|Type||Subsidiary of Marvel Entertainment|
|Genre||Motion Pictures and Television|
|Headquarters||Manhattan Beach, California, United States|
|Key people||Kevin Feige
(President of Production)
(The Walt Disney Company)
Marvel Studios, Inc. originally known as Marvel Films from 1993 to 1996, is an American television and motion picture studio based in Manhattan Beach, California. The Studio is a subsidiary of Marvel Entertainment, a wholly owned subsidiary of The Walt Disney Company. Being a part of the Disney conglomerate, Marvel Studios works in conjunction with The Walt Disney Studios, another Disney conglomerate unit, for distribution and marketing.
Marvel Studios includes numerous units and joint ventures, both operating and defunct; Marvel Television, Marvel Animation, Marvel Music, MVL Productions LLC, Marvel Films Animation, Marvel Animation Studios, and MLG Productions.
Amongst the many animated, television, feature film and music releases, the studio has been involved in three Marvel-character film franchises that have each exceeded one billion dollars in North American revenue—the X-Men, Spider-Man, and Marvel Cinematic Universe multi-film franchises.
The "MVL Productions LLC" unit has released seven films since 2008 under the Marvel Cinematic Universe title – Iron Man (2008), The Incredible Hulk (2008), Iron Man 2 (2010), Thor (2011), Captain America: The First Avenger (2011), Marvel's The Avengers (2012) and Iron Man 3 (2013). These films all share a timeline, cast and characters.
Timely era 
During what is known as Marvel's Timely era, Captain America was licensed out to Republic Pictures for a serial just for the free advertising. Timely failed to provide any drawing of Captain America with his shield or any further background, and Republic created a whole new background for the character, and portrayed the character using a gun.
Marvel Entertainment Group's initiative 
In the late 1970s up to the early 1990s, Marvel Entertainment Group (MEG) sold options to studios to produce films based on Marvel Comics characters. Spider-Man, one of Marvel’s superheroes, was optioned in the late 1970s, and rights reverted to Marvel in April 1996 without a film having been produced. From 1986 to 1996, most of Marvel’s major characters had been optioned, including the Fantastic Four, X-Men, Daredevil, Hulk, Silver Surfer, and Iron Man. A Howard the Duck film made to the screen in 1986, but was a box-office flop. With MEG purchased by New World Entertainment, New World moved to produced films based on the Marvel characters, but one movie, The Punisher (1989), came out of New World before MEG was sold to Andrews Group. Two other films were produced: Captain America (1990) released in the United Kingdom on screens and direct to video in the United States, and The Fantastic Four (1993), not intended for release. Marvel's rival DC Comics, on the other hand, had success licensing its properties Superman and Batman into blockbuster films.
Marvel Films 
Following Marvel Entertainment Group's (MEG) ToyBiz deal in 1993, Avi Arad of ToyBiz was named President and CEO of Marvel Films division and of New World Family Filmworks, Inc., a New World Entertainment subsidiary. New World was MEG's former parent corporation and later a fellow subsidiary of the Andrews Group. Marvel Productions became New World Animation by 1993 as Marvel would start up Marvel Films including Marvel Films Animation. New World Animation (The Incredible Hulk), Saban (X-Men), and Marvel Films Animation (Spider-Man) each produced a Marvel series for television. It was Marvel Films Animation's only production.
New World Animation and Marvel Films Animation were sold along with the rest of New World by Andrews Group to News Corporation/Fox as announced in August 1996. As part of the deal, Marvel licensed the rights to Captain America, Daredevil and Silver Surfer to be on Fox Kids Network and produced by Saban. New World Animation continued producing a second season of The Incredible Hulk for UPN.
Marvel Studios 
In August 1996, Marvel decided to create Marvel Studios, an incorporation of Marvel Films, due to the sale of New World Communications Group, Inc., Marvel's fellow Andrews Group subsidiary in film and television stations, to News Corporation/Fox. Filing with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission to raise money to finance the new corporation, Marvel, Isaac Perlmutter's Zib, Inc. and Avi Arad sold Toy Biz stocks, which Marvel had started and took public in February 1995. Toy Biz filed an offering of 7.5 million shares with a closing price of $20.125 at the time, making the offering worth approximately $150 million. Toy Biz sought to sell 1 million shares, and Marvel sought to sell 2.5 million shares.
