Mary-Louise Hooper

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Mary-Louise Fitkin Hooper
Born (1907-06-12)June 12, 1907
Swampscott, Massachusetts
Died August 14, 1987(1987-08-14) (aged 80)
Klamath Falls, Oregon
Nationality American
Known for Anti-apartheid activist

Mary-Louise Hooper (June 12, 1907 – August 14, 1987) was a wealthy American heiress and civil rights activist and anti-apartheid activist, whose brief imprisonment in Johannesburg, South Africa and subsequent exclusion from South Africa in 1957 was a cause célèbre both in South Africa and the USA. Hooper was the first white member of the African National Congress, and was described by its National Executive as "one of our number, and a leading worker in the struggle for freedom and democracy",[1] and was one of the ANC's three delegates to the first All-African Peoples' Conference in December 1958 in Accra, Ghana, and one of only two American observers at the Third All-African Peoples' Conference in Cairo, Egypt in March 1961. Hooper was also active in the NAACP, the American Friends Service Committee (AFSC), and was the West Coast representative of the American Committee on Africa (ACOA) from 1962 until about 1969. Hooper was the editor of the South African Bulletin from 1964 to 1968.

Early life and education[edit]

Mary-Louise Fitkin was born on June 12, 1907 in Swampscott, Massachusetts,[2][3][4] the only daughter and second oldest child of Susan Norris Fitkin (born March 31, 1870 in Ely, Quebec, Canada; died October 18, 1951 in Oakland, California),[5][6] an ordained pastor in the Pentecostal Church of the Nazarene, and later the founding president of the Nazarene Women's Missionary Society (now Nazarene Missions International), and Abram Edward Fitkin (born on September 18, 1878 in Brooklyn, New York; died on March 18, 1933 in Manhattan, New York),[7][8][9] a former evangelist and pastor who had become a businessman. Mary-Louise had three brothers: Abram Raleigh Fitkin (born September 3, 1904 in Everett, Massachusetts; died September 7, 1914);[4] Willis Carradine "Bud" Fitkin (born October 10, 1908 in Hollis, New York; died November 8, 1980 in Meredith, New Hampshire);[10] and Ralph MacFarland Fitkin (March 7, 1912 - July 16, 1962).[11][12] died on July 16, 1962 in Dade County, Florida.[13]

From infancy Mary-Louise attended the Church of the Nazarene with her family.[14] By the end of 1907 Mary-Louise Fitkin, her parents, and brother, Raleigh, moved to Brooklyn because of her father's increased business activities.[15] In 1907 the Fitkin family attended the John Wesley Pentecostal Church of the Nazarene located at the corner of Saratoga Avenue and Sumpter Street, Brooklyn,[16] then pastored by William Howard Hoople.[17]

Her younger brother, Willis Carradine Fitkin, named in honor of holiness evangelist Beverly Carradine, was born on October 10, 1908 in Hollis, Queens[18] By April 1910 the Fitkins lived in their own home on Wallis Avenue, Queens, New York.[19] While living here, her youngest brother, Ralph MacFarland Fitkin was born on March 7, 1912.[15] On September 14, 1914, Raleigh died of complications after surgery for a car accident.[20]

In December, 1919, Mary-Louise Fitkin organized the Do for Others Club, a boys' and girls' group for the Church of the Nazarene, whose purpose was to do whatever possible for the famine sufferers of India.[21]

By January 1920 the Fitkin family resided at 271 Brooklyn Avenue, Brooklyn.[22] By December 1926 the Fitkin family lived at 8 Remsen Street, Brooklyn.[23]>[24]

Mary-Louise Fitkin attended Adelphi Academy at Lafayette Avenue, St. James Place and Clifton Place, Brooklyn, New York,[25] and after graduation, she studied at Stanford University[26][27][28] for one year until June 1928.[29]

Personal life[edit]

Mary-Louise Fitkin was married three times, and had one child, Suzanne Mary Salsbury.

Esley Foster Salsbury (1927-1938)[edit]

On July 7, 1926, Mary-Louise accompanied her mother, Susan Norris Fitkin, on her first overseas trip as General President of the Nazarene Women's Missionary Society, which was a two-month tour of the British Isles and various European countries, including France; Switzerland; Austria; Germany; and Italy.[30] Mary-Louise and her mother sailed from New York to Southampton, England on the RMS Aquitania.[30][31] While in Scotland, Mary-Louise spoke at the inaugural District Nazarene Young People's Society Convention in the British Isles.[32] They departed Cherbourg, France for New York on the Aquitania on September 14, 1926.[24][33]

At noon on June 14, 1927, Mary-Louise married Esley Foster Salsbury (born August 28, 1907 in Elgin, Manitoba, Canada; died June 13, 1993 in Los Angeles, California),[34] who had become a naturalized US citizen on May 13, 1926,[35] at "Milestones", the family summer home at 16-18 Corlies Avenue, Allenhurst, New Jersey in a ceremony conducted by Rev. Chauncey David Norris (born July 23, 1884 in West Berkshire, Vermont; died January 16, 1961 in Dundee, Oregon),[36][37][38][39][40] a cousin of her mother, who was at that time pastor of the Church of the Nazarene at Berkeley, California.[41][42]

In early December, 1928, Mary-Louise Salsbury accompanied her mother on her second missionary tour to Mexico.[43]

By August 1929 the Salsburys lived at 1928 Montgomery Street, Berkeley, California.[35] On August 30, 1929 the Salsburys departed San Francisco for a cruise to Honolulu on the SS President Jefferson,[44] and returned to Wilmington, Los Angeles on the SS City of Los Angeles on September 27, 1929.[45]

By April 1930 the Salsburys lived with Susan Norris Fitkin in her four-bedroom home (built in 1927) at 894 Longridge Road, Oakland, California.[46][47] By 1931 E. Foster Salsbury was a vice-president and director of Pacific Freight Lines Corporation, Ltd., which was controlled by his father-in-law Abram Fitkin's American Utilities.[48]

