Martyn Pushkar (Ukrainian: Мартин Пушкар) (died 1 June 1658) was a polkovnyk of Poltava's Cossack regiment known for his loyalty to Muscovy. Together with Iakiv Barabash Pushkar led a pro-Muscovy uprising against Ukrainian hetman Ivan Vyhovsky in 1657. After inflicting several defeats on Vyhovsky's Cossacks and his Polish allies, Martyn Pushkar was killed in a battle near his native Poltava on 1 June 1658. His rebellion ended in failure. He founded Exaltation of the Cross Monastery built in a Cossack Baroque style in Poltava, to commemorate a victory over the Poles.