Jerry Calabrese, the president of Marvel Entertainment Group, and Avi Arad, head of Marvel Films and a director of Toy Biz, were assigned tandem control of Marvel Studios. Under Calabrese and Arad, Marvel sought to control pre-production by commissioning scripts, hiring directors, and casting characters, providing the package to a major studio partner for filming and distribution. Arad said of the goal for control, "When you get into business with a big studio, they are developing a hundred or 500 projects; you get totally lost. That isn't working for us. We're just not going to do it anymore. Period." Marvel Studios arranged a seven-year development deal with 20th Century Fox to cover markets in the United States and internationally. In the following December, Marvel Entertainment Group went through a reorganization plan, including Marvel Studios as part of its strategic investment. By 1997, Marvel Studios was actively pursuing various film productions based on Marvel characters, including the eventual films X-Men (2000), Daredevil (2003) and Fantastic Four (2005). Unproduced projects included Prince Namor, based on the character Namor and to be directed by Philip Kaufman, and Mort the Dead Teenager, based on the comic book of the same name and written by John Payson and Mort creator Larry Hama. Marvel was developing a Captain America animated series with Saban Entertainment for Fox Kids Network to premier in fall 1998. However, due to the bankruptcy the series was canceled before the premiere.
The first film licensed by Marvel Studios was Blade, based on the vampire hunter Blade. The film was directed by Stephen Norrington and starred Wesley Snipes as Blade. It was released on August 21, 1998, grossing $70,087,718 in the United States and Canada and $131,183,530 worldwide. In 1999, Marvel licensed Spider-Man to Sony.
Blade was followed by X-Men, which was directed by Bryan Singer and was released on July 14, 2000. X-Men grossed $157,299,717 in the United States and Canada and $296,250,053 worldwide. The Marvel films Blade and X-Men demonstrated that blockbuster films could be made out of comic book characters not familiar to the general public.
Leading up to X-Men's release, Marvel Studios negotiated a deal with then-functional Artisan Entertainment, successful with the low-budget The Blair Witch Project, to give the studio rights to 15 Marvel characters including Captain America, Thor, Black Panther, Iron Fist, and Deadpool. With the deal at the time, 24 Marvel properties were then in various stages of development. Brian Cunningham, editor of Wizard comic book magazine, believed that Avi Arad was successful in organizing strategic alliances and exercising fiscal responsibility in multimedia expansion. Cunningham said of Arad’s leadership of the studio following its parent company’s near-bankruptcy, "The fact the X-Men is primed to be the biggest movie of the summer speaks volumes about the turnaround for Marvel. From my observation, he's focused on a lot more in diversifying Marvel, doing things that proliferate Marvel characters in the mainstream." Arad sought to protect Marvel’s image by serving as executive producer in all Marvel film productions and being responsible for crossover marketing between Marvel properties. Arad had properties set up at different studios to create momentum so one studio would not cannibalize efforts with one property for the sake of another. By 2001, the success of Marvel Entertainment’s Ultimate Marvel comics created leverage in Hollywood for Marvel Studios, pushing more properties into development.
The next blockbuster film licensed from Marvel Studios was Spider-Man by Columbia Pictures, directed by Sam Raimi and starring Tobey Maguire as Spider-Man. The film was released on May 3, 2002, grossing $403,706,375 in the United States and Canada and $821,708,551 worldwide. The early success of Spider-Man led the film's studio to issue a seven-figure advance for a sequel. Arad spoke of the deal, "Movies make sequels. Therefore, it's a big economic luxury to know that a movie's going to get a second and third. This is a business of precedence." According to a Lehman Brothers analysis, the Studios' made only $62 million for the first 2 Spider-man movies.