After a lengthy illness,[49] Hooper's father Abram Fitkin died on Saturday, March 18, 1933 in his apartment at the Savoy-Plaza Hotel[50][51][52][53] Fitkin left an estate estimated at $250,000,000.[54][55][56]

On December 7, 1933, the Salsburys' only child, Suzanne Mary Salsbury was born in Berkeley, California.[57][58][59]

In early October, 1935, Mary-Louise accompanied her mother on a mission trip to Latin America via the Panama Canal, and included visits to Guatemala, Haiti, Bahamas, and Colombia. While in Cobán, Mary-Louise organized the first Young Woman's Missionary Society at the Nazarene Girls' School.[60] Mary-Louise Salsbury wrote the story of this visit in a booklet, entitled Other Americas, published at her mother's expense with the proceeds going to the W.F.M.S.[61] They returned to Los Angeles on November 11, 1935 after a six-day voyage in first class on the Santa Elena from San Jose, Guatemala.[62]

During the Great Depression, E. Foster Salsbury, then living in Orinda, California, had a vision for "a cheap and cheerful vehicle that would propel the country forward to prosperous times",[63] and with Austin Elmore invented the Salsbury Motor Glide,.[64][65] a small scooter built initially in the back of a plumbing and heating shop in Oakland, California.[66] Salsbury applied for a US patent for the Motor Glide in April 1936.[67] The Salsbury Motor Corporation continued manufacturing motor scooters in Inglewood, California until 1951.,[64][64][68][69] Foster Salsbury also invented a mobile commode in 1936.[70]

By August 1938 the Salsburys divorced, with Foster Salsbury marrying Florence Johnson Fleming, a widow with two children, who was also the sister of William E. Johnson, Jr.[71] In 1938 Mary-Louise and Suzanne travelled to Germany.[58][59]

Karl Josef Deissler (1938-1946)[edit]

By August 1938 Mary-Louise had married Dr. Karl Josef Deissler (born June 29, 1906 in Heidelberg, Germany; died August 15, 1998 in Bern, Switzerland),[72][73][74] a German physician,[75] who graduated from the University of Heidelberg, who had fled Germany for the USA in September 1931[75] because of his liberal ideas and fears of Nazi persecution,[76] and had been a fellow of the Mayo Clinic from 1931 to 1935.[77] By November 1935 Dr. Deissler was practising as a physician in the Wakefield Building at 426 17th Street, Oakland, California.[58][78][79] By August 1938 the Deisslers resided in a five-bedroom home built in 1937 at 50 Sotelo Avenue, Piedmont, California,[80][81] "an isthmus of white wealth",[82] and the "city of millionaires",[83][84] where the Deisslers would live together until at least August 1942.[85]

When her mother needed to visit the Territory of Hawaii in April 1940 due to her ill health, Mary-Louise was again her travel companion,[86] travelling first class on the SS Matsonia from San Francisco to Honolulu on April 19, 1940.[87]

When Dr. Deissler was excluded from the US western defense area on September 4, 1942 until November 17, 1943 as an enemy alien,[88] Mary-Louise and her daughter lived in Illinois. In November 1944 Dr. Deissler resided at the home of his mother-in-law, 894 Longridge Road, Oakland, however Mary-Louise was not registered as living there at that time.[89] The Deisslers divorced in 1946,[90] and Mary-Louise and Suzanne moved to Carmel, California. Dr. Deissler married Dorothea D. Bickel (born about 1914) on December 29, 1947 in Reno, Nevada, had two children, Erika (born February 28, 1947 in San Francisco),[91] and Karl Peter (born July 30, 1948 in San Francisco; died November 22, 1966 in Pomona, California),[92][93][94] and divorced on October 1, 1962.[95][96] The Deisslers lived in Orinda, California in a home they bought from the noted psychoanalyst Erik Erikson.

Clifford Hooper (1947-1949)[edit]

In late 1947 Mary-Louise married Clifford Hooper, an African American whom she had met while campaigning for the NAACP, in Seattle, Washington, as Washington was one of the few states without Anti-miscegenation laws that banned inter-racial marriages.[97] After living in Vancouver, British Columbia for a year, the Hoopers separated, and were divorced in 1949. By June 1950 Mary Louise had become a Quaker, and had moved to Carmel, California,[98] where her daughter, Suzanne, attended the California College of Arts and Crafts in Berkeley, California, and on December 1950 married artist Lloyd David Cogley (born March 5, 1917 in San Francisco; died February 2, 1992 in Klamath Falls),[99][100] and they subsequently had five sons.[59] On October 18, 1951, Hooper's mother, Susan Norris Fitkin died in Oakland.[6][101]

In September 1952 Hooper returned to New York after sailing from Rotterdam on the SS Nieuw Amsterdam.[98] Hooper returned to Stanford University in 1953 to complete her degree, majoring in German,[102] graduating with honors in June 1955.[29] In May 1956 Hooper was elected to membership of the Stanford chapter of Phi Beta Kappa.[103]

Civil rights activities[edit]

Mary-Louise Hooper was committed to opposing racial injustice wherever she found it, saying: "the Freedom Struggle is one - Mississippi, South Africa."[104] Before 1955 Hooper was "involved in interracial work in California" with the Council for Civic Unity (CCU),[105][106][107] "the premier interracial organization working against discrimination in San Francisco, [whose] aim was to end discrimination in housing, employment, health, recreation, and welfare";[108] the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP), and the American Friends Service Committee (AFSC).[109][110]

Anti-apartheid activities[edit]

South Africa (1955-1957)[edit]

Mary-Louise Hooper, who had been "long active in volunteer work to better inter-racial relations",[29] through her work with the NAACP was also "an active supporter of African struggles against colonialism and apartheid".[111] After a three-month tour of South Africa, Kenya, and Nigeria,[29] with a group of Quakers in 1955, Hooper migrated to South Africa later that year, buying a home in Durban, South Africa.[112]

Hooper supported the African National Congress,[113] and was described in 1957 as "the only white person to ever work inside the African National Congress".[114][115][116][117] While in South Africa Hooper campaigned for the abolition of apartheid, and worked as a volunteer aide and secretary to ANC president Chief Albert Luthuli.[118][119][120][121][122]

