Marvel Cinematic Universe

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Marvel Cinematic Universe
Marvel Cinematic Universe logo.png
Creator Marvel Studios
Original work Iron Man
Print publications
Comics Marvel Cinematic Universe tie-in comics
Films and television
Films List of Marvel Cinematic Universe films
Television series
Miscellaneous
Short films Marvel One-Shots

The Marvel Cinematic Universe (MCU) is a media franchise and shared fictional universe that is centered on a series of superhero films, independently produced by Marvel Studios and based on characters that appear in publications by Marvel Comics. The franchise has expanded to include comic books, short films, and a television series. The shared universe, much like the original Marvel Universe in comic books, was established by crossing over common plot elements, settings, cast, and characters. Clark Gregg has appeared the most in the franchise, portraying Phil Coulson, an original character to the MCU.

The first film released in the MCU was Iron Man (2008), which began the first phase of films, culminating in Marvel's The Avengers (2012). Phase Two began with Iron Man 3 (2013), and is expected to conclude with Avengers: Age of Ultron (2015). Marvel is also preparing Phase Three, beginning with the release of Ant-Man (2015). The universe began to expand with the release of the Marvel One-Shots direct-to-video short films in 2011, and saw further expansion with the premiere of the TV series Marvel's Agents of S.H.I.E.L.D. in the 2013–14 season. Marvel has multiple films and television projects in various stages of development.

The films within the Marvel Cinematic Universe have received both critical and commercial success, and the franchise as a whole ranks as the second highest-grossing film franchise of all time.

Development

"It is daunting but it's fun. It's never been done before and that's kind of the spirit everybody's taking it in. The other filmmakers aren't used to getting actors from other movies that other filmmakers have cast, certain plot lines that are connected or certain locations that are connected, but I think ... everyone was on board for it and thinks that it's fun. Primarily because we've always remained consistent saying that the movie that we are making comes first. All of the connective tissue, all of that stuff is fun and is going to be very important if you want it to be. If the fans want to look further and find connections, then they're there. There are a few big ones obviously, that hopefully the mainstream audience will able to follow as well. But ... the reason that all the filmmakers are on board is that their movies need to stand on their own. They need to have a fresh vision, a unique tone, and the fact that they can interconnect if you want to follow those breadcrumbs is a bonus."

Kevin Feige, President of Production for Marvel Studios, on constructing a shared film universe.[1]

By 2005, Marvel Studios began planning to start independently producing its own films and distribute them through Paramount Pictures.[2] Previously, the studio had co-produced several superhero films with Columbia Pictures, New Line Cinema and others, including a seven-year development deal with 20th Century Fox.[3] Marvel Studios made relatively little profit from its licensing deals with other studios and wanted to get more money out of its films while maintaining artistic control of the projects and distribution.[4] Marvel Studios president Kevin Feige realized that unlike Spider-Man and the X-Men, whose film rights were licensed to Columbia and Fox respectively, Marvel still owned the rights to the core members of The Avengers. Feige, a self-professed fanboy, envisioned creating a shared universe just as creators Stan Lee and Jack Kirby had done with their comic books in the early 1960s.[5] To raise capital, the studio secured funding from a seven-year, $525 million revolving credit facility with Merrill Lynch.[4] Marvel's plan was to release individual films for their main characters and then merge them together in a crossover film.[6] Feige initially referred to the shared narrative continuity of these films as the "Marvel Cinema Universe",[7] but later used the term "Marvel Cinematic Universe".[8]

Marvel Studios developed specific business practices to create its shared universe. For example, when the studio hired Kenneth Branagh and Joe Johnston to direct Thor and Captain America, respectively, it made sure both directors were open to the idea of a shared universe, and that they would have to include Avengers setup scenes in their films.[5] Joe Russo, one of the directors of Captain America: The Winter Soldier added, "That's the exciting component of [incorporating references to the larger universe]. 'What can we set up for the future?' You're constantly pitching out ideas that not only affect your movie, but may have a ripple effect that affects other films... It's a weird sort of tapestry of writers and directors working together to create this universe that's sort of organic."[9] Joe's brother and co-director, Anthony, added, that in order for directors to "fit" in at Marvel, they must "understand how [to] take a larger story and wrangle in [sic] into a moment, yet keep [it] connected."[9] The studio chose filmmakers that were considered "out-of-left-field", given their previous work. Feige remarked, "You don't have to have directed a big, giant visual-effects movie to do a big, giant visual-effects movie for us. You just have to have done something singularly sort of awesome,"[10] adding "It's worked out well for us when we've taken people [such as Jon Favreau, Joss Whedon, Branagh and the Russo brothers,] that have done very, very good things. Very rarely are one of those good things a big giant blockbuster superhero movie."[11] Marvel also began contracting their actors for multiple films, including signing actor Samuel L. Jackson to a then "unprecedented" nine-movie contract.[12]

Over time, the distribution rights to Marvel Studios' films changed hands on multiple occasions. In November 2006, it was announced that The Incredible Hulk would be distributed by Universal Pictures, separate from the deal with Paramount in 2005.[13] In September 2008, after the international success of Iron Man, Paramount signed a deal to have worldwide distribution rights for Iron Man 2, Iron Man 3, Thor, Captain America: The First Avenger, and The Avengers.[14] In late December 2009, The Walt Disney Company purchased Marvel Entertainment for $4 billion. Both Marvel and Disney stated that Disney would distribute future Marvel projects with their own studios once the current distribution deals with Paramount expire after The Avengers.[15] In October 2010, Disney bought the distribution rights for Marvel's The Avengers and Iron Man 3 from Paramount Pictures[16] with Paramount's logo remaining on the films, as well as for promotional material and merchandise.[17][18] (Walt Disney Studios Motion Pictures is the only studio credited at the end of these films.)[19] In July 2013, Disney purchased the distribution rights to Iron Man, Iron Man 2, Thor and Captain America: The First Avenger from Paramount.[20] The Incredible Hulk was not part of the deal, due to an agreement between Marvel and Universal, where Marvel owns the film rights and Universal owns the distribution rights, for this and any future Hulk film.[21]

In November 2013, Feige said that "in an ideal world" releases each year would include one film based on an existing character and one featuring a new character, saying it's "a nice rhythm" in that format. While not always the case, as evident by the 2013 releases of Iron Man 3 and Thor: The Dark World, he said it is "certainly something to aim for."[22] Feige expanded on this in July 2014, saying, "I don't know that we'll keep to [that model] every year," but we're doing that in 2014 and 2015. "So I think it would be fun to continue that sort of thing. I don't know that we will [do that] all the time, but as a general model, I think that would be fun."[23] In February 2014, Feige stated that Marvel Studios wants to mimic the "rhythm" that the comic books have developed, by having the characters appear in their own films, and then come together, much like "a big event or crossover series."[24]

On expanding the characters in the universe and letting individual films breath and work on their own, opposed to having Avenger team ups outside of those films, Feige stated, it’s about "Teaching the general movie going audience about the notion of the characters existing separately, coming together for specific events and going away and existing separately in their own worlds again. Just like comic readers have been doing for decades and decades... People sort of are accepting that there's just a time when they should be together and there’s a time when they’re not."[9]