In producing Marvel films in the 2000s, Avi Arad sought to capture the superheroes’ internal conflicts. According to The New York Times, "Mr. Arad's great accomplishment – and it is one, given the difficulties in transferring any kind of printed material to the big screen – is conveying what makes those heroes tick as characters... He works with the filmmakers to ensure that the heroes are conflicted, the villains motivated, the outcome shaded." In contrast to the original storylines of DC Comics’ Superman and Batman films, Marvel films were more directly inspired by their comics, copying from them set pieces, scenes, plots, and dialogue.
Partnering with Lions Gate Entertainment in 2004, Marvel Studios plan to enter the direct-to-DVD market with eight animated films with Lionsgate handling distribution. Eric Rollman was hired by Marvel as Executive Vice President, Home Entertainment & TV Production for Marvel Studios to oversee the deal with Lionsgate.
In 2004, David Maisel was hired as chief operating officer of Marvel Studio as he had a plan for the Studios to self-finance movies. Marvel entered into a non-recourse financing structure with Merrill Lynch Commercial Finance Corp. that is collateralized by certain movie rights to a total of 10 characters from Marvel's vast vault. Marvel gets $525 million to make a maximum of 10 movies based on the company's properties over eight years, according to the parameters of the original deal with Paramount Pictures in September 2004. Those characters were: Ant-Man, The Avengers, Black Panther, Captain America, Cloak & Dagger, Doctor Strange, Hawkeye, Nick Fury, Power Pack, Shang-Chi. Ambac insurance company insured the movies would succeed or they would pay the interest payment on the debt and get the movie rights collateral. In October 2005, Michael Helfant joined the Studio as President and Chief Operating Officer. In November 2005, Marvel gained the film rights to Iron Man from New Line Cinema. Marvel revealed that it has regained the film rights to The Incredible Hulk in 2006. In April 2006 Paramount Pictures acquired the rights to Thor from Sony. That year the film was announced to be a Marvel Studios production. Lions Gate Entertainment subsequently dropped the Black Widow motion picture project it had since 2004 giving the rights back to Marvel. Masiel and Arad fought over the rate of movie releases and strength of characters in the movie line up. Perlmutter supported Masiel thus in May 2006 Arad quit as Studio chair and CEO. In March 2007, David Maisel was named Chairman and Kevin Feige was named President of Production as Iron Man began filming.
In 2008, Marvel Studios signed a lease with Raleigh Studios to host its headquarters and production offices and film the next four movies on the studios’ slate, including Iron Man 2 and Thor, at their Manhattan Beach facilities. In January 2008, Marvel Animation was incorporated to direct Marvel's efforts in animation and home entertainment markets including then animation efforts with Lionsgate and Nickelodeon. Marvel Entertainment named Eric Rollman as President of the company in April 2008. By September 2008, Paramount added to its domestic film distribution contract 5 additional Marvel movies' foreign distribution.
In 2009, Marvel attempted to hire a team of writers to help come up with creative ways to launch its lesser-known properties, such as Black Panther, Cable, Iron Fist, Nighthawk, and Vision. In early 2009, Sony returned all Spider-Man television rights in exchange for an adjustment to the movie rights.
On December 31, 2009, The Walt Disney Company purchased Marvel Entertainment for $4 billion. Both Marvel and Disney have stated that the merger would not affect any preexisting deals with other film studios for the time being, although Disney said they will consider distributing future Marvel projects with their own studios once the current deals expire.
In June 2010, Marvel Entertainment set up a television division within Marvel Studios, headed up by Jeph Loeb as Executive Vice President, under which Marvel Animation will be operated. On October 18, Disney bought the distribution rights for The Avengers and Iron Man 3 from Paramount Pictures. Disney, however, purchased the distribution rights before Marvel's "5 picture deal" with Paramount was complete, thus Paramount's logo was for both films instead of the Disney logo.
In April 2012, The Walt Disney Company China, Marvel Studios and DMG Entertainment announced an agreement to co-produce Iron Man 3 in China. DMG will partly finance, produce in China with Marvel, and handle co-production matters. DMG will also distribute the film in China in tandem with Disney. On August 22, 2011, at Disney's behest, the Studio dismissed most of its marketing department: Dana Precious, EVP of Worldwide Marketing; Jeffrey Stewart, VP of Worldwide Marketing and Jodi Miller, Manager of Worldwide Marketing. Disney markets Marvel's films.