Hooper was active in providing financial assistance and other support for those tried during the Treason Trial.[123][124] By January 1957, Hooper had moved to Hillbrow,[125] a suburb of Johannesburg. On March 10, 1957 Hooper was arrested and imprisoned for five days in what she described as "degrading and humiliating" conditions[126] in the Fort Prison in Johannesburg.[127][128] Hooper was ordered to be deported from South Africa after being accused of assisting South African "negroes".[123][129] Hooper was freed by the Rand Supreme Court on a writ of habeas corpus,[130][131][132] and later awarded damages, which she donated to the ANC.[133] On May 14, 1957 Eben Dönges, the Interior Minister, ordered her deportation as he believed her presence in South Africa was not in the public interest.[134][135] After fleeing South Africa via Rhodesia at the end of May 1957,[136][137] she was excluded from re-entry by the South African government.[116]

All-African Peoples' Conferences (1958-1961)[edit]

Hooper served as one of the three official Africa National Congress delegates and the only American delegate to the first All-African Peoples' Conference in December 1958 in Accra, Ghana.[138][139][140][141] Hooper was also a delegate to the 2nd Congress in Tunis, Tunisia in January 1960,[142] and was one of only two American observers at the Third All-African Peoples' Conference in Cairo in March 1961,[143] having been denied delegate status despite being appointed as an ANC representative by Chief Luthuli.[144] By 1961 Hooper had made at least one trip of at least two months duration to Africa, visiting 24 African countries including Ghana, Nigeria, Senegal, Congo, Cameroun, Ethiopia, North Africa, and nearly all of East, Central and Southern Africa. Hooper numbered among her personal friends President Kwame Nkrumah of Ghana; Tom Mboya of Kenya, Chief Luthuli, Alan Paton and Oliver Tambo of South Africa; Bishop Trevor Huddleston of Tanganyika, Kenneth Kaunda of Northern Rhodesia, Ahmed Boumendjel of Algeria and Joshua Nkomo of Southern Rhodesia.[110]

USA (1957-1969)[edit]

California (1957-1964)[edit]

After her return to the USA in May 1957 Hooper continued to be active in her opposition to apartheid. In 1958 Hooper became the unpaid West Coast Representative of the American Committee on Africa (ACOA),[109][145] and also served as director of the South Africa Program of ACOA.[109]

Among her activities were giving interviews on radio,[146] and television.[147] Additionally, Hooper raised funds for the South African Defense Fund, which was to pay for the legal defence of those being prosecuted in the Treason Trial,[114][117] and to support the families of political prisoners.[109] In the middle of 1960 Hooper was credited with raising much of the $50,000 contributed to the South Africa Defense Fund (renamed the Africa Defense and Aid Fund in late 1959).[145]

Hooper spoke frequently on "Human Rights in South Africa" to churches,[148] and civic organizations, including to the Franklin Delano Roosevelt Democratic Club in Pasadena, California on April 20, 1960 on the topic "Africa, a Continent in Turmoil".[142] In a November 1958 speech "South Africa Today" at the YWCA in Pasadena, California, Hooper claimed: "South Africa is the sorest spot on earth in regard to the color problem. People there are treated entirely on the basis of color, both politically, economically, socially and religiously."[149]

In late 1962 Hooper became West Coast representative for the American Committee on Africa, as well as for its Africa Defense and Aid Fund.[150] On December 17, 1962 Hooper was the organizer of a picket by the NAACP, the Northern California Committee for Africa, and the Congress of Racial Equality of the Dutch freighter Raki, which had a load of asbestos, hemp, and coffee from South Africa, in San Francisco,[151][152] to draw attention to racial discimination in the Union of South Africa,[153] and to encourage the USA to join a United Nations boycott of South African goods.[154][155]

New York (1964-1967)[edit]

In late 1964 Hooper moved to New York City to volunteer full-time as ACOA's Program Director for South Africa,[156] and also appeared before the United Nations Special Committee against Apartheid, where she submitted verified statements of physical and mental torture, signed by South Africans detained under South Africa's 90-day law,[157] which allowed the South African government to arrest and hold anyone "for indefinite detention without trial".[158]

Hooper wrote prolifically on Africa and the issue of apartheid.[159] From its inception in October 1964[160] to 1968 Hooper was the editor of the South African Bulletin (renamed Southern Africa Bulletin by March 1968) published by ACOA.[109][161]

In December 1965 Hooper organized the Benefit for South African Victims of Apartheid Defense and Aid Fund at Hunter College in New York City on Human Rights Day (December 10), which attracted 3,500 attendees to hear the music of Pete Seeger and South African singer Miriam Makeba,[162][163] as well Martin Luther King, Jr., whom Hooper had convinced to speak at the Benefit.[164] King, in his first major speech on South Africa,[164] spoke against the evils of the apartheid regime (comparing it to Nazi Germany), criticizing US complicity with apartheid, and highlighting the obligations of black Americans to support those opposed to apartheid.[162] KIng called for economic sanctions against South Africa.[165][166]

In June 1966 Hooper helped initiate and organize the Declaration of American Artists Against Apartheid, "We Say No to Apartheid",[109] which sought to prevent cultural contacts with the apartheid regime.[167] 65 artists signed the Declaration, including Joan Baez, Tallulah Bankhead, Harry Belafonte, Saul Bellow, Leonard Bernstein, Victor Borge, Dave Brubeck, Carol Burnett, Diahann Carroll, Paddy Chayefsky, Ossie Davis, Sammy Davis, Jr., Ruby Dee, Henry Fonda, John Forsythe, James Garner, Van Heflin, Lena Horne, Langston Hughes, Eartha Kitt, Miriam Makeba, Johnny Mathis, Karl A. Menninger, Burgess Meredith, Arthur Miller, Henry Morgan, Julie Newmar, Edmond O'Brien, Frederick O'Neal, Odetta, Sidney Poitier, John Raitt, Jerome Robbins, Paul Robeson, Pete Seeger, Nina Simone, Ed Sullivan, Eli Wallach, and Poppy Cannon White.[168]

