|Neuron: Martinotti Cell|
Martinotti cells are small multipolar neurons with short branching dendrites. They are scattered throughout various layers of the cerebral cortex, sending their axons up to the cortical layer I where they form axonal arborization. The arbors transgress multiple columns in layer VI and make contacts with the distal tuft dendrites of pyramidal cells.  Martinotti cells express somatostatin and sometimes calbindin, but not parvalbumin or vasoactive intestinal peptide.
Recent research suggests that Martinotti cells are associated with a cortical dampening mechanism. When the pyramidal neuron, which is the most common type of neuron in the brain, starts getting overexcited, Martinotti cells start sending inhibitory signals to the surrounding neurons. 
Historically, the discovery of Martinotti cells has been mistakenly attributed to Giovanni Martinotti 1888, although it is now accepted that they were actually discovered by Carlo Martinotti, a student of Camillo Golgi.
News, press releases
- Rare cell prevents rampant brain activity - on the discovery of potential dampening influence of Martinotti cells.
- NIF Search - Martinotti Cell via the Neuroscience Information Framework
- Wang Y, Toledo-Rodriguez M, Gupta A, et al. (November 2004). "Anatomical, physiological and molecular properties of Martinotti cells in the somatosensory cortex of the juvenile rat". J. Physiol. (Lond.) 561 (Pt 1): 65–90. doi:10.1113/jphysiol.2004.073353. PMC 1665344. PMID 15331670.
- Sugino K, Hempel CM, Miller MN, et al. (January 2006). "Molecular taxonomy of major neuronal classes in the adult mouse forebrain". Nat. Neurosci. 9 (1): 99–107. doi:10.1038/nn1618. PMID 16369481.
- Silberberg G, Markram H (March 2007). "Disynaptic inhibition between neocortical pyramidal cells mediated by Martinotti cells". Neuron 53 (5): 735–46. doi:10.1016/j.neuron.2007.02.012. PMID 17329212.
- Martinotti C (1889). "Contributo allo studio della corteccia cerebrale, ed all’origine centrale dei nervi". Ann. Freniatr. Sci. Affini. 1: 14–381.
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