A Marwari stallion
|Distinguishing features||Light horse breed, inward-turning ear tips, natural ambling gait|
|Country of origin||India|
|Equus ferus caballus|
The Marwari or Malani is a rare breed of horse from the Marwar (or Jodhpur) region of India. Known for its inward-turning ear tips, it comes in all equine colours, although pinto patterns tend to be the most popular with buyers and breeders. It is known for its hardiness, and is quite similar to the Kathiawari, another Indian breed from the Kathiawar region southwest of Marwar. Many breed members exhibit a natural ambling gait. The Marwari are descended from native Indian ponies crossed with Arabian horses, possibly with some Mongolian influence.
The Rathores, traditional rulers of the Marwar region of western India, were the first to breed the Marwari. Beginning in the 12th century, they espoused strict breeding that promoted purity and hardiness. Used throughout history as a cavalry horse by the people of the Marwar region, the Marwari was noted for its loyalty and bravery in battle. The breed deteriorated in the 1930s, when poor management practices resulted in a reduction of the breeding stock, but today has regained some of its popularity. The Marwari is used for light draught and agricultural work, as well as riding and packing. In 1995, a breed society was formed for the Marwari in India. The exportation of Marwaris was banned for decades, but between 2000 and 2006, a small number of exports were allowed. Since 2008, visas allowing temporary travel of Marwaris outside of India have been available in small numbers.
The Marwari averages between 15 and 16 hands (60 and 64 inches, 152 and 163 cm) high. Horses originating in different parts of India tend to be of different heights, with the breed having an outside range of 14 to 17 hands (56 to 68 inches, 142 to 173 cm) high. They can be bay, grey, chestnut, palomino, piebald, or skewbald. Although white horses are bred specifically for religious use in India, they are generally not accepted into Marwari stud books. Gray horses are considered auspicious, and tend to be the most valuable, with piebald and skewbald horses the second-most favoured. Black horses are considered unlucky, as the colour is a symbol of death and darkness. Horses that have the white markings of a blaze and four white socks are considered lucky.
The facial profile is straight, and the ears are pointed with inward turning tips. The neck is slender, running into pronounced withers, a deep chest, and fairly straight shoulders. Marwaris generally have a long back and sloping croup. The legs tend to be slender and the hooves small but well-formed. Members of the breed are hardy and easy keepers, but they can also be of tenacious and unpredictable temperaments. They are quite similar to the Kathiawari horse, another breed from India, having much of the same history and physical features. The main difference between the Marwari and the Kathiawari is their original geographic origin – Marwaris are mainly from the Marwar region while Kathiawaris are from the Kathiawar peninsula. Kathiawaris tend to have slight facial differences from the Marwari, and are slightly taller in general.
The Marwari often exhibits a natural ambling gait, close to a pace, called the revaal, aphcal, or rehwal. Hair whorls and their placement are important to breeders of Marwaris. Horses with long whorls down the neck are called devman and considered lucky, while horses with whorls below their eyes are called anusudhal and are unpopular with buyers. Whorls on the fetlocks are thought to bring victory. There are correct proportions that horses are expected to have, based on the width of a finger, said to be the equal of five grains of barley. For example, the length of the face should be between 28 and 40 fingers, and the length from the poll to the dock should be four times the length of the face.
There is only one standard for type and conformation of the Marwari Horse. In addition to its physical characteristics, the Marwari is defined by its personality and vigour, handsome forthright presence and arrogant bearing in the stallion and doe eyed beauty in the mare. It's conformation considers the degree of perfection of the gait and stature of the horse, in their harmonious relationship to each other.
THE HEAD: The head conveys the undefinable oriental presence of the horse and should be expressive with a high forehead, large sparkling prominent eyes, straight or slightly Roman long face giving a clean chiseled profile and well rounded defined jaws, the nostrils are large and gently flared set over firm fine lips and an even bite. The ears should be of medium length and shapely, curving and curling inwards at their points in a scimitar or lyre shape typical to the breed. They will be somewhat longer in the mare.