Marvel also began to reclaim the rights to characters that had been licensed out to other studios since the late 1990s, starting with Blade from New Line Cinema. In August 2012, it was reported that 20th Century Fox was willing to allow the film rights to the superhero Daredevil and his related characters revert to Marvel and Disney, a contracted stipulation that required Fox to begin production on a new Daredevil film by late 2012. Fox had approached Marvel about extending the deadline and becoming a co-financier for the film, but was rebuffed. On October 10, 2012, the Daredevil film rights reverted to Marvel Studios, which was confirmed by studio president Kevin Feige on April 23, 2013. On May 2, 2013, Feige confirmed in an interview that the Ghost Rider and Punisher rights had reverted back to Marvel from Sony and Lions Gate respectively, as well as reaffirming the acquisition of the Blade rights. It was later revealed in May 2013 that Marvel has also reacquired the Power Man rights from Columbia Pictures. In an interview with Collider in early May 2013, Kevin Feige stated he believed the Elektra rights were back at Marvel through the Daredevil deal. The only rights that are still left at other studios are the X-Men and Fantastic Four franchise of characters at 20th Century Fox and the Spider-Man franchise of characters at Sony/Columbia Pictures.
Upon the release of The Amazing Spider-Man, Disney and Sony negotiated a two-way agreement. Disney would receive full merchandising ancillary rights to future Spider-Man films, whereas Sony purchasing out Marvel's film participation rights.
Marvel Knights 
Named after corporate sibling Marvel Comics' imprint of the same name, Marvel Knights is also the name given to a production arm of Marvel Studios intended to be used to produce some of Marvel's darker and lesser known titles. The first film produced under the Marvel Knights banner was Punisher: War Zone, the 2008 release that rebooted the Punisher franchise. In 2012, Ghost Rider: Spirit of Vengeance was the second title to be released under that banner.
- Avi Arad
- Marvel Films President and CEO, 1993 - August 1996
- Marvel Studios Chairman and CEO, August 1998 - May 2006
- Jerry Calabrese
- David Maisel
- Chief Operating Officer, 2004 - September 2005
- Chairman and CEO, March 2007 - 2010
- Michael Helfant, President and Chief Operating Officer, October 2005
- Kevin Feige, President of Production, March 2007 -
- Marvel Films Animation – animation subdivision (1994–1997)
- Marvel Television (2010–present)
- MVL Productions LLC: film slate subsidiary
- Marvel Music (2005-)
Production library 
TV series 
- Marvel Films
|1994–1998||Spider-Man: The Animated Series||Marvel Films Animation /Saban||New World Communications||Fox Kids|
|1992–1997||X-Men||Saban Entertainment||Saban Entertainment||Fox Kids|
|1996–1997||The Incredible Hulk||New World Animation||Saban Entertainment||UPN|
|1994–1996||Fantastic Four||New World Animation & Wang Films||New World Communications||First-run
|Iron Man||New World Animation & Rainbow Animation Group & Koko|
- Marvel Studios
|1998||Silver Surfer||Saban Entertainment||Saban||Fox Kids|
|1999–2001||Spider-Man Unlimited||Saban International||Saban||Fox Kids|
|1999–2000||The Avengers: United They Stand||Saban International||Saban||Fox Kids|
Live action 
|Mutant X||6 October 2001 – 17 May 2004||Fireworks Entertainment
CanWest Global Communications
|Blade: The Series||28 June 2006 – 13 September 2006||Phantom Four
New Line Television
|Year||Film||Directed by||Written by||Production by||Budget||Gross|
|1998||Blade||Stephen Norrington||David S. Goyer||New Line Cinema||$45 million||$131,183,530|