In April 2014, Feige revealed that Edgar Wright's pitch for Ant-Man in 2006 helped shape the early films of the Marvel Cinematic Universe saying, "We changed, frankly, some of the MCU to accommodate this version of Ant-Man. Knowing what we wanted to do with Edgar and with Ant-Man, going years and years back, helped to dictate what we did with the roster for Avengers the first time. It was a bit of both in terms of his idea for the Ant-Man story influencing the birth of the MCU in the early films leading up to Avengers."[25]

Films

Film U.S. release date Director(s) Screenwriter(s) Producer(s) Status
Phase One: Avengers Assembled[26][27]
Iron Man May 2, 2008 (2008-05-02) Jon Favreau[28] Mark Fergus & Hawk Ostby and Art Marcum & Matt Holloway[28][29] Avi Arad and Kevin Feige Released
The Incredible Hulk June 13, 2008 (2008-06-13) Louis Leterrier[30] Zak Penn[31] Avi Arad, Gale Anne Hurd and Kevin Feige
Iron Man 2 May 7, 2010 (2010-05-07) Jon Favreau[32] Justin Theroux[33] Kevin Feige
Thor May 6, 2011 (2011-05-06) Kenneth Branagh[34] Ashley Edward Miller & Zack Stentz and Don Payne[35]
Captain America: The First Avenger July 22, 2011 (2011-07-22) Joe Johnston[36] Christopher Markus & Stephen McFeely[37]
Marvel's The Avengers May 4, 2012 (2012-05-04) Joss Whedon[38]
Phase Two[26][27]
Iron Man 3 May 3, 2013 (2013-05-03) Shane Black[39] Drew Pearce & Shane Black[39][40] Kevin Feige Released
Thor: The Dark World November 8, 2013 (2013-11-08) Alan Taylor[41] Christopher Yost and Christopher Markus & Stephen McFeely[42]
Captain America: The Winter Soldier April 4, 2014 (2014-04-04) Anthony and Joe Russo[43] Christopher Markus & Stephen McFeely[44]
Guardians of the Galaxy August 1, 2014 (2014-08-01)[45] James Gunn[46] James Gunn and Nicole Perlman
Avengers: Age of Ultron May 1, 2015 (2015-05-01)[47] Joss Whedon[48] Filming
Phase Three[49]
Ant-Man July 17, 2015[50] Peyton Reed[51] Edgar Wright & Joe Cornish and Adam McKay[52][51] Kevin Feige Pre-production
Captain America 3 May 6, 2016[53] Anthony and Joe Russo[54] Christopher Markus & Stephen McFeely[54] In development
Doctor Strange July 8, 2016[55] Scott Derrickson[56] Thomas Dean Donnelly & Joshua Oppenheimer[57] Pre-production

Home media

In June 2012, Marvel announced the release of a 10-disc Blu-ray box set titled Marvel Cinematic Universe: Phase One – Avengers Assembled, for September 25, 2012. The box set includes the first six films of the Marvel Cinematic Universe—Iron Man, The Incredible Hulk, Iron Man 2, Thor, Captain America: The First Avenger, and Marvel's The Avengers—in a replica of Nick Fury's briefcase from The Avengers.[58] In August 2012, luggage company Rimowa GmbH, who developed the briefcase for The Avengers, filed suit against Marvel Studios and Buena Vista Home Entertainment in U.S. federal court, complaining that "Marvel did not obtain any license or authorization from Rimowa to make replica copies of the cases for any purpose".[59] The set was delayed and the packaging was redesigned for 2013.[60] The box set, with a redesigned case, was released on April 2, 2013. In addition, the box set included a featurette on the upcoming Phase Two movies, showing footage and concept art, as well as previously unreleased deleted scenes from all of the Phase One films.[61]

Short films

Main article: Marvel One-Shots
Film U.S. release date Director Screenwriter Producer Home media release
The Consultant September 13, 2011 (2011-09-13) Leythum[62] Eric Pearson[63][64] Kevin Feige Thor
A Funny Thing Happened on the Way to Thor's Hammer October 25, 2011 (2011-10-25) Captain America: The First Avenger
Item 47 September 25, 2012 (2012-09-25) Louis D’Esposito[63][64] The Avengers
Agent Carter September 3, 2013 (2013-09-03) (Digital)
September 24, 2013 (2013-09-24) (Physical media)
Iron Man 3
All Hail the King February 4, 2014 (2014-02-04) (Digital)
February 25, 2014 (2014-02-25) (Physical media)
Drew Pearce[65] Thor: The Dark World

In August 2011, Marvel announced a series of direct-to-video short films called Marvel One-Shots. The first two shorts, The Consultant and A Funny Thing Happened on the Way to Thor's Hammer, star Clark Gregg as Phil Coulson, offering up self-contained stories about a day in the life of a S.H.I.E.L.D. agent.[62] The third film, Item 47, deals with the aftermath of the events of Marvel's The Avengers.[63] Agent Carter stars Hayley Atwell as Peggy Carter, reprising her role from the Captain America films,[66] while All Hail the King stars Ben Kingsley as Trevor Slattery, reprising his role from Iron Man 3.[65][67]

Television

Marvel's Agents of S.H.I.E.L.D.

By July 2012, Marvel Television had again entered into discussions with ABC to do a show set in the Marvel Cinematic Universe,[68] and in August, ABC ordered a pilot for a show called S.H.I.E.L.D., to be written by Joss Whedon, Jed Whedon, and Maurissa Tancharoen and directed by Joss Whedon.[69] Clark Gregg reprises his role from the films as Phil Coulson in the series.[70] On April 6, 2013 ABC announced that the show would be titled Marvel's Agents of S.H.I.E.L.D.[71] and was officially ordered to series on May 10, 2013.[72] The series premiered on September 24, 2013.[73] The series was renewed for a second season on May 8, 2014.[74]

The revelation in Captain America: The Winter Soldier that S.H.I.E.L.D. had been infiltrated by Hydra had a huge impact on the series. Executive producer Jeph Loeb said, "It's an extremely unique experience that doesn't exist anywhere else out there in the entertainment business," regarding the synergy the show had with addressing events from the film.[75] In the first season, Samuel L. Jackson,[76] Cobie Smulders,[77] Maximiliano Hernández,[78] Titus Welliver,[79] and Jaimie Alexander[80] all reprised their roles as Nick Fury, Maria Hill, Jasper Sitwell, Felix Blake, and Sif, respectively, from previous MCU films and One-Shots. The season also aired episodes that directly relate to events in the films Thor: The Dark World and Captain America: The Winter Soldier.[81][82]

Marvel's Agent Carter

By September 2013, Marvel was developing a series inspired by the Agent Carter One-Shot, featuring Peggy Carter.[83] In January 2014, ABC Entertainment Group president Paul Lee confirmed that the show was in development, as well as confirming actress Hayley Atwell's involvement. He added that Tara Butters and Michele Fazekas would act as the series' showrunners, while the script for a potential pilot was written by Captain America: The First Avenger and Captain America: The Winter Soldier writers Christopher Markus and Stephen McFeely.[84] On May 8, 2014, ABC officially ordered Marvel's Agent Carter to series.[74]