With Wendell Foster Hooper was an organizer and spokesman for the Committee of Conscience Against Apartheid,[169] which by December 1966, had sixty prominent members, including Stokely Carmichael, Ossie Davis, Ruby Dee, Reinhold Niebuhr, Allen Ginsberg, Paddy Chayefsky, and Joan Baez.[170] In December 1966 the CCAA urged American banks not to lend money to South Africa, and on December 7, 1966 claimed that in excess of $23 million had been withdrawn from First National City Bank and Chase Manhattan Bank by depositors in protest at their dealings with the South African regime.[170]

In May 1967 Hooper testified before a committee of the United Nations Commission on Human Rights,[171][172]

Other civil rights activities[edit]

Hooper supported the Front de Libération Nationale (FLN), in its efforts to gain independence for Algeria from France,[111] writing Refugee Algerian Students in 1960.[173]

During the Angolan War of Independence, Hooper raised awareness of the struggles and funds for refugees from Angola by speaking and presenting the NBC White Paper documentary Angola: Journey to a War,[174] which was narrated by Chet Huntley.[174][175]

Later years and death[edit]

In 1981 Mary-Louise moved to Klamath Falls, Oregon to be near her daughter and grandsons. Mary-Louise died in Klamath Falls on August 14, 1987.[3][176]

Works[edit]

As Mary-Louise Salsbury[edit]

  • Other Americas. Kansas City, Mo: Woman's Missionary Society, Church of the Nazarene, 1936.

As Mary-Louise Hooper[edit]

  • "We Shall Not Ride: The Johannesburg Bus Boycott", Africa Today 4:6 (November–December 1957):13-16;
  • "The African Struggle for Freedom" (1959), cited in Algernon David Black, The Young Citizens: The Story of the Encampment for Citizenship (Ungar, 1962);
  • "Luthuli, Man of Peace", in Woman's Peace Party, Four Lights: An Adventure in Internationalism 21-22 (Women's International League for Peace and Freedom, 1961);
  • "The Axe Falls on the Whites", South Africa Bulletin 1 (October 1964):1, http://kora.matrix.msu.edu/files/50/304/32-130-A98-84-al.sff.document.acoa000026.pdf;[160]
  • "South Africa: ANC Leaders Hanged", in Africa Today Associates, American Committee on Africa, University of Denver Center on International Race Relations, Africa Today, (1964):10-11 (Indiana University Press, 1969);
  • "Gestapo-Afrikaner Style", Africa Today (1964).

References[edit]

Further reading[edit]

  • Minter, William; Gail Hovey; and Charles Cobb Jr., eds. No Easy Victories: African Liberation and American Activists over a Half-Century, 1950-2000. Africa World Press, 2007.