|2000||X-Men||Bryan Singer||Story by Tom DeSanto & Bryan Singer
Screenplay by David Hayter
|20th Century Fox||$75 million||$296,339,527|
|2002||Blade II||Guillermo del Toro||David S. Goyer||New Line Cinema||$54 million||$155,010,032|
|Spider-Man||Sam Raimi||David Koepp||Columbia Pictures||$140 million||$821,708,551|
|2003||Daredevil||Mark Steven Johnson||20th Century Fox||$78 million||$179,179,718|
|X2: X-Men United||Bryan Singer||Story by Zak Penn and David Hayter & Bryan Singer
Screenplay by Michael Dougherty & Dan Harris and David Hayter
|Hulk||Ang Lee||Story by James Schamus
Screenplay by John Turman and Michael France and James Schamus
|Universal Pictures||$137 million||$245,360,480|
|2004||The Punisher||Jonathan Hensleigh||Jonathan Hensleigh and Michael France||Artisan Entertainment
|Spider-Man 2||Sam Raimi||Story by Alfred Gough & Miles Millar and Michael Chabon
Screenplay by Alvin Sargent
|Columbia Pictures||$200 million||$783,766,341|
|Blade: Trinity||David S. Goyer||New Line Cinema||$65 million||$128,905,366|
|2005||Elektra||Rob Bowman||Zak Penn and Stuart Zicherman & Raven Metzner||20th Century Fox||$43 million||$56,681,566|
|Man-Thing||Brett Leonard||Hans Rodionoff||Lionsgate||N/A|
|Fantastic Four||Tim Story||Mark Frost and Michael France||20th Century Fox||$100 million||$330,579,719|
|2006||X-Men: The Last Stand||Brett Ratner||Simon Kinberg & Zak Penn||$210 million||$459,359,555|
|2007||Ghost Rider||Mark Steven Johnson||Columbia Pictures||$110 million||$228,738,393|
|Spider-Man 3||Sam Raimi||Screenplay by Sam Raimi & Ivan Raimi and Alvin Sargent
Story by Sam Raimi & Ivan Raimi
|Fantastic Four: Rise of the Silver Surfer||Tim Story||Screenplay by Don Payne and Mark Frost
Story by John Turman and Mark Frost
|20th Century Fox||$130 million||$289,047,763|
|2008||Punisher: War Zone||Lexi Alexander||Nick Santora and Art Marcum & Matt Holloway||Lionsgate||$35 million||$10,100,036|
|2009||X-Men Origins: Wolverine||Gavin Hood||David Benioff and Skip Woods||20th Century Fox||$150 million||$373,062,864|
|2011||X-Men: First Class||Matthew Vaughn||Screenplay by Ashley Edward Miller and Zack Stentz and Jane Goldman & Matthew Vaughn
Story by Sheldon Turner and Bryan Singer
|2012||Ghost Rider: Spirit of Vengeance||Mark Neveldine and Brian Taylor||Screenplay by Scott M. Gimple and Seth Hoffman & David S. Goyer
Story by David S. Goyer
|The Amazing Spider-Man||Marc Webb||Screenplay by James Vanderbilt and Alvin Sargent & Steve Kloves
Story by James Vanderbilt
|Columbia Pictures||$230 million||$751,951,848|
|2013||The Wolverine (post-production)||James Mangold||Christopher McQuarrie and Mark Bomback||20th Century Fox||$100 million|
|2014||The Amazing Spider-Man 2 (filming)||Marc Webb||Screenplay by Alex Kurtzman and Roberto Orci & Jeff Pinkner
Story by James Vanderbilt
|X-Men: Days of Future Past (filming)||Bryan Singer||Matthew Vaughn and Jane Goldman & Simon Kinberg||20th Century Fox|
|2015||The Fantastic Four||Josh Trank||Jeremy Slater and Seth Grahame-Smith||20th Century Fox|
MVL Productions LLC 
|Year||Film||Directed by||Written by||Distributor||Budget||Gross|
|2008||Iron Man||Jon Favreau||Mark Fergus & Hawk Ostby and Art Marcum & Matt Holloway||Paramount Pictures||$140 million||$585,174,222|
|The Incredible Hulk||Louis Leterrier||Zak Penn||Universal Pictures||$150 million||$263,427,551|
|2010||Iron Man 2||Jon Favreau||Justin Theroux||Paramount Pictures||$200 million||$623,933,331|
|2011||Thor||Kenneth Branagh||Story: J. Michael Straczynski and Mark Protosevich
Screenplay: Ashley Edward Miller & Zack Stentz and Don Payne
