks, then by Caribs. The Carib people had migrated from the mainland to the islands about 1200 CE, according to carbon dating of artifacts. They largely displaced, exterminated and assimilated the Taino who were resident on the island in the 1490s.[3]

1493–1688[edit]

Martinique was charted by Columbus in 1493, but Spain had little interest in the territory.

On 15 September 1635, Pierre Belain d'Esnambuc, French governor of the island of St. Kitts, landed in the harbour of St. Pierre with 150 French settlers after being driven off St. Kitts by the English. D'Esnambuc claimed Martinique for the French King Louis XIII and the French "Compagnie des Îles de l'Amérique" (Company of the American Islands), and established the first European settlement at Fort Saint-Pierre (now St. Pierre).

In 1636, the indigenous Caribs rose against the settlers to drive them off the island in the first of many skirmishes. The French successfully repelled the natives and forced them to retreat to the eastern part of the island, on the Caravelle Peninsula in the region then known as the Capesterre. When the Carib revolted against French rule in 1658, the Governor Charles Houel de Petit-Pré retaliated with war against them. Many were killed; those who survived were taken captive and expelled from the island. Some Carib had fled to Dominica or St. Vincent, where the French agreed to leave them at peace.

Because there were few Catholic priests in the French Antilles, many of the earliest French settlers were Huguenots who sought greater religious freedom than what they could experience in mainland France. They were quite industrious and became quite prosperous. Although edicts from King Louis XIV's court regularly came to the islands to suppress the Protestant "heretics", these were mostly ignored by island authorities until Louis XIV's Edict of Revocation in 1685.

From September 1686 to early 1688, the French crown used Martinique as a threat and a dumping ground for mainland Huguenots who refused to reconvert to Catholicism. Over 1,000 Huguenots were transported to Martinique during this period, usually under miserable and crowded ship conditions that caused many of them to die en route. Those that survived the trip were distributed to the island planters as Engagés (Indentured servants) under the system of serf peonage that prevailed in the French Antilles at the time.

As many of the planters on Martinique were themselves Huguenot, and who were sharing in the suffering under the harsh strictures of the Revocation, they began plotting to emigrate from Martinique with many of their recently arrived brethren. Many of them were encouraged by their Catholic brethren who looked forward to the departure of the heretics and seizing their property for themselves. By 1688, nearly all of Martinique's French Protestant population had escaped to the British American colonies or Protestant countries back home. The policy decimated the population of Martinique and the rest of the French Antilles and set back their colonization by decades, causing the French king to relax his policies in the islands yet leaving the islands susceptible to British occupation over the next century.[4]

Post-1688[edit]

The Battle of Martinique between British and French fleets in 1779.

Martinique was occupied several times by the British, including once during the Seven Years' War and twice during the Napoleonic Wars. Britain controlled the island almost continuously from 1794-1815, when it was traded back to France at the conclusion of the Napoleonic Wars.[5] Martinique has remained a French possession since then.

As sugar prices declined in the early 1800s the planter class lost political influence, and in 1848 Victor Schoelcher persuaded the French government to end slavery in the French West Indies.[5]

On May 8, 1902, Mont Pelée erupted and completely destroyed St. Pierre, killing 30,000 people. The only survivor in the town, Auguste Cyparis, was saved by the thick walls of his prison cell.[6] Shortly thereafter the capital shifted to Fort-de-France, where it remains today.[5]

In 1946, the French National Assembly voted unanimously to transform the colony into an Overseas Department of France. In 1974 it became simply a Department.[5]

In 2009, the French Caribbean general strikes exposed deep ethnic, and class tensions and disparities within Martinique.[7]

Governance[edit]

Together with Guadeloupe and French Guiana, Martinique is one of the Overseas Departments of France. It is also an outermost region of the European Union. The inhabitants of Martinique are French citizens with full political and legal rights. Martinique sends four deputies to the French National Assembly and two senators to the French Senate.

Subdivisions[edit]

Map of Martinique, showing the island's four arrondissements.