THE THROAT: The throat and latch is deep and sufficiently refined to allow proper flexion and normal respiration at all times in all movements.
THE NECK: The neck should come out from an extremely well angulated shoulder with good breadth from top of the withers to the point of shoulder. It should neither be thickset or narrow but arched, well muscled and tapering in relation to sex. It should blend easily without break into the withers and back . Additionally it should be set high enough to allow proper head position well above the lines of the withers and to display to advantage the "Marwari look" which is predicated upon the way the neck grows out of the back. The stallion should have more crest than the mare or gelding.
THE WITHERS: The withers should be well defined and in proportion to the angulation of the shoulder.
THE CHEST: The chest on the Marwari is not particularly broad, but it should be well developed and a weak or narrow chest considered a severe fault.
THE BODY: The Body should be compact and rounded with a medium to short back and close coupling, well sprung ribs and deep loins. The croup is long and well muscled with the tail attached high and curved gracefully. A low back is a fault and the Marwari should not be higher at the rump than at the withers. Viewed from the side the top line presents a sensual curve from the poll to the straight back rounding into the thigh. The neck should give the impression of sitting on top of the withers rather than in front of them. The underline should be long and deep through the heart-girth and flanks. The extreme angulation of the shoulder place the front legs further forward on the body. The front legs are straight and perpendicular to the ground, as are the rear cannons when points of hock and buttock are in the same vertical line. The stifle should be placed well forward and low in the flank area.
THE FRONT LEGS: The Front Legs should be straight and sound with flat bone, good length of forearm and a shorter cannon. The cannon bones are strong and slender, and the pasterns of sufficient length and angulation to provide a light, flexible and springy step. The knee bones should be flat and the feet in proportion to the size of the horse, round open at the heel with concave soles, and sound.
The conformation of THE REAR LEGS is extremely important. Any weakness in standing or movement should be considered a fault, such as cow hock, sickle hock etc. Lack of proper smooth flexion of the hock and stifle should not be tolerated in breeding stock or show horses. Viewed from the rear, the croup should be well rounded. Thighs and gaskin should be muscular and full. The legs should be seen to carry the horse squarely and upright. Like the forearm, the gaskin will be relatively longer than the cannon.
THE HEIGHT: The Height of the Marwari Horse will range from 14.2 hands to 15.2 with some exceptions either way. Horses should be serviceably sound. Stallions must be masculine in appearance and mares must be feminine. The coat should be smooth, fine and silky in appearance.
THE COAT OR EYE COLOR: The Coat or Eye Color shall have no bearing on the breed standard except in a few instances; the albino is bred in India specifically for religious use and is not acceptable in the breed standard. The Nukra or Cremello horse may be acceptable, if of exceptional type and conformation. While the distinctive metallic bright bay is highly desirable, the flat chestnut colouring is a result of interbreeding with non oriental foreign imports and should not be considered for show or breeding stock.
THE GAITS: The gaits should be performed with great style, collection and lightness of' motion. The walk should be flat footed, free, rapid, elastic and ground covering. Horses must show purpose and intent to travel forward without undue restraint or aids.
The trot should be an elegant balanced trot with enhanced precision in natural action with sufficient speed to be ground covering but with enough collection to maintain the speed for extended periods of time. Overall graceful form should not be sacrificed for speed or for height of action alone. The movement must not include paddling, winging or landing on the heels. Any horse with scars on the rear of the pastern should be penalized as should be unnatural movement, characteristically produced by excessive use of shackles, hobbling over and under riding and poor training methods.
The canter should be smooth. collected and straight oil both leads at all times.