External links[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Letter of the ANC National Executive to Mary-Louise Hooper, in "About Mary-Louise Hooper, 1961", Africa Defense and Aid Fund of the American Committee on Africa, http://kora.matrix.msu.edu/files/50/304/32-130-B6F-84-al.sff.document.acoa000261.pdf
  2. ^ Ancestry.com. Social Security Death Index. Number: 111-36-7902; Issue State: New York; Issue Date: 1962.
  3. ^ a b Ancestry.com. Oregon Death Index, 1903-98. County: Klamath Death Date: 14 Aug 1987 Certificate: 87-15495.
  4. ^ a b Basil Miller, Susan N. Fitkin: For God and Missions. Digital ed. (Holiness Data Ministry, 2006):41, http://wesley.nnu.edu/wesleyctr/books/2601-2700/HDM2627.pdf
  5. ^ Ancestry.com. 1900 United States Federal Census. Census Place: Manchester, Hartford, Connecticut; Roll: T623_138; Page: 1B; Enumeration District: 199.
  6. ^ a b "Veteran Missions Head, Rev. Susan Fitkin, Dies", The Sun (Baltimore, MD) (October 20, 1951):9.
  7. ^ Ancestry.com. World War I Draft Registration Cards, 1917-1918. Registration Location: Kings County, New York; Roll: 1754592; Draft Board: 65.
  8. ^ However, Fitkin's US Passport application on January 31, 1921 indicates he was born September 18, 1876. See Ancestry.com. U.S. Passport Applications, 1795-1925 [database on-line]. Passport Applications, January 2, 1906 - March 31, 1.
  9. ^ Ancestry.com. World War I Draft Registration Cards, 1917-1918. Registration Location: Nassau County, New York; Roll: 1754388; Draft Board: 4.925 (M1490).
  10. ^ One source indicates his last residence was at 33940 Naples, Collier, Florida. See Ancestry.com. Social Security Death Index. Number: 147-07-2972; Issue State: New Jersey; Issue Date: Before 1951.
  11. ^ "RALPH M'F. FITKIN, 50, ASSISTED HOSPITALS", The New York Times (July 18, 1962).
  12. ^ Connecticut Department of Health. Connecticut Death Index, 1949-2001.
  13. ^ Ancestry.com. Florida Death Index, 1877-1998
  14. ^ "Nazarene", The Oakland Tribube (March 6, 1926):7.
  15. ^ a b Basil Miller, Susan N. Fitkin: For God and Missions. Digital ed. (Holiness Data Ministry, 2006):42, http://wesley.nnu.edu/wesleyctr/books/2601-2700/HDM2627.pdf
  16. ^ Basil Miller, Susan N. Fitkin: For God and Missions. Digital ed. (Holiness Data Ministry, 2006):40, http://wesley.nnu.edu/wesleyctr/books/2601-2700/HDM2627.pdf
  17. ^ Brooklyn Eagle (Saturday, 12 December 1896):8; E.D. Messer, comp., "Early Nazarene Leaders", The Preacher's Magazine (September 1933):296, http://wesley.nnu.edu/preachers_magazine/1933_09-10.pdf; W.T. Purkiser, Called Unto Holiness: The Story of the Nazarenes Vol. 2 (Kansas City, MO: Nazarene, 1983):70; Brooklyn Daily Eagle Almanac (1912):334.
  18. ^ Basil Miller, Susan N. Fitkin: For God and Missions. Digital ed. (Holiness Data Ministry, 2006):42, 44, http://wesley.nnu.edu/wesleyctr/books/2601-2700/HDM2627.pdf
  19. ^ Ancestry.com. 1910 United States Federal Census. Census Place: Queens Ward 4, Queens, New York; Roll: T624_1065; Page: 9A; Enumeration District: 1279; Image: 735.
  20. ^ "ASBURY PARK OPENS $1,000,000 HOSPITAL; Dr. James F. Ackerman, Sponsor, Receives Bronze Medal as Memorial Is Dedicated.LARGEST IN MONMOUTH Gifts of A.E. Fitkin Established First Public Institution In Shore City", Special to The New York Times (December 30, 1931):5.
  21. ^ Basil Miller, Susan N. Fitkin: For God and Missions. Digital ed. (Holiness Data Ministry, 2006):56, http://wesley.nnu.edu/wesleyctr/books/2601-2700/HDM2627.pdf
  22. ^ Ancestry.com. 1920 United States Federal Census. Census Place: Brooklyn Assembly District 18, Kings, New York; Roll: T625_1172; Page: 7B; Enumeration District: 1103; Image: 1015.
  23. ^ "Fitkin-Salisbury", The New York Times (December 29, 1926).
  24. ^ a b Ancestry.com. New York Passenger Lists, 1820-1957. Year: 1926; Microfilm Serial: T715; Microfilm Roll: T715_3923; Line: 27; Page Number: 58.
  25. ^ Adelphi Academy, Annual Catalog (Ronalds Press, 1913):96.
  26. ^ "Fitkin-Salsbury", The New York Times (December 29, 1926).
  27. ^ Stanford University, Alumni Directory and Ten-Year Book (Graduates and Non-Graduates), Vol. 4 (Published by the University, 1932):268.
  28. ^ The Stanford Illustrated Review 28:6 (1927):299.
  29. ^ a b c d "3 College Girls Have 171 Years Total", Greensburg Daily Tribune (June 30, 1955):19.
  30. ^ a b Basil Miller, Susan N. Fitkin: For God and Missions. Digital ed. (Holiness Data Ministry, 2006):69ff, http://wesley.nnu.edu/wesleyctr/books/2601-2700/HDM2627.pdf
  31. ^ Ancestry.com. UK Incoming Passenger Lists, 1878-1960. Class: BT26; Piece: 829; Item: 6.
  32. ^ Basil Miller, Susan N. Fitkin: For God and Missions. Digital ed. (Holiness Data Ministry, 2006):70, http://wesley.nnu.edu/wesleyctr/books/2601-2700/HDM2627.pdf
  33. ^ Basil Miller, Susan N. Fitkin: For God and Missions. Digital ed. (Holiness Data Ministry, 2006):72, http://wesley.nnu.edu/wesleyctr/books/2601-2700/HDM2627.pdf
  34. ^ Ancestry.com. California Death Index, 1940-1997. Place: Los Angeles; Date: 13 Jun 1993; Social Security: 564075824.
  35. ^ a b Ancestry.com. Honolulu, Hawaii, Passenger Lists, 1900-1953. Repository Name:National Archives and Records Administration (NARA); NARA Series:A3422; Roll:104.
  36. ^ Ancestry.com. World War I Draft Registration Cards, 1917-1918. Registration Location: Mountrail County, North Dakota; Roll: 1819449; Draft Board: 0.
  37. ^ Ancestry.com. U.S. World War II Draft Registration Cards, 1942. The National Archives Pacific Alaska Region (Seattle); Seattle, Washington; Fourth Registration Draft Cards (WWII); State Headquarters: Oregon; Record Group Name: Records of the Selective Service System; Record Group Number: 147; Archive Number: 563991; Box Number: 93.