|Captain America: The First Avenger||Joe Johnston||Christopher Markus & Stephen McFeely||$140 million||$368,608,363|
|2012||The Avengers||Joss Whedon||Story: Zak Penn and Joss Whedon
Screenplay: Joss Whedon
|Walt Disney Studios
|2013||Iron Man 3||Shane Black||Drew Pearce and Shane Black||$200 million||$1,082,076,981|
|2013||Thor: The Dark World (post-production)||Alan Taylor||Story: Don Payne
Screenplay: Christopher Yost and Christopher Markus & Stephen McFeely
|Walt Disney Studios Motion Pictures|
|2014||Captain America: The Winter Soldier (filming)||Anthony and Joe Russo||Christopher Markus & Stephen McFeely|
|2014||Guardians of the Galaxy (pre-production)||James Gunn||Nicole Perlman and Chris McCoy and James Gunn||Walt Disney Studios Motion Pictures|
|2015||The Avengers 2 (pre-production)||Joss Whedon||Joss Whedon|
|Ant-Man||Edgar Wright||Edgar Wright & Joe Cornish|
- ^ As part of the deal of transferring the distribution rights of future releases of Marvel Studios' films to Walt Disney Studios, the Paramount Pictures' logo appears in the films The Avengers and Iron Man 3, as well as the films' promotional materials and merchandise. However, Walt Disney Studios Motion Pictures will be credited at the end of the films.
See also 
- "The Walt Disney Studios – Our Businesses". The Walt Disney Company. The Walt Disney Studios. Retrieved May 28, 2012. "Marvel Studios, a division of Marvel Entertainment, produces movies based on the world's most prominent and iconic comic book empire. With a library of over 8,000 characters, Marvel Studios creates blockbuster film franchises which to date include Iron Man, The Incredible Hulk, Thor, Captain America: The First Avenger, and Marvel’s The Avengers. Marvel Entertainment is a wholly owned subsidiary of The Walt Disney Company."
- Lang, Brent; Shaw, Lucas (31 May 2012). "Disney Chooses Alan Horn as New Studio Chief". The Wrap. Retrieved 29 December 2012. "Unlike at say Sony or Fox, power at Disney's studio division is very much diffused over its Marvel and Pixar brands, making the job of studio chief more ringmaster than supreme commander."
- Mangel, Andy (December December 1990). "Reel Marvel". In Jim Salicrup. Marvel Age. Marvel Comics. Retrieved 5 May 2011.
- Hass, Nancy (11 August 1996). "Marvel sets up division to put its own characters into movies". The New York Times.
- Hartlaub, Peter (28 April 2002). "Cool comic-book films: Golden age on silver screen for Marvel heroes". San Francisco Chronicle.
- "MARVEL ENTERTAINMENT AND AVI ARAD TO DEVELOP MEDIA PROJECTS". The Free Library.com. Farlex, Inc. Retrieved April 13, 2011.
- Hicks, Jonathan P. (8 November 1988). "THE MEDIA BUSINESS; Marvel Comic Book Unit Being Sold for $82.5 million". The New York Times. Retrieved October 22, 2010.
- "John Semper on "Spider-Man": 10th Anniversary Interview". Marvel Animation Age. toonzone.net. Retrieved May 5, 2011.
- Cawley, John. "Marvel Films Animation 1993–1997". Home of John Cawley. John Cawley. Retrieved May 5, 2011.
- Goldman, Michael. "Stan Lee: Comic Guru". Animation World Magazine. Animation World Network. Retrieved May 5, 2011.
- "August Issue News Section:". Animation World Magazine. August 1996. Retrieved July 19, 2011.
- "Toy Biz, Inc. Prospectus". NYSE.com. New York Stock Exchange. Retrieved May 10, 2011.
- "Marvel plans TV, movies for characters". South Florida Sun-Sentinel. July 3, 1996.
- Benezra, Karen (July 8, 1996). "Marvel wants to be a movie mogul". MediaWeek (VNU eMedia, Inc) 6 (28).
- Kramer, Farrell (December 28, 1996). "Marvel, maker of sports cards, comics, files for bankruptcy". Fort Worth Star-Telegram (The McClatchy Company).