Martinique is divided into four arrondissements, 34 communes, and 45 cantons. The four arrondissements of the island, with their respective locations, are as follows:

  • Fort-de-France is the sole prefecture of Martinique. It takes up the central zone of the island. It includes four communes and sixteen cantons. In 1990 the population of the arrondissement was 163,969. Besides the capital, it includes the communities of Saint-Joseph and Schoelcher.
  • La Trinité is one of the three subprefectures on the island and occupies the northeast region. It has ten communes and eleven cantons. In 1990 the population was 78,922, increasing to 85,006 in 1999, a growth of 7.71%. La Trinité contains the communities of La Trinité, Ajoupa-Bouillon, Basse-Pointe, Le Gros-Morne, Le Lorrain, Macouba, Le Marigot, Le Robert and Sainte-Marie.
  • Saint-Pierre is the third subprefecture of the island. It comprises eight communes and five cantons, lying in the northwest of Martinique. Its population grew from 23,336 in 1990 to 23,464 in 1999, an increase of 0.55%. Together with Saint-Pierre, its communities include Le Carbet, Case-Pilote-Bellefontaine, Le Morne-Rouge and Le Prêcheur.

Geography[edit]

A map of Martinique.

Geographic coordinates: 14°40′N 61°00′W / 14.667°N 61.000°W / 14.667; -61.000

Part of the archipelago of the Antilles, Martinique is located in the Caribbean Sea about 450 km (280 mi) northeast of the coast of South America and about 700 km (435 mi) southeast of the Dominican Republic. It is directly north of St. Lucia, northwest of Barbados, and south of Dominica.

The total area of Martinique is 1,100 square kilometres (420 sq mi), of which 40 square kilometres (15 sq mi) is water and the rest land. Martinique is the 3rd largest island in The Lesser Antilles after Trinidad and Guadeloupe. It stretches 70 km (43 mi) in length and 30 km (19 mi) in width. The highest point is the volcano of Mont Pelée at 1,397 metres (4,583 ft) above sea level.

The island is volcanic in origin, lying along the subduction fault where the North American Plate slides beneath the Caribbean Plate. Martinique has 8 different centers of volcanic activity. The oldest rocks are andesitic lavas dated to about 24 million years ago, mixed with tholeiitic magma containing iron and magnesium. Mont Pelée, the island's most dramatic feature, formed about 400,000 years ago.[8] Pelée erupted in 1792, 1851 and twice in 1902.[6] The eruption of May 8, 1902 destroyed Saint-Pierre and killed 28,000 people in 2 minutes; that of August 30, 1902 caused nearly 1,100 deaths, mostly in Morne-Red and Ajoupa-Bouillon.[9] [10]

The coast of Martinique is difficult for navigation of ships. The peninsula of Caravelle clearly separates the north Atlantic and south Atlantic coast.

Environment[edit]

A tropical forest near Fond St-Denis.
Les Salines, wide sand beach at the western end of the island.

The north of the island is mountainous. It features four ensembles of pitons (volcanoes) and mornes (mountains): the Piton Conil on the extreme North, which dominates the Dominica Channel; Mont Pelée, an active volcano; the Morne Jacob; and the Pitons du Carbet, an ensemble of five extinct volcanoes covered with rainforest and dominating the Bay of Fort de France at 1,196 metres (3,924 ft). Mont Pelée's volcanic ash has created gray and black sand beaches in the north (in particular between Anse Ceron and Anse des Gallets), contrasting markedly from the white sands of Les Salines in the south.

The south is more easily traversed, though it still features some impressive geographic features. Because it is easier to travel and because of the many beaches and food facilities throughout this region, the south receives the bulk of the tourist traffic. The beaches from Pointe de Bout, through Diamant (which features right off the coast of Roche de Diamant), St. Luce, the department of St. Anne and down to Les Salines are popular.