Netflix series

Further information: Daredevil (TV series)

By October 2013, Marvel was preparing four drama series and a miniseries, totaling 60 episodes, to present to video on demand services and cable providers, with Netflix, Amazon, and WGN America expressing interest.[85] In November 2013, it was announced that Disney will provide Netflix with live-action series based on Daredevil, Jessica Jones, Iron Fist, and Luke Cage, leading up to a miniseries based on the Defenders.[86] Disney CEO Bob Iger stated that Netflix was chosen to air the shows, when Disney realized it could use the streaming service as a way to grow the popularity of the characters. He added that, if the characters prove popular, they could become feature films.[87] Shortly after, Melissa Rosenberg was announced to write and executive produce the Jessica Jones series.[88] In December 2013, Marvel confirmed that Drew Goddard will be the executive producer and showrunner for the Daredevil series, and will write and direct the first episode.[89] In a February 2014 interview for the One-Shot All Hail the King, writer/director Drew Pearce confirmed the upcoming Netflix series would exist in the Marvel Cinematic Universe.[90]

Later in February, Marvel announced that the Netflix series would be filmed in New York City, beginning in mid-2014, and confirmed that all the series leading to The Defenders would be 13 one-hour episodes each, and The Defenders would be a 4–8 episode miniseries concluding the other series.[91] In March 2014, Marvel Television head Jeph Loeb stated that Daredevil would begin filming in July 2014, with Jessica Jones being the series to follow. Iron Fist and Luke Cage would then follow Jessica Jones before concluding with the Defenders series.[92] In April 2014, Marvel Comics' editor-in-chief Joe Quesada stated that the shows would be filming in areas of Brooklyn and Long Island City that still look like the old Hell’s Kitchen, in addition to sound stage work. He also confirmed that the series are set within the MCU, and that, beyond connecting to themselves, would connect with the films and other television series. As well, Quesada added that the episodes for each series would be released all at once, as opposed to a serialized format, to encourage binge-watching, that has been successful for other Netflix series.[93] At the end of May 2014, it was announced that Goddard would no longer be the showrunner for Marvel's Daredevil, being replaced by Steven S. DeKnight. Goddard, who wrote the first two episodes, will remain with the show as an executive producer.[94] A few days later, Charlie Cox was cast as Daredevil.[95] In June 2014, MCU films' producer Kevin Feige stated he believed the series would "fall under the umbrella of the Cinematic Universe" as the ABC series do, but felt the television division was making sure each series stands strong on their own like the films, before going back to add the "fun" connecting pieces.[96]

Marvel Studios: Assembling a Universe

On March 18, 2014, ABC aired a one-hour television special titled Marvel Studios: Assembling a Universe, which documented the history of Marvel Studios and the Marvel Cinematic Universe, and included exclusive interviews and behind-the-scenes footage from all of the films, One-Shots and Agents of S.H.I.E.L.D., and sneak peeks of Avengers: Age of Ultron, Captain America: The Winter Soldier, Guardians of the Galaxy, unaired episodes of Agents of S.H.I.E.L.D.,[97] and Ant-Man.[98] Brian Lowry of Variety felt the special, "contains a pretty interesting business and creative story. While it might all make sense in hindsight, there was appreciable audacity in Marvel’s plan to release five loosely connected movies from the same hero-filled world, beginning with the cinematically unproven Iron Man and culminating with superhero team The Avengers. As such, this fast-moving hour qualifies as more than just a cut-and-paste job from electronic press kits, although there’s an element of that, certainly."[99] The special will be released on September 9, 2014 on the home media for Agent of S.H.I.E.L.D. season 1.[100]

Recurring cast and characters

The Marvel Cinematic Universe has seen multiple characters appear across the films, One-Shot short films and television series, with many of the actors reprising their roles. Clark Gregg, who portrays Phil Coulson, an original character to the MCU, has appeared the most in the franchise, appearing in Iron Man, Iron Man 2, Thor, The Avengers, two One-Shots, and Agents of S.H.I.E.L.D.[70] Samuel L. Jackson has also appeared frequently, portraying Nick Fury in five films,[101][102][103] with one planned,[104] as well as appearances on Agents of S.H.I.E.L.D.[76] Hayley Atwell, who portrayed Peggy Carter in Captain America: The First Avenger[105] and Captain America: The Winter Soldier,[106] also appeared in the One-Shot Agent Carter,[66] and will reprise her role in the television series Agent Carter[84] and Avengers: Age of Ultron.[107] Additional characters who have appeared across multiple film franchises and mediums include: Maria Hill, portrayed by Cobie Smulders, in The Avengers, Captain America: The Winter Soldier and Agents of S.H.I.E.L.D.,[77] and will appear in Avengers: Age of Ultron,[108] and Jasper Sitwell, portrayed by Maximiliano Hernández, in Thor, The Avengers, Captain America: The Winter Soldier,[109] two One-Shots and Agents of S.H.I.E.L.D.[110][78]

Comic books

Title Issue(s) Publication date(s) Writer(s) Artist(s)
Iron Man 2: Public Identity 3 April – May 2010 Joe Casey and Justin Theroux[111] Barry Kitson and Ron Lim[111]
Iron Man 2: Agents of S.H.I.E.L.D. 1 September 2010 Joe Casey[111] Tim Green, Felix Ruiz and Matt Camp[111]
Captain America: First Vengeance 4 May – June 2011 Fred Van Lente[112] Neil Edwards and Luke Ross[113]
The Avengers Prelude: Fury's Big Week February – April 2012 Chris Yost and Eric Pearson[114] Luke Ross[115]
The Avengers Prelude: Black Widow Strikes 3 May – June 2012 Fred Van Lente[116] Neil Edwards[117]
Iron Man 3 Prelude 2 January – February 2013 Christos Gage[118] Steve Kurth[118]
Thor: The Dark World Prelude June – July 2013 Chris Yost and Craig Kyle[119] Scott Eaton[119] and Ron Lim[120]
Captain America: The Winter Soldier Infinite Comic 1 January 2014 Peter David[121] Rock He-Kim[121]
Guardians of the Galaxy Prelude Infinite Comic April 2014 Dan Abnett and Andy Lanning[122] Andrea DiVito[122]
Guardians of the Galaxy Prelude 2 April – May 2014 Wellinton Alves[123]

In November 2010, Quesada outlined his plan to expand the MCU into comic books. He explained, "[F]or the uninitiated, the MCU [comics] are going to be stories set within movie continuity. [They are] not necessarily direct adaptations of the movies, but maybe something that happened off screen and was mentioned in the movie, and we'll tell that story. ... [T]he folks that are involved in the movies on the West Coast will be involved in these stories. It won't be like one of our comic book writers saw the movie and has an idea for a story. No, these stories are originating at the very top. [Marvel Studios chief] Kevin Feige is involved with these and in some cases maybe the writers of the movies would be involved in ... generating these ideas and then either just giving them to some of our writers or maybe some of these guys writing them themselves."[124]