- Evenson, Laura (May 18, 1997). "Comics' Superpower To Turn Season's Movies Into Box-Office Gold". San Francisco Chronicle.
- "The Captain America Cartoon That Never Was". The Daily Backstabber. ComicBookMovie.com. Retrieved May 17, 2011.
- "Captain America "Skullhenge"". Animation. Steve Engelhart. Retrieved May 17, 2011.
- "Blade (1998)". Box Office Mojo. Retrieved June 18, 2008.
- "Calling all superheroes". Fortune. May 23, 2007. Retrieved December 4, 2011.
- "X-Men (2000)". Box Office Mojo. Retrieved June 18, 2008.
- Levine, Robert (June 27, 2004). "Does Whatever a Spider (and a C.E.O.) Can". The New York Times.
- Elder, Robert K (July 16, 2000). "Superheroes go Hollywood". The Dallas Morning News (A. H. Belo).
- Massari, Paul (December 2, 2001). "Marvel’s superheroes fight their way back from comic disaster". The Boston Globe.
- "Spider-Man (2002)". Box Office Mojo. Retrieved June 18, 2008.
- Phan, Monty (May 7, 2002). "$114M – What a ' Marvel -ous' Start". Newsday.
- "Marvel Enters Burgeoning Made-for-DVD Market Segment Through Landmark Deal with Lions Gate Entertainment.". Business Wire. May 25, 2004. Retrieved March 18, 2011.
- Harvey, James. "Direct-To-Video "Marvel Animated Features" Line Plans For Future Releases". Marvel Animation Age. toonzone.net. Retrieved April 1, 2011.
- "Marvel Promotes Eric Rollman To President, Marvel Animation". AWN Headline News. Retrieved May 6, 2008.
- Leonard, Devin (May 23, 2007). "Marvel goes Hollywood". Fortune. p. 2. Retrieved December 4, 2011.
- Vincent, Roger (September 6, 2005). "Marvel to Make Movies Based on Comic Books". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved April 12, 2011.
- "Marvel Launches Independent Film Slate". superherohype.com. Archived from the original on November 11, 2007. Retrieved November 26, 2007.
- "Exec makes Marvel move - Entertainment News, Exec Shuffle, Media". Variety. November 1, 2005. Retrieved December 4, 2011.
- "The Word on Black Widow". IGN. June 5, 2006.
- "Marvel Entertainment Names David Maisel as Chairman, Marvel Studios and Kevin Feige as President...". Business Wire. AllBusiness.com, Inc. March 13, 2007. Retrieved July 1, 2008.
- "Marvel signs long-term lease with Raleigh". Hollywood Reporter. October 6, 2008. Retrieved November 11, 2008.[dead link]
- Finke, Nikki (September 29, 2008). "PARAMOUNT-MARVEL DEAL: Paramount To Distribute Next Five Marvel Films". Deadline. Retrieved October 10, 2012.
- Graser, Marc (March 26, 2009). "Marvel's hiring writers". Variety. Retrieved March 27, 2009.
- Goldman, Eric (September 1, 2009). "Sony No Longer Producing Spectacular Spider-Man; Studio Loses Spidey TV Rights". IGN. Retrieved January 17, 2013.
- Vejvoda, Jim (August 31, 2009). "The Disney/Marvel Deal: What It Means for Movies". IGN. Retrieved May 23, 2012.
- Fixmer, Andy; Sarah Rabil (September 1, 2009). "Disney’s Marvel Buy Traps Hollywood in Spider-Man Web (Update2)". Bloomberg. Retrieved May 23, 2012.
- "Marvel Entertainment Launches TV Division". deadline.com. Retrieved August 5, 2010.
- Phegley, Kiel (July 2, 2010). "Jeph Loeb Talks Marvel TV". comicbookresources.com. Retrieved July 13, 2011.
- Kim Masters (October 18, 2010). "Disney to Distribute Marvel's 'The Avengers,' 'Iron Man 3'". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved October 18, 2010.
- Finke, Nikki (May 6, 2012). "Paramount Makes Money Off ‘Avengers’ Too". Deadline.com. Retrieved October 10, 2012.