The northern end of the island catches most of the rainfall and is heavily forested, featuring species such as bamboo, mahogany, rosewood and locust. The south is drier and dominated by savanna-like brush, including cacti, Copaiba balsam, logwood and acacia. Anolis lizards and fer-de-lance snakes are native to the island. Mongooses, introduced in the 1800s, prey upon bird eggs and have exterminated or endangered a number of native birds, including the Martinique trembler, white-breasted trembler and white-breasted thrasher.[5]

The mongooses mentioned above were released in Martinique to control the snake population. Because of Martinique's warm temperatures many snakes reside on the island. Some of these snakes include the pit viper, the lancehead viper, and many other snakes.

Economy[edit]

Main article: Economy of Martinique

In 2003 Martinique had a total GDP of 5.496 billion euros. In 2000 its per capita GDP was 14,283 euros. In that year services constituted 82.2% of GDP, while industry represented 8.6% and agriculture 3.5%. In 2002 the island exported 26 million euros-worth of goods, primarily fruit, beverages and refined petroleum products. It imported 486 million euros-worth of goods, including vehicles, furniture, medicine and raw petroleum (used in the island's refinery).[11]

Historically Martinique's economy relied on agriculture, but by the beginning of the 21st century this sector had dwindled considerably. Sugar production has declined, with most of the sugarcane now used for the production of rum. Banana exports are increasing, going mostly to France. The bulk of meat, vegetable, and grain requirements must be imported, contributing to a chronic trade deficit that requires large annual transfers of aid from France.

Tourism has become more important than agricultural exports as a source of foreign exchange. In 2000 the island hosted 500,000 tourists, and the tourism industry employed 7% of the total workforce. Roughly 16% of the total businesses on the island (some 6,000 companies) provide tourist-related services.[11]

All goods entering Martinique are charged a variable "sea toll" which may reach 30% of the value of the cargo and provides 40% of the island's total revenue. Additionally the government charges an "annual due" of 1-2.5% and a value added tax of 2.2-8.5%.[11]

Infrastructure[edit]

Transport[edit]

Martinique's main and only airport is Martinique Aimé Césaire International Airport. It serves flights to and from Europe, the Caribbean, Venezuela, the United States, and Canada.[6]

Fort-de-France is the major harbor. The island has regular ferry service to Guadeloupe, Dominica, St. Lucia, Les Saintes and Marie Galante.[5][6] There are also several local ferry companies that connect Fort-de-France with Pointe du Bout.[5]

The road network is extensive and well-maintained, with freeways in the area around Fort-de-France. Buses run frequently between the capital and St. Pierre.[5]

Communications[edit]

The country code top-level domain for Martinique is .mq, but .fr is often used instead. The entire island uses a single area code (596) for landline phones and 696 for cell phones.[12]

Demographics[edit]

Historical population
1700
estimate
1738
estimate
1848
estimate
1869
estimate
1873
estimate
1878
estimate
1883
estimate
1888
estimate
1893
estimate
1900
estimate
24,000 74,000 120,400 152,925 157,805 162,861 167,119 175,863 189,599 203,781
1954
census
1961
census
1967
census
1974
census
1982
census
1990
census
1999
census
2006
census
2011
census
2013
estimate
239,130 292,062 320,030 324,832 328,566 359,572 381,325 397,732 392,291 386,486
Official figures from past censuses and INSEE estimates.

Culture[edit]

Martinique dancers in traditional dress.
Main article: Culture of Martinique

As an overseas département of France, Martinique's culture blends French and Caribbean influences. The city of Saint-Pierre (destroyed by a volcanic eruption of Mount Pelée), was often referred to as the "Paris of the Lesser Antilles". Following traditional French custom, many businesses close at midday to allow a lengthy lunch, then reopen later in the afternoon. The official language is French.

Many Martinicans speak Martiniquan Creole, a subdivision of Antillean Creole that is virtually identical to the varieties spoken in neighboring English-speaking islands of Saint Lucia and Dominica. Martiniquan Creole is based on French, Carib and African languages with elements of English, Spanish, and Portuguese. It continues to be used in oral storytelling traditions and other forms of speech and to a lesser extent in writing. Its use is predominant among friends and close family. Though it is normally not used in professional situations, members of the media and politicians have begun to use it more frequently as a way to redeem national identity and prevent cultural assimilation by mainland France. Indeed, unlike other varieties of French creole such as Mauritian Creole, Martinican Creole is not readily understood by speakers of Standard French due to significant differences in grammar, syntax, vocabulary and pronunciation, though over the years it has progressively adapted features of Standard French.