  38. ^ Ancestry.com. 1930 United States Federal Census. Census Place: Berkeley, Alameda, California; Roll: 111; Page: 19A; Enumeration District: 298; Image: 183.0.
  39. ^ "Nazarenes of State to Hold Assembly Here", Berkeley Daily Gazette (May 14, 1928):6.
  40. ^ Ancestry.com. Oregon Death Index, 1903-98. County: Yamhill Death Date: 16 Jan 1961. Certificate: 1290.
  41. ^ "Fitkin-Salsbury", The New York Times (June 15, 1927).
  42. ^ "Mary L. Fitkin Now Mrs. Salsbury: Salsbury -- Fitkin", Special to The New York Times (June 13, 1927):20.
  43. ^ Basil Miller, Susan N. Fitkin: For God and Missions. Digital ed. (Holiness Data Ministry, 2006):86, http://wesley.nnu.edu/wesleyctr/books/2601-2700/HDM2627.pdf
  44. ^ Ancestry.com. Honolulu, Hawaii, Passenger Lists, 1900-1953. Repository Name: National Archives and Records Administration (NARA); NARA Series:A3422; Roll:104.
  45. ^ Ancestry.com. California Passenger and Crew Lists, 1893-1957, Archive information (series:roll number): m1764:24.
  46. ^ Ancestry.com. 1930 United States Federal Census. Census Place: Oakland, Alameda, California; Roll: 104; Page: 4A; Enumeration District: 123; Image: 521.0.
  47. ^ "894 Longridge Rd, Oakland, CA 94610", http://www.zillow.com/homedetails/894-Longridge-Rd-Oakland-CA-94610/24746996_zpid/
  48. ^ Walker's Manual of Western Corporations (Walker's Manual Incorporated, 1931):176.
  49. ^ "A.E. Fitkin Dead", The Wall Street Journal, (March 20, 1933).
  50. ^ "Utility Operator Dies", San Antonio Express (March 19, 1933):5.
  51. ^ "Milestones, Mar. 27, 1933", Time (March 27, 1933), http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,745423,00.html
  52. ^ "Abram E. Fitkin, Utility Operator, Dies At 57 New Jersey Financier Started Life As A Clergyman", The Sun (Baltimore, MD) (March 19, 1933):10.
  53. ^ "Fitkin Dies in New York", St. Petersburg Times (March 18, 1933):2.
  54. ^ "ABRAM FITKIN DIES; MADE $250,000,000; Left Pulpit at 21, Became a Bookkeeper and Later Led in Public Utilities. A NOTED PHILANTHROPIST Founded Hospital in New Haven and Set Asida $500,000 for the Study of Children's Diseases", The New York Times.
  55. ^ "By-the-Bye in Wall Street", The Wall Street Journal (April 3, 1933).
  56. ^ Aylmer Vallance, Very Private Enterprise: An Anatomy of Fraud and High Finance (Thames and Hudson, 1955):174.
  57. ^ Ancestry.com. California Birth Index, 1905-1995. Birthdate: 7 Dec 1933; Birth County: Alameda.
  58. ^ a b c Ancestry.com. New York Passenger Lists, 1820-1957. Year: 1938; Arrival: New York , United States; Microfilm Serial: T715; Microfilm Roll: T715_6196; Line: 26; Page Number: 84.
  59. ^ a b c "Suzanne Cogley", http://www.chiloquinarts.com/?page_id=2313
  60. ^ Basil Miller, Susan N. Fitkin: For God and Missions. Digital ed. (Holiness Data Ministry, 2006):103ff., http://wesley.nnu.edu/wesleyctr/books/2601-2700/HDM2627.pdf
  61. ^ Basil Miller, Susan N. Fitkin: For God and Missions. Digital ed. (Holiness Data Ministry, 2006):103, http://wesley.nnu.edu/wesleyctr/books/2601-2700/HDM2627.pdf
  62. ^ Ancestry.com. California Passenger and Crew Lists, 1893-1957.
  63. ^ "Salsbury Superscooter 85- 1947", http://lanemotormuseum.org/salsbury-superscooter-85-1947
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  65. ^ Colin Shattuck, and Eric Peterson, "Chapter 1: The Evolution of a Revolution", Scooters: Red Eyes, Whitewalls and Blue Smoke (Speck Press, 2005):14–16.
  66. ^ Mary Anne Long, "From Scooter to Scooterist: A Cultural History of the Italian Motorscooter", A Senior Thesis Presented To Prof. Anne Cook Saunders (December 17, 1998):6, http://www.bdragon.net/pdf/scooter_history.pdf
  67. ^ E.F. Salsbury, "MOTOR VEHICLE", US Patent number: 2111691; Filing date: 7 Apr 1936; Issue date: 22 Mar 1938, http://www.google.com.au/patents?hl=en&lr=&vid=USPAT2111691&id=qXddAAAAEBAJ&oi=fnd&dq=%22Foster+Salsbury%22&printsec=abstract#v=onepage&q=%22Foster%20Salsbury%22&f=false
  68. ^ Colin Shattuck, and Eric Peterson, "Chapter 1: The Evolution of a Revolution", Scooters: Red Eyes, Whitewalls and Blue Smoke (Speck Press, 2005):14–16. "And the CVT's legacy lives on. Almost every new scooter built today uses Salsbury's basic design".
  69. ^ Hugo Wilson, (1995). "The A-Z of Motorcycles", in The Encyclopedia of the Motorcycle (London: Dorling Kindersley):165.
  70. ^ Esley Foster Salsbury, "MOBILE COMMODE", US Patent number: 2078415; Filing date: 24 Feb 1936; Issue date: 27 Apr 1937, http://www.google.com.au/patents?hl=en&lr=&vid=USPAT2078415&id=nm5dAAAAEBAJ&oi=fnd&dq=%22Foster+Salsbury%22&printsec=abstract#v=onepage&q=%22Foster%20Salsbury%22&f=false
  71. ^ "William E. 'Bill' Johnson, Jr.: Pioneer West Coast Importer", American Motorcyclist (May 1962):12.
  72. ^ On August 4, 1938 Mary-Louise and Karl Deissler are listed in the passenger list on the SS Hamburg sailing from Hamburg to the USA. Mary-Louise's passport was issued in the name of Deissler on February 3, 1938 in Washington, D.C. See Ancestry.com. New York Passenger Lists, 1820-1957. Year: 1938; Arrival: New York , United States; Microfilm Serial: T715; Microfilm Roll: T715_6196; Line: 26; Page Number: 84.
  73. ^ James Terry White, ed., The National Cyclopaedia of American Biography, Vol. 27 (University Microfilms, 1967):143
  74. ^ Ancestry.com. Social Security Death Index. Number: 327-20-2392; Issue State: Illinois; Issue Date: Before 1951.
  75. ^ a b Ancestry.com. New York Passenger Lists, 1820-1957. Year: 1931; Microfilm Serial: T715; Microfilm Roll: T715_5042; Line: 1; Page Number: 38.
