Marwan I

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Marwan I
مروان بن الحکم
4thCaliph of the Umayyad dynasty
Umayyad Caliph in Damascus
Reign 684–685
Predecessor Muawiya II
Successor Abd al-Malik
Issue Abd al-Malik, Abd al-Aziz, Muhammad
Full name
Marwan ibn al-Hakam
Dynasty Umayyad
Father Hakam ibn Wa'il
Born March 28, 623
Died May 7, 685

Marwan ibn al-Hakam ibn Abu al-'As ibn Umayyah (623 – 7 May 685) (Arabic: مروان بن الحكم بن ابو العاص بن أمية‎) a Sahaba and also was the fourth Umayyad Caliph, and the cousin of Uthman ibn Affan, who took over the dynasty after Muawiya II abdicated in 684. Marwan's ascension pointed to a shift in the lineage of the Umayyad dynasty from descendants of Abu Sufyan (the "Sufyanids") to those of Hakam (the "Marwanids"), both of whom were grandsons of Umayya (for whom the Umayyad dynasty is named). Hakam was also the uncle of Uthman ibn Affan.

Life[edit]

During the "Battle of the Camel" Marwan ibn al-Hakam is said to have shot his general Talhah with an arrow to the thigh, resulting in his death. Marwan killed Talhah in revenge for his alleged betrayal of the third Caliph, Uthman. He was removed from this position by Ali, only to be reappointed by Muawiya I. Marwan was eventually removed from the city when Abdullah ibn Zubayr rebelled against Yazid I. From here, Marwan went to Damascus, where he was made the caliph after Muawiya II abdicated.

Marwan's short reign was marked by a civil war among the Syrian Arabs as well as a war against Abdullah ibn Zubayr who continued to rule over the Hejaz, Iraq, Egypt and parts of Syria. Marwan was able to prevail in Syria at the Battle of Marj Rahit, the result of which was a new Marwanid line of Umayyad caliphs. He was also able to recapture Egypt and Syria from Abdullah, but was not able to completely defeat him.

His family tree[edit]


 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Quraysh tribe
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Abd Manaf ibn Qusai
 
 
 
 
 
Ātikah bint Murrah
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
‘Abd Shams
 
Barra
 
Muṭṭalib
 
Hala
 
Hashim
 
Salma bint Amr
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Umayya ibn Abd Shams
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
‘Abd al-Muttalib
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Harb
 
 
 
Abu al-'As
 
 
 
 
ʿĀminah
 
ʿAbd Allāh
 
Abî Ṭâlib
 
Hamza
 
Al-‘Abbas
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
ʾAbī Sufyān ibn Harb
 
Al-Hakam
 
 
Affan ibn Abi al-'As
 
 
MUHAMMAD
(Family tree)
 
Khadija bint Khuwaylid
 
`Alî al-Mûrtdhā
 
Khawlah bint Ja'far
 
ʿAbd Allâh
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Muʿāwiyah
 
Marwan I
 
 
Uthman ibn Affan
 
 
Ruqayyah
 
Fatima Zahra
 
 
 
 
 
 
Muhammad ibn al-Hanafiyyah
 
ʿAli bin ʿAbd Allâh
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Umayyad Caliphate
 
 
 
Uthman ibn Abu-al-Aas
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Hasan al-Mûjtabâ
 
Husayn bin Ali
(Family tree)
 
al-Mukhtār ibn Abī ‘Ubayd Allah al-Thaqafī
(Abû‘Amra`Kaysan’îyyah)
 
Muhammad "al-Imâm" (Abbasids)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

Status as Sahaba[edit]

Despite being controversial figure and his being remembered for killing Talha, Marwan bin Hakam was accepted as Sahaba generally by Islamic scholarly consensus as evidenced by a reprimand from scholar of Nahdletul Ulema from Indonesia regarding some Muslim figures such as Marwan as one of the topic. which he give Marwan the honorific title of Radhi Allahu Anhu(RA),[1] which common honorific title of Sahaba or Tabi'un.[2]

Another evidence according to fiqh were there are hadiths which transmitting was traced to Marwan which is compilled by Sahih Bukhari[3][4] and Tirmidhi.[5] as it is the nature to the ruling of Hadith transmission by Sahaba was explained by Haji gibril that Consensus among Ahl al-Sunna that the Sahaba are all of the highest probity which inhibiting the first chain of narration[6]

References[edit]

External links[edit]

Marwan I
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Muawiyah II
Umayyad Caliph
684–685
Succeeded by
Abd al-Malik
Preceded by
Said ibn al-As
Governor of Madina
679–681
Succeeded by
Walid ibn Utbah ibn Abi Sufyan
Preceded by
Said ibn al-As
Governor of Madina
674–677
Succeeded by
Said ibn al-As
Preceded by
?
Governor of Madina
662–669
Succeeded by
Said ibn al-As