Reception

Jim Vorel of Herald & Review called the Marvel Cinematic Universe "complicated" and "impressive" but said, "As more and more heroes get their own film adaptations, the overall universe becomes increasingly confusing."[125] Kofi Outlaw of Screen Rant, stated that while The Avengers was a success, "Marvel Studios still has room to improve their approach to building a shared movie universe".[126] However, some reviewers criticized the fact that the desire to create a shared universe led to films that did not hold as well on their own. In his review of Thor: The Dark World, Forbes critic Scott Mendelson likened the MCU to "a glorified television series", with The Dark World being a "‘stand-alone’ episode that contains little long-range mythology."[127] Collider's Matt Goldberg considered that while Iron Man 2, Thor and Captain America: The First Avenger were quality productions, "they have never really been their own movies", feeling that the plot detours to S.H.I.E.L.D. or lead-ups to The Avengers dragged down the films' narratives.[128]

Impact on other studios

After the release of The Avengers in May 2012, Tom Russo of Boston.com noted that aside from the occasional "novelty" such as Aliens vs. Predator (2004), the idea of a shared universe was virtually unheard of in Hollywood.[5] Since that time, the shared universe model created by Marvel Studios has begun to be replicated by other film studios that held rights to other comic book characters. In April 2014, Tuna Amobi, a media analyst for Standard & Poor’s Equity Research Services, stated that in the last three to five years, Hollywood studios began planning "megafranchises" for years to come, opposed to working one blockbuster at a time. Amobi added, "A lot of these superhero characters were just being left there to gather dust. Disney has proved that this [approach and genre] can be a gold mine."[129] However, with additional studios now "playing the megafranchise game", Doug Creutz, media analyst for Cowen and Company, feels the allure will eventually die for audiences. “If Marvel’s going to make two or three films a year," he says, "and Warner Brothers is going to do at least a film every year, and Sony’s going to do a film every year, and Fox [is] going to do a [superhero] film every year, can everyone do well in that scenario? I’m not sure they can."[129]

DC Entertainment and Warner Bros.

In October 2012, following its legal victory over Joe Shuster's estate for the rights to Superman, Warner Bros. announced that it planned to move ahead with its long-awaited Justice League film, uniting such DC Comics superheroes as Batman, Superman and Wonder Woman. Warner Bros. was expected to take the opposite approach of Marvel Studios by releasing individual films for the characters after they have appeared in team-up film.[130] However, the release of Man of Steel in 2013 was intended to be the start of a new cinematic universe for DC, with that film "laying the groundwork for the future slate of films based on DC Comics."[131] In July 2014, DC CCO Geoff Johns confirmed that the universe present in the publisher's television series, Arrow and The Flash, is separate from the one being built in their films with Man of Steel and Batman v Superman: Dawn of Justice.[132]

20th Century Fox

In November 2012, 20th Century Fox announced plans to create their own shared universe, consisting of Marvel properties that it holds the rights to including the Fantastic Four and X-Men, with the hiring of Mark Millar as supervising producer. Millar said, "Fox are thinking, 'We're sitting on some really awesome things here. There is another side of the Marvel Universe. Let’s try and get some cohesiveness going.' So they brought me in to oversee that really. To meet with the writers and directors to suggest new ways we could take this stuff and new properties that could spin out of it."[133] X-Men: Days of Future Past, set for release in 2014, may be Fox's first step towards expanding their stable of Marvel mutant properties.[134]

In May 2014, Simon Kinberg, screenwriter for the 2015 Fantastic Four reboot, stated that the film would not take place in the same universe as the X-Men films. "None of the X-Men movies have acknowledged the notion of a sort of superhero team--the Fantastic Four--and the Fantastic Four acquire powers, so for them to live in a world where mutants are prevalent is kind of complicated, because you’re like, 'Oh, you’re just a mutant. What’s so fantastic about you?' No, they live in discrete universes," said Kinberg.[135]

Sony Pictures

In November 2013, Sony Pictures Entertainment Co-Chairman Amy Pascal announced that the studio intends to expand their universe created within the Marc Webb Amazing Spider-Man series, with spin-off adventures for supporting characters in the "Spider-Man" franchise, in an attempt to replicate Marvel and Disney's model. She stated, "We are going to access Marvel's full world of Spider-Man characters."[134] Sony Pictures Entertainment chief Michael Lynton added, "We do very much have the ambition about creating a bigger universe around Spider-Man."[136] Director Marc Webb has stated that the announced fourth film "may not just be a Spider-Man movie," and "there are so many ancillary characters, that have enormous, cinematic potential," echoing Pascal and Lynton's statements for expanding the Spider-Man universe.[137]

In December 2013, Sony announced Venom and Sinister Six films, both set in the Amazing Spider-Man universe. With the announcement, IGN stated that the spin-offs are "the latest example of what we can refer to as "the Avengers effect" in Hollywood, as studios work to build interlocking movie universes."[138] Sony is choosing not to replicate the Marvel Studio model of introducing individual characters first before bringing them together in a team–up film, instead making the Spider-Man adversaries the stars of future films.[129]