The Marwari should be able to achieve a full gallop from standing start and stop on command. He should be able to reverse with ease, and at all times display the bold and fearless presence of the breed. Marwari Conformation 
Marwaris are an extremely sturdy breed, able to take thirst and heat in stride because of their thin skin. They are hardy enough to subsist on the small rations available in their desert environment, and rarely need shoes. The Marwari have slightly less slant to their shoulder bones enabling them to more easily extract their legs from deep sand. The angle of the bone prevents the Marwari from striding out to the fullest, thus diminishing their speed. The resulting action of the legs however, makes the Marwari a very comfortable horse to ride.
The ears of the Marwari have a distinct inwards curve with the tips sometime touching. This is thought to have come from the introduction of Arab blood into the breed. In spite of a compact body, nature provided the Marwari with longer limbs which keep the horse's underside away from the scorching sand of the desert. If issues arise, remediation will be necessary.
The Marwari is descended from native Indian ponies crossed with Arabian horses. The ponies were small and hardy, but with poor conformation; the influence of the Arabian blood improved the appearance without compromising the hardiness. The Arabians possibly came ashore from a cargo ship wrecked off India's west coast. Legend in India states that the Arabian ship, containing seven Arabian horses of good breeding, was shipwrecked off the shore of the Kachchh District. These horses were then taken to the Marwar district and used as foundation bloodstock for the Marwari. There is also the possibility of some Mongolian influence from the north. The breed probably originated in northwest India on the Afghanistan border, as well as in Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan, and Turkmenistan, and takes its name from the Marwar region (also called the Jodhpur region) of India.
The Rathores, rulers of Marwar and successful Rajput cavalry, were the traditional breeders of the Marwari. The Rathores were forced from their Kingdom of Kanauj in 1193, and withdrew into the Great Indian and Thar Deserts. The Marwari was vital to their survival, and during the 12th century they followed strict selective breeding processes, keeping the finest stallions for the use of their subjects. During this time, the horses were considered divine beings, and at times they were only allowed to be ridden by members of the Rajput families and the Kshatriyas warrior caste. When the Moguls captured northern India in the early 16th century they brought Turkoman horses that were probably used to supplement the breeding of the Marwari. Marwaris were renowned during this period for their bravery and courage in battle, as well as their loyalty to their riders. During the late 16th century, the Rajputs of Marwar, under the leadership of Moghul emperor Akbar, formed a cavalry force over 50,000 strong. The Rathores believed that the Marwari horse could only leave a battlefield under one of three conditions – victory, death, or carrying a wounded master to safety. The horses were trained to be extremely responsive in battlefield conditions, and were practised in complex riding maneuvers. Over 300 years later, during the First World War, Marwar lancers under Sir Pratap Singh assisted the British.
1900s to today
The period of the British Raj hastened the Marwari's downfall, as did the eventual independence of India. The British occupiers preferred other breeds, and tried to eliminate the Marwari, along with the Kathiawari. The British instead preferred Thoroughbreds and polo ponies, and reduced the reputation of the Marwari to the point where even the inward-turning ears of the breed were mocked as the "mark of a native horse". During the 1930s the Marwari deteriorated, with breeding stock diminishing and becoming of poorer quality due to poor breeding practices. Indian independence, along with the obsolescence of warriors on horseback, led to a decreased need for the Marwari and many animals were subsequently killed. In the 1950s many Indian noblemen lost their land and hence much of their ability to take care of animals, resulting in many Marwari horses being sold as pack horses, castrated, or killed. The breed was on the verge of extinction until the intervention of Maharaja Umaid Singhji in the first half of the 20th century saved the Marwari. His work was carried on by his grandson, Maharaja Gaj Singh II.
A British horsewoman named Francesca Kelly founded a group called Marwari Bloodlines in 1995, with the goal of promoting and preserving the Marwari horse around the world. In 1999, Kelly and Raghuvendra Singh Dundlod, a descendant of Indian nobility, led a group that founded the Indigenous Horse Society of India (of which the Marwari Horse Society is part), a group that works with the government, breeders, and the public to promote and conserve the breed. Kelly and Dunlod also entered and won endurance races at the Indian national equestrian games, convincing the Equestrian Federation of India to sanction a national show for indigenous horses – the first in the country. The pair worked with other experts from the Indigenous Horse Society to develop the first breed standards.