Most of Martinique's population is descended from enslaved Africans brought to work on sugar plantations during the colonial era, generally mixed with some French, Amerindian (Carib people), Indian (Tamil), Lebanese or Chinese ancestry. Between 5 and 10% of the population is of Indian (Tamil) origin. The island also boasts a small Syro-Lebanese community, a small but increasing Chinese community, and the Béké community, descendants of European ethnic groups of the first French and Spanish settlers, who still dominate parts of the agricultural and trade sectors of the economy. Whites in total represent 5% of the population.[13]

The Béké population (which totals around 1% of Martinique's population,[14] most of them being of aristocratic origin by birth or after buying the title) generally live in mansions on the Atlantic coast of the island (mostly in the François - Cap Est district). In addition to the island population, the island hosts a metropolitan French community, most of which lives on the island on a temporary basis (generally from 3 to 5 years).

There are an estimated 260,000 people of Martiniquan origin living in mainland France, most of them in the Paris region. Emigration was highest in the 1970s, causing population growth to almost stop, but it is comparatively light today.

Today, the island has a higher standard of living than most other Caribbean countries. French products are easily available, from Chanel fashions to Limoges porcelain. Studying in the métropole (mainland France, especially Paris) is common for young adults. Martinique has been a vacation hotspot for many years, attracting both upper-class French and more budget-conscious travelers.

Martinique has a hybrid cuisine, mixing elements of African, French, Carib Amerindian and South Asian traditions. One of its most famous dishes is the Colombo (compare Tamil word kuzhambu for gravy or broth), a unique curry of chicken (curry chicken), meat or fish with vegetables, spiced with a distinctive masala of Tamil origins, sparked with tamarind, and often containing wine, coconut milk, cassava and rum. A strong tradition of Martiniquan desserts and cakes incorporate pineapple, rum, and a wide range of local ingredients.

In popular culture[edit]

Les Anses d'Arlet

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b (French) INSEE. "Estimation de population au 1er janvier, par région, sexe et grande classe d'âge – Année 2013". Retrieved 2014-01-26. 
  2. ^ INSEE. "Produits intérieurs bruts régionaux et valeurs ajoutées régionales de 1990 à 2012". Retrieved 2014-03-04. 
  3. ^ Sweeney, James L. (2007). "Caribs, Maroons, Jacobins, Brigands, and Sugar Barons: The Last Stand of the Black Caribs on St. Vincent", African Diaspora Archaeology Network, March 2007, retrieved 26 April 2007
  4. ^ [1], History of the Huguenot Migration to America, p. 205-107
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h Ver Berkmoes, Ryan, and others (2008), Caribbean Islands (print) (5th ed.), Lonely Planet 
  6. ^ a b c d Baker, Christopher, and others (2009), Caribbean (print) (1st ed.), Eyewitness Travel 
  7. ^ "Race, class fuel social conflict on French Caribbean islands". Agence France-Presse (AFP). February 17, 2009
  8. ^ Explore Volcanoes: Mount Pelée, Martinique (web), Maple Creative, 2010? 
  9. ^ Scarth, Alwyn (2002), La Catastrophe (print), Oxford 
  10. ^ Notes, Nature (print) 66 (1714), 1902 
  11. ^ a b c Informations Economie Martinique. http://www.in-west-indies.com/martinique/discover/economy.htm. Accessed 15 September 2013.
  12. ^ Martinique Telephones, IIWINC, 2013, retrieved 2013-04-23 
  13. ^ Martinique: People: Ethnic Groups. World Factbook of CIA
  14. ^ Béatrice Gurrey et Benoît Hopquin, Békés : Une affaire d'héritage, in Le Monde, 28 février 2009, article en ligne

External links[edit]

Government
General information
Travel
Sport

Coordinates: 14°40′N 61°00′W / 14.667°N 61.000°W / 14.667; -61.000