  76. ^ Karl J. Deissler, Wie ein Gärtner - Gedanken zur Rehabilitation Drogensüchtiger Sammlung von Artikeln und Referaten (Neuland, 1. Auflage 2005), see http://www.neuland.com/index.php?s=buc&s2=tit&bnr=000246
  77. ^ F. Fredersdorf, "Synanon in Germany: An Example of a Residential Self-help Organization for Drug Dependent Individuals", International Journal of Self Help and Self Care 1;@ (1999-2000):131 - 143.
  78. ^ "The Wakefield Building", 2011 Huntsman Architectural Group, http://www.huntsmanag.com/sectors/cre/wakefield/
  79. ^ "The Wakefield Building: 426 17th Street, Oakland, CA 94612", http://www.loopnet.com/Listing/16350925/426-17th-Street-Oakland-CA/
  80. ^ California Voter Registrations, 1900-1968. Alameda County>1938> Roll 42>692.
  81. ^ "50 Sotelo Ave, Piedmont, CA 94611", http://www.zillow.com/homedetails/50-Sotelo-Ave-Piedmont-CA-94611/24827508_zpid/
  82. ^ Paul Hendrickson, The Living and the Dead: Robert McNamara and Five Lives of a Lost War (Alfred A. Knopf, 1996):67.
  83. ^ Soren C. Roinestad, A Hundred Years with Norwegians in the East Bay (S.C. Roinestad, 1963):1.
  84. ^ Evelyn Craig Pattiani, Queen of the Hills: The Story of Piedmont, a California City (Academy Library Guild, 1953).
  85. ^ California Voter Registrations, 1900-1968. Alameda County>1942>Roll 53>929.
  86. ^ Basil Miller, Susan N. Fitkin: For God and Missions. Digital ed. (Holiness Data Ministry, 2006):95f., http://wesley.nnu.edu/wesleyctr/books/2601-2700/HDM2627.pdf
  87. ^ Ancestry.com. Honolulu, Hawaii, Passenger Lists, 1900-1953. Repository Name: National Archives and Records Administration (NARA); NARA Series:A3422; Roll:217.
  88. ^ "Army Lifts Two Exclusion Orders", The Long Beach Independent (November 25, 1943):16.
  89. ^ California Voter Registrations, 1900-1968. Alameda County>1944> Roll 61>441.
  90. ^ "Doctor Ordered to Pay Support", Oakland Tribune (November 11, 1962):3.
  91. ^ Ancestry.com. California Birth Index, 1905-1995. Birthdate: 28 Feb 1947; Birth County: San Francisco.
  92. ^ Ancestry.com. California Birth Index, 1905-1995. Birthdate: 30 Jul 1948; Birth County: San Francisco.
  93. ^ "Deaths", Oakland Tribune (November 25, 1966):52D.
  94. ^ Ancestry.com. California Death Index, 1940-1997. Place: Los Angeles; Date: 22 Nov 1966; Social Security: 572782027.
  95. ^ "Divorces Granted", Oakland Tribune (October 1, 1966):D35.
  96. ^ "Doctor Ordered to Pay Support", Oakland Tribune (November 14, 1962):3.
  97. ^ Ancestry.com. Honolulu, Hawaii, Passenger Lists, 1900-1953. Repository Name:National Archives and Records Administration (NARA); NARA Series:A3422; Roll:258.
  98. ^ a b Ancestry.com. New York Passenger Lists, 1820-1957. Year: 1952; Microfilm Serial: T715; Microfilm Roll: T715_8213; Line: 14; Page Number: 318.
  99. ^ Ancestry.com. Oregon Death Index, 1903-98. County: Klamath. Death Date: 2 Feb 1992. Certificate: 92-02524.
  100. ^ "Paintings and Poetry by Suzanne Cogley", http://www.cogleyart.com/sueart.html
  101. ^ "Mrs A.E. Fitkin, 81, Missionary, Writer", The New York Times (October 20, 1951).
  102. ^ Ancestry.com. U.S. School Yearbooks Index. Quad Yearbook (Stanford University, 1955). Stanford University > 1955 > 263
  103. ^ "Stanford Phi Beta Kappa Elects 17 Peninsulans", San Mateo Times (San Mateo, CA) (May 26, 1956):14.
  104. ^ David L. Hostetter, "Movement Matters: American Antiapartheid Activism and the Rise of Multicultural Politics", Ph.D. dissertation, Graduate School of the University of Maryland (2004):30, http://byrdcenter.academia.edu/DavidHostetter/Papers/220331/Movement_Matters_American_Antiapartheid_Activism_and_the_Rise_of_Multicultural_Politics
  105. ^ Gretchen Lemke-Santangelo, "Council for Civic Unity, San Francisco", Organizing Black America: An Encyclopedia of African American Associations, http://www.bookrags.com/tandf/council-for-civic-unity-san-tf/
  106. ^ Shirley Ann Wilson Moore, "California Council for Civic Unity", Organizing Black America: An Encyclopedia of African American Associations, http://www.bookrags.com/tandf/california-council-for-civic-unity-tf/
  107. ^ Kenneth Burt, "California Federation for Civic Unity" (August 7, 2010), http://kennethburt.com/blog/?p=807
  108. ^ Paul T. Miller, "San Francisco (California) Race Riot of 1966", in Encyclopedia of American Race Riots, ed. Walter C. Rucker and James N. Upton (Greenwood Publishing Group, 2007):583.
  109. ^ a b c d e f "Mary-Louise Hooper", African Activist Archive, http://africanactivist.msu.edu/image.php?objectid=32-131-18D
  110. ^ a b "About Mary-Louise Hooper, 1961", Africa Defense and Aid Fund of the American Committee on Africa, http://kora.matrix.msu.edu/files/50/304/32-130-B6F-84-al.sff.document.acoa000261.pdf
  111. ^ a b "Mary-Louise Hooper with the FLN underground", http://africanactivist.msu.edu/image.php?objectid=32-131-30C
  112. ^ "Mary-Louise Hooper", http://africanactivist.msu.edu/image.php?objectid=32-131-18D
  113. ^ William Henry Robinson, comp., Nommo: An Anthology of Modern Black African and Black American Literature (Macmillan, 1972):68.
  114. ^ a b "Woman Explains South African Defense Fund", Modesto Bee (Modesto, CA) (November 25, 1957):14.
  115. ^ Later other white people became members of the ANC, including Joe Slovo and Albie Sachs, both of whom served as members of the ANC National Executive Committee, and Barbara Hogan, Ben Turok, and Marion Monica Spark.
  116. ^ a b "Hooper Tells of Opposition to Apatheid", California Tech (Pasadena, CA) (February 14, 1963):1.
  117. ^ a b American Committee on Africa, Africa Today 7-8 (Indiana University Press, 1960):15, 50.
  118. ^ "Chief Albert Luthuli and Mary-Louise Hooper", http://africanactivist.msu.edu/image.php?objectid=32-131-30A