References

  1. ^ Philbrick, Jami (April 26, 2010). "Kevin Fiege Talks Iron Man 2, The Avengers and More". MovieWeb. Archived from the original on March 26, 2013. Retrieved May 10, 2010. 
  2. ^ Fritz, Ben; Harris, Dana (April 27, 2005). "Paramount pacts for Marvel pix". Variety. Archived from the original on February 12, 2014. Retrieved February 12, 2014. 
  3. ^ Benezra, Karen (July 8, 1996). "Marvel wants to be a movie mogul". MediaWeek (VNU eMedia, Inc) 6 (28). 
  4. ^ a b Waxman, Sharon (June 18, 2007). "Marvel Wants to Flex Its Own Heroic Muscles as a Moviemaker". The New York Times. p. 2. Archived from the original on March 31, 2013. Retrieved February 1, 2009. 
  5. ^ a b c Russo, Tom (April 25, 2012). "SUPER GROUP". Boston.com. Archived from the original on November 22, 2013. 
  6. ^ Beall, Mark (September 14, 2006). "Marvel Avengers Update". Cinematical. Moviefone. Archived from the original on July 4, 2011. Retrieved August 2, 2010. 
  7. ^ Orange, B. Alan (June 5, 2009). "Marvel's Kevin Feige on the Future of The Avengers, Thor, Ant Man, Doctor Strange, and Captain America!". MovieWeb. Archived from the original on March 31, 2013. Retrieved October 19, 2010. 
  8. ^ Douglas, Edward (April 25, 2010). "Exclusive: Marvel Studios Production Head Kevin Feige". Superherohype.com. Archived from the original on March 31, 2013. 
  9. ^ a b c Goldman, Eric (March 6, 2014). "The Winter Soldier: Has America Changed Too Much for Captain America?". IGN. Archived from the original on March 10, 2014. Retrieved March 10, 2014. 
  10. ^ McIntyre, Gina (January 10, 2014). "'Captain America': Chris Evans fights evil, and the present, in ‘Winter Soldier’". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on January 10, 2014. Retrieved January 10, 2014. 
  11. ^ Goldman, Eric (March 6, 2014). "The Winter Soldier: Has America Changed Too Much for Captain America?". IGN. Archived from the original on March 10, 2014. Retrieved March 10, 2014. 
  12. ^ Kit, Borys (February 25, 2009). "Jackson's Fury in flurry of Marvel films". The Hollywood Reporter. Archived from the original on January 13, 2014. Retrieved January 13, 2014. 
  13. ^ "The Incredible Hulk to Smash into Theaters June 13, 2008". Marvel.com. November 6, 2006. Archived from the original on March 10, 2014. Retrieved February 6, 2014. 
  14. ^ Finke, Nikki (September 29, 2008). "PARAMOUNT-MARVEL DEAL: Paramount To Distribute Next Five Marvel Films". Deadline.com. Archived from the original on November 22, 2013. Retrieved October 10, 2012. 
  15. ^ Fixmer, Andy; Rabil, Sarah (September 1, 2009). "Disney’s Marvel Buy Traps Hollywood in Spider-Man Web (Update2)". Bloomberg.com. Archived from the original on November 22, 2013. Retrieved May 23, 2012. 
  16. ^ Kim Masters (October 18, 2010). "Disney to Distribute Marvel's 'The Avengers,' 'Iron Man 3'". The Hollywood Reporter. Archived from the original on November 22, 2013. Retrieved October 18, 2010. 
  17. ^ Finke, Nikki (May 6, 2012). "Paramount Makes Money Off ‘Avengers’ Too". Deadline.com. Archived from the original on November 22, 2013. Retrieved October 10, 2012. 
  18. ^ Stewart, Andrew (May 10, 2013). "Paramount's Super Payoff for 'Iron Man 3'". Variety. Archived from the original on November 22, 2013. Retrieved July 27, 2013. 
  19. ^ Graser, Marc (October 11, 2011). "Why Par, not Disney, gets 'Avengers' credit". Variety. Archived from the original on October 12, 2011. Retrieved October 12, 2011. 
  20. ^ Finke, Nikki (July 2, 2013). "Disney Completes Purchase Of Marvel Home Entertainment Distribution Rights". Deadline.com. Archived from the original on November 22, 2013. Retrieved July 2, 2013. 
  21. ^ "The Incredible Hulk: Disney Probably Won't Get Distribution Rights Back From Universal For Hulk Solo Films". The Daily Superhero. July 27, 2013. Archived from the original on November 22, 2013. Retrieved November 22, 2013. 
  22. ^ Lussier, Germain (November 13, 2013). "/Film Interview: 'Thor: The Dark World' Producer Kevin Feige". /Film. Archived from the original on March 10, 2014. Retrieved November 16, 2013. 
  23. ^ Nicholson, Max (July 21, 2014). "Marvel's Kevin Feige Explains Upcoming Slate Plan". IGN. Archived from the original on July 22, 2014. Retrieved July 22, 2014. 
  24. ^ Couto, Anthony (February 12, 2014). "Feige: Black Widow's Past to be Explored in Avengers 2 and Possible Solo Film". IGN. Archived from the original on February 13, 2014. Retrieved February 13, 2014. 
  25. ^ "Ant-Man Plot Points, Arrow & Sin City 2 Trailers, X-Men: Days, Avengers 2 Movie News". Newsarama. April 24, 2014. Archived from the original on April 24, 2014. Retrieved April 24, 2014. 
  26. ^ a b Plumb, Ali (March 4, 2013). "Marvel Boss Kevin Feige On Phase 2". Empire. Archived from the original on March 15, 2014. Retrieved March 15, 2014. 
  27. ^ a b Breznican, Anthony (May 2, 2013). "Marvel's Phase Two: 'Thor: The Dark World,' 'Cap 2: Winter Soldier,' 'Guardians of the Galaxy' and 'Avengers 2'". Entertainment Weekly. Archived from the original on March 15, 2014. Retrieved March 15, 2014. 
  28. ^ a b McClintock, Pamela (April 27, 2006). "Marvel Making Deals for Title Wave". Variety. Archived from the original on May 1, 2011. Retrieved March 1, 2008. 
  29. ^ Jensen, Jeff (April 17, 2008). "Iron Man: Summer's first Marvel?". Entertainment Weekly. Archived from the original on March 28, 2013. Retrieved April 21, 2008. 
  30. ^ Cairns, Bryan (October 3, 2011). "Director Louis Leterrier Talks Incredible Hulk". Newsarama.com. Archived from the original on February 23, 2013. Retrieved February 23, 2013. 
  31. ^ Juarez, Vanessa (July 26, 2008). "Comic-Con: 'Incredible Hulk' screenwriter Zak Penn discusses strife with Edward Norton". Entertainment Weekly. Archived from the original on February 21, 2013. 
  32. ^ Finke, Nikki (July 9, 2008). "So What Was All The Fuss About? Marvel Locks In Jon Favreau For 'Iron Man 2′". Deadline.com. Archived from the original on August 21, 2012. Retrieved August 3, 2012. 
  33. ^ Graser, Marc (July 15, 2008). "Theroux to write 'Iron Man' sequel". Variety. Archived from the original on August 21, 2012. Retrieved July 16, 2008. 
  34. ^ Fleming, Michael (September 28, 2008). "Branagh in talks to direct 'Thor'". Variety. Archived from the original on July 5, 2011. Retrieved September 29, 2008. 
  35. ^ "Thor Movie: New Release Date! May 6, 2011". Marvel.com. January 7, 2010. Archived from the original on March 10, 2014. Retrieved February 6, 2014. 
