Marva (raga)

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Marwa is an hexatonic Indian raga; Pa (the fifth tone) is omitted. Marwa is also the name of the thaat.

Aroha and Avaroha[edit]

Arohana Ṇi re_ Ga Ma_ Dha Ni re# S'
In the Western scale this would roughly translate to: C C-sharp E F-sharp A B c

Avarohana re_ Ni Dha Ma_ Ga re Ṇ Ḍ S

The Ma is actually Ma Tivratara, which is a perfect fourth above re komal (which is 112 cents above Sa)[1])

Vadi and Samvadi[edit]

The Vadi is komal Re, while the Samvadi is shuddh Dha. Notice that these do not form a perfect interval. So V.N.Paṭvardhan [2] says "It is customary to give Re and Dha as vādi and saṃvādi, but seen from the point of view of the śāstras (treatises) it is not possible for re and Dha to be saṃvādī (i.e. consonant) to each other. For this reason, in our opinion it is proper to accept Dha as vādī and Ga as saṃvādī" [3] On the other hand if Ga receives too much emphasis, it would create the impression of raga Puriya[4]

Pakad or Chalan[edit]

Sa is omitted within a taan; it may only be used at the end of a phrase and even then is used infrequently. Bhatkhande gives the pakad as Dha Mâ Ga re, Ga Mâ Ga, re, Sa. Patwardan has shown the mukhya ang as re Ga Mâ Dha, Dha Mâ Ga re, but points out that the raga is also clearly indicated by: Ṇi re Ga Mâ Dha, Dha Mâ Ga re Ṇi re Sa.[5]
The chalan given by Ruckert is: Ṇi Ḍha re__ Ṇi Ḍha Ṃâ Ṇi Ḍha Ṇi Ḍha Sa__ re' Ga Mâ Dha__ Mâ Ni Dha Mâ Ga re__ Sa Ṇi Ḍha re Sa__[6]

Organization & Relationships[edit]

Thaat: Marwa[7]).
Puriya and Sohini have the same tonal material. In Puriya Ni and specially Ga are emphasised.
Komal re of Marwa is slightly higher than komal re of Bhairavi[8]
According to O.Thakur[9] Pūrvā Kalyāṇa is Marwa with Pa and less emphasis on komal Re. R. Jha[10] treats Bhaṭiya as a mixture of Marwa and Maand.[11] There is only one Author (B. Subba Rao) mentioning a raga Māravā Gaurī, thus Moutal does not consider this an own form.[12] Aspects of Marwa are also incorporated in Mali Gaura[13]
For western listeners the tone material may feel strange. As the sixth is emphasised while the tonica is omitted it may feel like playing in A Major, while the base tone is C (not C sharp). If the musician turns back to Sa at the end of a phrase it always comes like a surprise note.
Other ragas in thaat Marwa:[14]

Behaviour[edit]

Ni is not a leading note to Sa. Because Sa is omitted Ni leads to re or Dha (and then only to Sa), as in "Ḍ Ṇ r S" or "r Ṇ Ḍ S" .

Samay (Time)[edit]

Sunset 5:30 pm

Rasa[edit]

Bor characterizes Marwa as "heroic".[15] In ragamala paintings Malav (see history) is often pictured as lovers walking towards the bed-chamber.
Marwa is also characterized as quiet, contemplative, representing gentle love. According to Kaufmann[16] is the overall mood defined by the sunset in India, which approaches fast and this "onrushing darkness awakes in many observers a feeling of anxiety and solemn expectation".
Puṇḍarika Viṭṭhala[17] describes as follows:[18]" The king at war always worship Maravi, whose face shines like the moon and who has long tresses of hair. With moist eyes, faintly smiling, she is adorned skillfully with sweet smelling flowers of different varieties. Her complexion gleams like gold; she is attired in red and her eyes are like those of a fawn. She is the elder sister of Mewar. In Marwa Ni and Ga are sharp, SA is the graha and amsa and Ri and Dha are the nyasa".

Historical Information[edit]

Marwa's forerunners (Maru or Maruva) have different scales in the literature from the 16th century onwards. Pratap Singh (end of 18th century) writes that Marwa is the same as the ancient Mālavā, and its melodic outline is very similar to today's Marwa [19] Also Jairazbhoy reports that Locana's Mālavā "may be the origin of modern Mārvā" [20]

Important Recordings[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Gosvami(1957) p. 236 f.
  2. ^ Rāg Vijñān, Vol. II, p.1
  3. ^ Jairazbhoy(1995) p. 44
  4. ^ Bor p. 114
  5. ^ Bagchee p. 318
  6. ^ Bagchee p.318
  7. ^ Jairazbhoy(1995)
  8. ^ Mukherji p. 67
  9. ^ Moutal p.77
  10. ^ Vol 1 p 116
  11. ^ Moutal p. 207
  12. ^ Moutal p. 257
  13. ^ Moutal p.493
  14. ^ Kaufmann p 315ff
  15. ^ Bor (1999) p.114
  16. ^ Kaufmann p. 315
  17. ^ see literature
  18. ^ Kaufmann p.315
  19. ^ Bor (1999)p.114
  20. ^ Jairazbhoy p.94

External links[edit]

Literature[edit]

  • Bagchee, Sandeep (1998), Nād, Understanding Rāga Music, Mumbai: Eshwar (Business Publication Inc.), ISBN 81-86982-07-8 
  • Bor, Joep (1997?), The Raga Guide, Charlottesville, Virginia: Nimbus Records 
  • Gosvami, O. (1957), The Story Of Indian Music, Bombay: Asia Publishing House 
  • Jairazbhoy, N.A. (1995), The Rags of North Indian Music: Their Structure & Evolution, Bombay: Popular Prakashan 
  • Jha, Ramashraya (1968–78), Ābhinava Gītānjali (2 vols), Allahabad: Sangeet Sadan Prakashan 
  • Kaufmann, Walter (1968), The Ragas of North India, Calcutta: Oxford & IBH Publishing 
  • Moutal, Patrick (1991), A Comparative Study of Selected Hindustāni Rāga-s, New Dheli: Munshiram Manoharlal Publishers Pvt Ltd, ISBN 81-215-0526-7 
  • Mukherji, Kumar Prasad (2006), The Lost World Of Hindustani Music, New Dheli: Penguin India, ISBN 0-14-306199-2 
  • Viṭṭhala, Puṇḍarika (1576), Rāga-Mālā, (Bhandarkar Oriental Institute, Poona MS No. 1062)