- "Marvel’s Iron Man 3 to Be Co-Produced in China". Business Wire. April 16, 2012. Archived from the original on April 16, 2012. Retrieved April 16, 2012.
- Finke, NIikki (August 23, 2011). "Disney Fires Marvel’s Marketing Department". Deadline.com. Retrieved August 24, 2011.
- Kit, Borys (August 14, 2012). "Fox's Daredevil Rights on Verge of Reverting to Marvel as Ticking Clock Looms (Video)". Deadline.com. PMC. Archived from the original on August 15, 2012. Retrieved August 15, 2012.
- Fleming, Mike (August 6, 2012). "Fox Insiders: No Galactus Talks With Marvel". Deadline.com. PMC. Archived from the original on August 15, 2012. Retrieved August 7, 2012.
- Fleming, Mike (August 14, 2012). "Looks Like ‘Daredevil’ Will Go Back To Marvel And Disney". Deadline.com. PMC. Archived from the original on August 14, 2012. Retrieved August 15, 2012.
- Fleming Jr., Mike (April 23, 2013). "TOLDJA! ‘Daredevil’ Rights Revert From Fox To Disney". Deadline Hollywood. Retrieved April 23, 2013.
- Nicholson, Max (May 2, 2013). "Ghost Rider Blazes Back to Marvel". IGN. Retrieved May 2, 2013.
- Kit, Borys; Bond, Paul (May 7, 2013). "A Spago dinner sets the stage for Downey's epic contract talks that could lead to more "Avengers" and "Iron Man 4" -- or a new Tony Stark.". Retrieved May 8, 2013.
- Nicholson, Max (May 9, 2013). "Does Marvel Studios Also Have Elektra Rights Back?". Retrieved May 9, 2013.
- Lee, Carl (2012). "Answered: Which Studios Own Which Marvel Characters". Retrieved May 9, 2013.
- "Disney Acquires Sony's Merchandising Participation For The Amazing Spider-Man". November 10, 2011. Retrieved January 17, 2013. citing: "Walt Disney's CEO Discusses Q4 2011 Results - Earnings Call Transcripts". Retrieved January 17, 2013.
- Patten, Dominic (September 19, 2012). "http://www.deadline.com/2012/09/marvel-studios-heading-to-walt-disney-company-backyard-the-avengers-thor-captain-america/". Deadline.com. Retrieved December 29, 2012.
- Moody, Annemarie (April 21, 2008). "Marvel Promotes Eric Rollman To President, Marvel Animation". Animation World Network. Archived from the original on November 5, 2011. Retrieved May 6, 2008.
- "Marvel Animation, Inc.". Division of Corporations Entity database. Retrieved May 6, 2008.[dead link]
- Sands, Rich (June 12, 2012). "Exclusive: Marvel Assembles New Animated Series for the Hulk and Avengers". TV Guide. Retrieved July 5, 2012.
- "D23′s How We Do It: Marvel Animation Studios". News & Features. D23 - Disney Official Fan Club. Retrieved September 12, 2012.
- "Form 8-K SEC File 1-13638". SEC Info, Fran Finnegan & Company. Retrieved May 7, 2008.
- "EXCLUSIVE LICENSE AGREEMENT BETWEEN MVL RIGHTS LLC AND MARVEL CHARACTERS, INC.". RealDealDocs. Retrieved 25 June 2012.
- "2010 Amended Annual Franchise Tax Report, Marvel Music, Inc.". State of Delaware: Department of State: Division of Corporations. Retrieved October 4, 2011. Note: Secure site: File number 4034835 must be entered.
- "Sneak Peek: “Ghost rider: Spirit of vengeance”". Philippine Daily Inquirer (Philippine Daily Inquirer, Inc.). Retrieved March 26, 2013.
- "Ghost Rider™: Spirit of Vengeance - Official Site - Warner Bros.". Warner Bros. . Time Warner, Inc. Retrieved March 26, 2013.
- Graser, Marc (October 11, 2011). "Why Par, not Disney, gets 'Avengers' credit". Variety. Archived from the original on October 12, 2011. Retrieved October 12, 2011.