  36. ^ Kit, Borys (November 9, 2008). "'Captain America' recruits director". The Hollywood Reporter. Archived from the original on July 22, 2011. Retrieved November 10, 2008. 
  37. ^ Kit, Borys; Fernandez, Jay A. (November 18, 2008). "'Captain America' enlists two scribes". The Hollywood Reporter. Archived from the original on July 5, 2011. Retrieved November 19, 2008. . (First paragraph; subscription required for full story.)
  38. ^ Graser, Marc (April 13, 2010). "Whedon to head 'Avengers'". Variety. Archived from the original on April 14, 2010. Retrieved April 14, 2010. 
  39. ^ a b "Shane Black talks direction of Iron Man 3 and whether or not to expect more Marvel cameos!". Ain't It Cool News. March 7, 2011. Archived from the original on September 3, 2012. Retrieved September 3, 2012. 
  40. ^ Fleming, Mike (March 31, 2011). "Marvel Taps Its 'Runaways' Scribe Drew Pearce To Write 'Iron Man 3′ Script". Deadline.com. Archived from the original on September 3, 2012. Retrieved September 3, 2012. 
  41. ^ Fleming Jr., Mike (December 24, 2011). "'Thor 2′ Director Will Be 'Game Of Thrones' Helmer Alan Taylor". Deadline.com. Archived from the original on March 27, 2013. Retrieved March 27, 2013. 
  42. ^ "‘Thor: The Dark World’ Official Synopsis Released". StitchKingdom.com. October 12, 2012. Archived from the original on September 19, 2013. Retrieved October 12, 2012. 
  43. ^ Sneider, Jeff (June 6, 2012). "Russo brothers tapped for 'Captain America 2': Disney and Marvel in final negotiations with 'Community' producers to helm pic". Variety. Archived from the original on July 16, 2012. Retrieved July 3, 2012. 
  44. ^ Marshall, Rick (April 14, 2011). "'Captain America' Writers Talk Sequel, Post-'Avengers' Plans, And The Marvel Movie-Verse". MTV News. Archived from the original on July 5, 2011. Retrieved April 14, 2011. 
  45. ^ Kit, Borys (July 14, 2012). "Comic-Con 2012: Marvel Names 'Avengers' Follow-Ups; Robert Downey Jr. Makes Surprise Appearance". The Hollywood Reporter. Archived from the original on August 4, 2012. Retrieved July 16, 2012. 
  46. ^ "Marvel Studios Begins Production on Guardians of the Galaxy". Marvel.com. July 20, 2013. Archived from the original on July 20, 2013. Retrieved July 20, 2013. 
  47. ^ Kit, Borys (August 16, 2012). "Disney Sets Release Date for 'Avengers 2'". The Hollywood Reporter. Archived from the original on August 16, 2012. Retrieved August 16, 2012. 
  48. ^ Graser, Marc (August 7, 2012). "Joss Whedon will return for 'The Avengers 2'". Variety. Archived from the original on August 7, 2012. Retrieved August 7, 2012. 
  49. ^ Wigler, Josh (January 25, 2013). "'Ant-Man,' 'Doctor Strange' Lead Marvel's Phase Three". MTV News. Archived from the original on January 28, 2013. Retrieved January 28, 2013. 
  50. ^ Kroll, Justin (January 23, 2014). "Marvel's 'Ant-Man' Moves Into Former Superman-Batman Release Date". Variety. Archived from the original on March 10, 2014. Retrieved January 23, 2014. 
  51. ^ a b "Director Peyton Reed and Writer Adam McKay Join Marvel's Ant-Man". Marvel.com. June 7, 2014. Archived from the original on June 7, 2014. Retrieved June 7, 2014. 
  52. ^ Douglas, Edward (July 25, 2006). "Exclusive: Edgar Wright Talks Ant-Man". Superherohype.com. Archived from the original on July 22, 2012. Retrieved July 22, 2012. 
  53. ^ McClintock, Pamela (March 13, 2014). "Mystery Solved: 'Captain America 3' to Challenge Batman-Superman Head On (Exclusive)". The Hollywood Reporter. Archived from the original on March 13, 2014. Retrieved March 13, 2014. 
  54. ^ a b Weintraub, Steve (March 11, 2014). "Directors Joe & Anthony Russo Confirm They’ll Direct Captain America 3; Say They’re Breaking the Story Now with Screenwriters Christopher Markus & Stephen McFeely". Collider.com. Archived from the original on March 11, 2014. Retrieved March 14, 2014. 
  55. ^ Graser, Marc (July 18, 2014). "Marvel Studios Dates Five Untitled Movies Through 2019". Variety. Archived from the original on July 18, 2014. Retrieved July 18, 2014. 
  56. ^ Siegel, Tatiana; Kit, Borys (June 3, 2014). "Scott Derrickson to Direct Marvel's 'Doctor Strange'". The Hollywood Reporter. Archived from the original on June 3, 2014. Retrieved June 3, 2014. 
  57. ^ Fleming, Jr., Mike (June 21, 2010). "Will Dr. Strange Be Marvel's First Superhero To Fly Under the Disney Banner?". Deadline.com. Archived from the original on March 3, 2013. Retrieved June 22, 2010. 
  58. ^ Lee, Jason (June 6, 2012). "'Marvel Cinematic Universe' 10-disc Blu-ray set announced". HD-Report. Archived from the original on March 17, 2014. Retrieved June 6, 2012. 
  59. ^ Gardner, Eriq (August 3, 2012). "Marvel Sued by Luggage Company Over 'Avengers' Box Set Packaging". The Hollywood Reporter. Archived from the original on March 17, 2014. Retrieved August 7, 2012. 
  60. ^ Breznican, Anthony (September 6, 2012). "Briefcase lawsuit delays Marvel's 'Phase One' box set until next spring – Exclusive". Entertainment Weekly. Archived from the original on March 17, 2014. Retrieved August 2, 2013. 
  61. ^ Breznican, Anthony (November 20, 2012). "Marvel's delayed 'Phase One' box set to now feature 'Phase Two' tease – Video". Entertainment Weekly. Archived from the original on March 17, 2014. Retrieved November 20, 2012. 
  62. ^ a b "Marvel One-Shots: Expanding the Cinematic Universe". Marvel.com. August 2, 2011. Archived from the original on March 17, 2014. Retrieved August 2, 2011. 
  63. ^ a b c Chitwood, Adam (May 18, 2012). "The Avengers Blu-ray/DVD Hits Stores September 25; Includes Commentary, Deleted Scenes, Alternate Ending and More". Collider.com. Retrieved May 18, 2012. 
  64. ^ a b Manning, Shaun (July 22, 2013). "SDCC: Marvel Debuts Atwell's "Agent Carter One-Shot"". Comic Book Resources. Retrieved January 11, 2014. 
  65. ^ a b Breznican, Anthony (January 9, 2014). "Marvel One-Shot: First Look at Ben Kingsley's Mandarin encore in 'All Hail the King' short film -- Exclusive". Entertainment Weekly. Archived from the original on January 9, 2014. Retrieved January 9, 2014. 
  66. ^ a b Keyes, Rob (June 25, 2013). "‘Iron Man 3′ Blu-ray To Include Agent Carter Short Film". ScreenRant. Retrieved June 25, 2013. 
  67. ^ Connelly, Brendon (January 2, 2014). "Thor: The Dark World Blu-Ray To Include All Hail The King Short Film And Several Deleted Scenes". Bleeding Cool. Archived from the original on January 2, 2014. Retrieved January 2, 2014. 
  68. ^ Andreeva, Nellie (July 27, 2012). "ABC And Marvel Eying 'Avengers'-Themed TV Series". Deadline.com. Archived from the original on August 29, 2012. Retrieved July 29, 2012. 