The government of India had originally banned the export of indigenous horse breeds, although not polo ponies or Thoroughbreds, in 1952. This ban was partially lifted in 1999, when a small number of indigenous horses could be exported after receiving a special license. Kelly imported the first Marwari horse into the United States in 2000. Over the next seven years, 21 horses were exported, until, in 2006, licenses stopped being granted over concerns that native breeding populations were being threatened. One of the last Marwaris to be exported was the first to be imported to Europe, in 2006, when a stallion was given to the French Living Museum of the Horse. In 2008, the Indian government began granting licenses for "temporary exports" of up to one year, to allow horses to be exhibited in other countries. This was in response to breeders and the breed society, who felt they were not being allowed a fair chance to exhibit their animals.
In late 2007 plans were announced to create a stud book for the breed, a collaborative venture between the Marwari Horse Society of India and the Indian government. A registration process was initiated in 2009, when it was announced that the Marwari Horse Society had become a government body, the only government-authorized registration society for Marwari horses. The registration process includes an evaluation of the horse against the breed standards, during which unique identification marks and physical dimensions are recorded. After the evaluation, the horse is cold branded with its registration number and photographed. In late 2009 the Indian government announced that the Marwari horse, along with other Indian horse breeds, would be commemorated on a set of stamps issued by that country.
As a direct result of indiscriminate breeding practices, as of 2001 only a few thousand purebred Marwaris existed. Research studies have been conducted to examine the genetics of the Marwari and its relationship to other Indian and non-Indian horse breeds. Six different breeds have been identified in India: the Marwari, Kathiawari, Spiti pony, Bhutia pony, Manipuri Pony, and Zanskari. These six are distinct from each other in terms of unique performance traits and different agroclimactic conditions in the various areas of India where they originated. A 2005 study was conducted to identify past genetic bottlenecks in the Marwari. The study found that, in the DNA of the horses tested, there was no evidence of a genetic bottleneck in the breed's history. However, since the population has decreased rapidly in past decades, bottlenecks may have occurred that were not identified in the study. In 2007, a study was conducted to assess genetic variation among all Indian horse breeds except the Kathiawari. Based on analysis of microsatellite DNA, the Marwari was found to be the most genetically distinct breed of the five studied, and was most distant from the Manipuri; none of the breeds were found to have close genetic ties to the Thoroughbred. The Marwari was distinguishable from the other breeds in terms of both physical characteristics (mainly height) and environmental adaptability. The physical differences were attributed to differing ancestries: the Marwari are closely associated with the Arabian horse, while the four other breeds are supposedly descended from the Tibetan pony.
The Marwari is used for riding, packing and light draught, and agricultural work. Marwaris are often crossed with Thoroughbreds to produce a larger horse with more versatility. Despite the fact that the breed is indigenous to the country, cavalry units of the Indian military make little use of the horses, although they are popular in the Jodhpur and Jaipur areas of Rajasthan, India. They are particularly suited to dressage, in part due to a natural tendency to perform. Marwaris are also used to play polo, sometimes playing against Thoroughbreds. Within the Marwari breed was a strain known as the Natchni, believed by local people to be "born to dance". Decorated in silver, jewels, and bells, these horses were trained to perform complex prancing and leaping movements at many ceremonies, including weddings. Although the Natchni strain is extinct today, horses trained in those skills are still in demand in rural India.
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|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Marwari.|
- Kelly, Francesca & Durfee, Dale (2000). Marwari: Legend of the Indian Horse. New Delhi: Prakash Book Depot. ISBN 81-7234-032-X..
- Indigenous Horse Society of India
- Marwari Bloodlines website
- Friends of Marwari/Kathiawari Horse UK, UK chapter of IHSI