  69. ^ Andreeva, Nellie (August 28, 2012). "ABC Greenlights ‘S.H.I.E.L.D’ Marvel Pilot, Joss Whedon To Co-Write & Possibly Direct". Deadline.com. Archived from the original on August 29, 2012. Retrieved August 28, 2012. 
  70. ^ a b "NYCC 2012: Coulson Lives in Marvel's S.H.I.E.L.D.". Marvel.com. October 13, 2012. Archived from the original on October 13, 2012. Retrieved October 13, 2012. 
  71. ^ "Marvel's Agents of S.H.I.E.L.D". ABC Studios. April 6, 2013. Archived from the original on April 6, 2013. Retrieved April 6, 2013. 
  72. ^ Andreeva, Nellie (May 10, 2013). "ABC Picks Up Marvel/Joss Wheden’s ‘S.H.I.E.L.D.’ To Series". Deadline.com. Archived from the original on May 10, 2013. Retrieved May 10, 2013. 
  73. ^ Dove, Steve (July 16, 2013). "Marvel's Agents of S.H.I.E.L.D. Series Premiere Date Announced". ABC Studios. Archived from the original on September 24, 2013. Retrieved September 24, 2013. 
  74. ^ a b Hibberd, James (May 8, 2014). "ABC renews 'SHIELD' plus orders 'Captain America' spin-off". Entertainment Weekly. Archived from the original on May 8, 2014. Retrieved May 8, 2014. 
  75. ^ Truitt, Brian (April 6, 2014). "Film reveal retools TV's 'Agents of S.H.I.E.L.D.'". USA Today. Archived from the original on April 6, 2014. Retrieved April 6, 2014. 
  76. ^ a b Hibberd, James (October 2, 2013). "'Agents of SHIELD' ratings slip; Samuel L. Jackson makes cameo". Entertainment Weekly. Archived from the original on March 12, 2014. Retrieved March 12, 2014. 
  77. ^ a b Goldberg, Lesley (July 19, 2013). "Cobie Smulders' Comic-Con Reveal: Secret 'Agents of SHIELD' Role". The Hollywood Reporter. Archived from the original on March 12, 2014. Retrieved July 19, 2013. 
  78. ^ a b "Declassifying Marvel's Agents of S.H.I.E.L.D.: The Hub". Marvel.com. October 24, 2013. Archived from the original on March 12, 2014. Retrieved October 24, 2013. 
  79. ^ "Titus Welliver Set to Return as Agent Blake in Marvel's Agents of S.H.I.E.L.D.". Marvel.com. October 10, 2013. Archived from the original on March 12, 2014. Retrieved October 10, 2013. 
  80. ^ "First Look: Thor Star Jaimie Alexander Meets the Agents of S.H.I.E.L.D.". TV Guide. February 10, 2014. Archived from the original on March 12, 2014. Retrieved February 10, 2014. 
  81. ^ Hibberd, James (November 1, 2013). "'Agents of SHIELD' doing 'Thor' crossover directed by Jonathan Frakes". Entertainment Weekly. Archived from the original on March 12, 2014. Retrieved December 15, 2013. 
  82. ^ Schwartz, Terri (November 21, 2013). "'Agents of SHIELD' will get a 'Captain America: The Winter Soldier' crossover too". Zap2It. Archived from the original on March 12, 2014. Retrieved December 15, 2013. 
  83. ^ Andreeva, Nellie (September 18, 2013). "Marvel Developing ‘Agent Carter’ TV Series". Deadline.com. Archived from the original on September 19, 2013. Retrieved September 19, 2013. 
  84. ^ a b Goldberg, Lesley (January 17, 2014). "Marvel's 'Agent Carter': Hayley Atwell, Writers, Showrunners Confirmed for ABC Drama". The Hollywood Reporter. Archived from the original on May 10, 2014. Retrieved January 18, 2014. 
  85. ^ Andreeva, Nellie (October 14, 2013). "Marvel Preps 60-Episode Package Of Four Series & A Mini For VOD & Cable Networks". Deadline.com. Archived from the original on October 14, 2013. Retrieved October 14, 2013. 
  86. ^ Lieberman, David (November 7, 2013). "Disney To Provide Netflix With Four Series Based On Marvel Characters". Deadline.com. Archived from the original on November 10, 2013. Retrieved November 7, 2013. 
  87. ^ Graser, Marc (November 7, 2013). "Why Disney Chose to Put Marvel's New TV Shows on Netflix". Variety. Archived from the original on February 20, 2014. Retrieved February 20, 2014. 
  88. ^ Couch, Aaron (November 12, 2013). "Melissa Rosenberg to Oversee Marvel's Jessica Jones Series for Netflix". The Hollywood Reporter. Archived from the original on February 6, 2014. Retrieved February 6, 2014. 
  89. ^ "Drew Goddard Joins Daredevil on Netflix". Marvel.com. December 6, 2013. Archived from the original on February 6, 2014. Retrieved December 6, 2013. 
  90. ^ Risley, Matt (February 6, 2014). "All Hail The King: Drew Pearce Interview". Total Film. Archived from the original on February 6, 2014. Retrieved February 6, 2014. 
  91. ^ "Marvel's Netflix Series to Film in New York City". Marvel.com. February 26, 2014. Archived from the original on February 26, 2014. Retrieved February 26, 2014. 
  92. ^ "Marvel TV head: 'Daredevil' starts shooting in July, 'Jessica Jones' next up". HitFix. March 24, 2014. Archived from the original on March 25, 2014. Retrieved March 25, 2014. 
  93. ^ Blackmon, Joe (April 27, 2014). "Marvel Netflix Series Part Of Marvel Cinematic Universe, Available For Binge Watching According To Joe Quesada". ComicBook.com. Archived from the original on April 28, 2014. Retrieved April 28, 2014. 
  94. ^ "Steven S. DeKnight Joins 'Marvel's Daredevil'". Marvel.com. May 24, 2014. Archived from the original on May 24, 2014. Retrieved May 24, 2014. 
  95. ^ "Charlie Cox to Star in ‘Daredevil’ TV Series for Marvel and Netflix". Variety. May 27, 2014. Archived from the original on May 27, 2014. Retrieved May 27, 2014. 
  96. ^ Maytum, Matt (June 20, 2014). "Marvel’s Kevin Feige updates on Guardians Of The Galaxy, Thanos, Ant-Man, TV shows and Doctor Strange". Total Film. Archived from the original on June 21, 2014. Retrieved June 21, 2014. 
  97. ^ "Marvel Studios: Assembling a Universe TV Special Premieres March 18 on ABC". Marvel.com. February 27, 2014. Archived from the original on February 27, 2014. Retrieved February 27, 2014. 
  98. ^ "'Avengers: Age of Ultron': Marvel reveals new Scarlet Witch and Quicksilver concept art". insidemovies.ew.com. March 18, 2014. Archived from the original on March 19, 2014. Retrieved March 19, 2014. 
  99. ^ Lowry, Brian (March 16, 2014). "TV Review: ‘Marvel Studios: Assembling a Universe’". Variety. Archived from the original on March 18, 2014. Retrieved March 18, 2014. 
  100. ^ Fowler, Matt (May 30, 2014). "Marvel's Agents of SHIELD Blu-ray And DVD Details". IGN. Archived from the original on May 30, 2014. Retrieved May 30, 2014. 
  101. ^ Fleming, Michael (February 25, 2009). "Samuel Jackson joins 'Iron' cast". Variety. Archived from the original on August 21, 2012. Retrieved March 30, 2009. 
  102. ^ Marshall, Rick (February 3, 2011). "Nick Fury's 'Thor' & 'Captain America' Cameos Confirmed, Four Actresses Vying For New 'Avengers' Role". MTV News. Archived from the original on March 29, 2013. Retrieved March 29, 2013. 
  103. ^ Sneider, Jeff (June 6, 2012). "Russo brothers tapped for 'Captain America 2': Disney and Marvel in final negotiations with 'Community' producers to helm pic". Variety. Archived from the original on July 16, 2012. Retrieved July 3, 2012. 
  104. ^ Truitt, Brian (August 18, 2013). "Sunday Geekersation: Jackson unleashes the Fury". USA Today. Archived from the original on August 18, 2013. Retrieved August 18, 2013. 
  105. ^ Honeycutt, Kirk (July 20, 2011). "Captain America: The First Avenger: Film Review". The Hollywood Reporter. Archived from the original on July 20, 2011. Retrieved July 20, 2011. 
  106. ^ "'Captain America: The Winter Soldier' filming begins". Marvel.com. April 8, 2013. Archived from the original on April 8, 2013. Retrieved April 8, 2013. 
  107. ^ Flint, Hanna (April 14, 2014). "Captain America star Hayley Atwell, 32, looks cool in ice-white as she leaves Oliviers after-party with model beau Evan Jones, 23". Daily Mail. Archived from the original on April 17, 2014. Retrieved April 17, 2014. 
  108. ^ Goldman, Eric (January 21, 2014). "Cobie Smulders on Reaching the End of How I Met Your Mother: "I Know the Whole Thing."". IGN. Archived from the original on March 10, 2014. Retrieved March 10, 2014. 
  109. ^ Patten, Dominic (March 21, 2013). "Movie Castings: Seth Rogen Scores 'The Interview', 'Endless Love' Remake Gets Leads & 'Winter Soldier' Sees An Agent Return". Deadline.com. Archived from the original on March 21, 2013. Retrieved March 21, 2013. 
  110. ^ White, Cindy (August 29, 2011). "First Impression: Thor 3D Blu-ray Special Features". IGN. Archived from the original on May 27, 2014. Retrieved January 13, 2014. 
  111. ^ a b c d "IRON MAN 2: FROM FILM TO COMICS". Marvel.com. September 13, 2010. Archived from the original on July 20, 2014. Retrieved June 22, 2014. 
  112. ^ "CAPTAIN AMERICA: THE FIRST AVENGER'S FIRST VENGEANCE". Marvel.com. Sep 6, 2011. Archived from the original on July 20, 2014. Retrieved Jun 22, 2014. 
  113. ^ "CAPTAIN AMERICA: FIRST VENGEANCE (2011) #1". Marvel.com. Archived from the original on July 20, 2014. Retrieved June 30, 2014. 
  114. ^ "WRITING THE AVENGERS MOVIE PRELUDE". Marvel.com. March 6, 2012. Archived from the original on July 20, 2014. Retrieved June 4, 2014. 
  115. ^ "MARVEL'S THE AVENGERS PRELUDE: FURY'S BIG WEEK (2011) #1". Marvel.com. Archived from the original on July 20, 2014. Retrieved June 30, 2014. 
  116. ^ Arrant, Chris (April 9, 2012). "To Russia with Guns: The Black Widow Strikes". Marvel.com. Archived from the original on July 20, 2014. Retrieved May 3, 2013. 
  117. ^ "MARVEL'S THE AVENGERS: BLACK WIDOW STRIKES (2012) #1". Marvel.com. Archived from the original on July 20, 2014. Retrieved June 30, 2013. 
  118. ^ a b "MARVEL'S IRON MAN 3 PRELUDE (2012) #1". Marvel.com. Archived from the original on July 20, 2014. Retrieved June 30, 2014. 
  119. ^ a b "MARVEL'S THOR: THE DARK WORLD PRELUDE 2 (2012) #1". Marvel.com. Archived from the original on July 20, 2014. Retrieved June 30, 2014. 
  120. ^ "Thor: The Dark World #1 & #2 Prequels Review". Comic Front Line. July 21, 2013. Archived from the original on July 20, 2014. Retrieved July 16, 2014. 
  121. ^ a b "Read a Prelude to Captain America: The Winter Soldier". Marvel.com. January 30, 2014. Archived from the original on July 20, 2014. Retrieved June 30, 2014. 
  122. ^ a b "Marvel's Guardians Of The Galaxy Prequel Infinite Comic". Marvel.com. Archived from the original on July 20, 2014. Retrieved June 30, 2014. 
  123. ^ Arrant, Chris (March 18, 2014). "Abnett & Lanning Put the Band Back Together for Guardians of the Galaxy Movie Prequel". Newsarama. Archived from the original on March 18, 2014. 
  124. ^ Wigler, Josh (November 1, 2010). "Joe Quesada Outlines Plans For 'Marvel Cinematic Universe' Comics With Movie Creators". MTV News. Retrieved November 1, 2010. 
  125. ^ Fritz, Ben (May 7, 2012). "The Marvel Cinematic Universe". Herald & Review. Archived from the original on December 16, 2013. Retrieved December 16, 2013. 
  126. ^ Outlaw, Kofi (June 6, 2012). "Marvel’s ‘Avengers’ Movie Universe: Was it Worth It?". ScreenRant. Archived from the original on December 16, 2013. Retrieved December 16, 2013. 
  127. ^ Mendelson, Scott (October 31, 2013). "Review: 'Thor: The Dark World' Is Flimsy But Functional". Forbes. Retrieved April 3, 2014. 
  128. ^ Goldberg, Matt (August 2, 2011). "Editorial: What Did Marvel Disassemble to Make THE AVENGERS?". Collider. Retrieved April 3, 2014. 
  129. ^ a b c Vilkomerson, Sara (April 8, 2014). "Inside 'The Amazing Spider-Man 2' -- And Sony's strategy to supersize its franchise". Entertainment Weekly. Archived from the original on April 10, 2014. Retrieved April 10, 2014. 
  130. ^ Fritz, Ben (October 29, 2012). "'Justice League' aims for summer 2015 after Superman victory". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on November 22, 2013. Retrieved November 22, 2013. 
  131. ^ Breznican, Anthony (April 11, 2013). "'Man of Steel' will open door for more DC Comics superhero movies -- Exclusive". Entertainment Weekly. Archived from the original on November 22, 2013. Retrieved November 22, 2013. 
  132. ^ Cornet, Roth (July 18, 2014). "Batman V Superman: Dawn Of Justice - Geoff Johns: 'No DC Movie/TV Crossover'". IGN. Archived from the original on July 18, 2014. Retrieved July 18, 2014. 
  133. ^ Fischer, Russ (November 9, 2012). "Mark Millar Discusses His Role in Creating a Cohesive Marvel Universe For Fox". /Film. Archived from the original on November 22, 2013. Retrieved November 22, 2013. 
  134. ^ a b Collura, Scott (November 21, 2013). "Sony Chief Hints That the Spider-Man Movies Will Be Getting New Heroes and Villains". IGN. Archived from the original on November 22, 2013. Retrieved November 22, 2013. 
  135. ^ Toro, Gabe (May 12, 2014). "Don't Expect To See The X-Men In The Fantastic Four Reboot". Cinema Blend. Archived from the original on May 13, 2014. Retrieved May 13, 2014. 
  136. ^ Lieberman, David (November 21, 2013). "UPDATE: Sony Pictures Plans More Spider-Man Sequels And Spinoffs – But Still No Marvel Reunion". Deadline.com. Archived from the original on November 22, 2013. Retrieved November 22, 2013. 
  137. ^ Bibbiani, William (July 24, 2013). "Comic-Con 2013: Marc Webb on Amazing Spider-Man 2". Crave Online. Archived from the original on November 22, 2013. Retrieved November 22, 2013. 
  138. ^ Goldman, Eric (December 13, 2013). "The Amazing Spider-Man Spinoffs Venom and The Sinister Six Announced by Sony". IGN. Archived from the original on December 14, 2013. Retrieved December 14, 2013. 

External links