  119. ^ "African Activist Archive Project Launches New Website", (February 12, 2009), http://allafrica.com/stories/200902120915.html
  120. ^ South African Democracy Education Trust, The Road to Democracy in South Africa: 1960-1970, Vol. 1 (Zebra, 2004):443, 558.
  121. ^ Ismail Meer, A Fortunate Man (Zebra Press, 2002):191).
  122. ^ Sipho Khumalo, The Quaker who Became Luthuli's Assistant", The Mercury (South Africa) (November 24, 2010), http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1G1-242749631.html
  123. ^ a b "South Africa Frees U.S. Woman Tied to Racism Foes", The Stars and Stripes, (March 17, 1957):2.
  124. ^ "Mary-Louise Hooper and Monty Naicker at the Treason Trial", http://africanactivist.msu.edu/image.php?objectid=32-131-30B
  125. ^ Mary-Louise Hooper, "We Shall Not Ride: The Johannesburg Bus Boycott", Africa Today 4:6 (November–December 1957):13-16.
  126. ^ Friends Journal, Vol. 3 (1957).
  127. ^ "Covering the International Scene", The Afro American (March 9, 1957)5.
  128. ^ Africa Report, Vols. 1-5 (African-American Institute, 1971).
  129. ^ "DEPORTATION ORDERED; New York Woman Had Aided South African Negroes", Special to The New York Times (March 13, 1957):24.
  130. ^ "WRIT AIDS AMERICAN; Woman Fights Deportation From South Africa", The New York Times (March 15, 1957).
  131. ^ Africa Bureau (London, England, "Unlawful Detention of American Citizen", Africa Digest 4 (Africa Publications Trust, 1957):197.
  132. ^ Newsweek 49, Part 2 (1957):56.
  133. ^ Africa Bureau (London, England), "Damages Awarded to American Citizen", Africa Digest 5 (Africa Publications Trust, 1957):66.
  134. ^ South Africa Supreme Court, Southern Rhodesia High Court, Zimbabwe High Court, Southwest Africa High Court, Namibia Supreme Court, The South African Law Reports: Decisions of the Supreme Courts of South Africa, Vol. 2 (Juta and Co., 1958):152-158.
  135. ^ G.A. Natesan, The Indian Review 58 (Natesan & Co., 1957):287).
  136. ^ George H. Favre, "White Complacency Seen in South Africa: Inroads on Civil Rights Summary Arrests Hit Africans Befriended Threat of Violence Looms", The Christian Science Monitor (June 28, 1957):2.
  137. ^ David L. Hostetter, "Movement Matters: American Antiapartheid Activism and the Rise of Multicultural Politics", Ph.D. dissertation, Graduate School of the University of Maryland (2004):44, http://byrdcenter.academia.edu/DavidHostetter/Papers/220331/Movement_Matters_American_Antiapartheid_Activism_and_the_Rise_of_Multicultural_Politics
  138. ^ George M. Houser, "A Report on the All African People's Conference Held in Accra, Ghana: December 8–13, 1958", (1958):1, http://kora.matrix.msu.edu/files/50/304/32-130-D84-84-al.sff.document.acoa001020.pdf
  139. ^ "African Defense Fund Talk Due", Star-News (Pasadena, CA) (March 18, 1959):2-7.
  140. ^ C. J. Driver and Anthony Sampson, Patrick Duncan: South African and Pan-African (James Currey Publishers, 2000):157.
  141. ^ Scott Thomas, The Diplomacy of Liberation: The Foreign Relations of the African National Congress since 1960 (I.B.Tauris, 1996):45.
  142. ^ a b "Mary Hooper to Speak at FDR Club Meet", Star-News (Pasadena, CA) (April 19, 1960):10.
  143. ^ George M. Houser, "At Cairo - The Third All-African Peoples' Conference", Africa Today *:4 (April 1961):11.
  144. ^ George M. Houser, "Draft Report on the Third All African People's Conference Held in Cairo from March 25 to 30, 1961", (1961):2, http://kora.matrix.msu.edu/files/50/304/32-130-FBD-84-GMH%20ACOA%20AAPC%20opt.pdf
  145. ^ a b "ANNUAL REPORT", American Committee on Africa (June 1, 1959 to May 31, 1960):4 ,http://kora.matrix.msu.edu/files/50/304/32-130-D89-84-al.sff.document.acoa001025.pdf
  146. ^ See, for example, Mary-Louise Hooper interviewed by Byron Bryant, Radio KPFA (Los Angeles, California, September 1957), to hear the interview, "The Continuing Struggle in South Africa", see http://africanactivist.msu.edu/audio.php?objectid=32-12E-D For "The Continuing Struggle in South Africa" on Radio KRFA at 9.45pm, November 11, 1957, see "Radio Highlights", Oakland Tribune (November 11, 1957):18.
  147. ^ See, for example, William Winter, "Interview with Mary-Louise Hooper", on ABC television show William Winter Maps the News (San Francisco, CA: June, 1959), http://africanactivist.msu.edu/audio.php?objectid=32-12E-B; and interview with Ed Radenzel at 7.30pm, August 17, 1959, KQED (Channel 9), Oakland Tribune (August 17, 1959):18.
  148. ^ For example, see "Fellowship Will Hear South Africa Expert", Oakland Tribune (December 2, 1959):A-1, "Southern Alameda Section"; and "Quaker Will Talk on Africa", Los Angeles Times (January 19, 1963):17.
  149. ^ Mary-Louise Hooper, in Judith Amann, "Book of Passes Controls Freedom", Pasadena Independent (Pasadena, CA) (November 7, 1958):33.
  150. ^ "1962 Report", American Committee on Africa (1963):6, http://kora.matrix.msu.edu/files/50/304/32-130-AC1-84-al.sff.document.acoa000068.pdf
  151. ^ "Bias Issue Pickets Let Ship Unload", The Oakland Tribune (December 18, 1962):15.
  152. ^ For photo of Hooper picketing, see "Pickets Stall Cargo", Anderson Daily Bulletin (Anderson, IN) (December 17, 1962):22.
  153. ^ The Sun (Baltimore, MD) (December 19, 1962):33.
  154. ^ "Longshoremen Ordered to Cross Picket Line", Corpus Christi Times (Corpus Christi, TX) (December 18, 1962):8.
  155. ^ William Minter and Sylvia Hill,"Anti-Apartheid Solidarity in United States-South Africa Relations: From the Margins to the Mainstream", in The Road to Democracy in South Africa, Vol. 3: International Solidarity, Part II, 758, 766, http://www.noeasyvictories.org/research/sadet_usa.pdf
  156. ^ "1964 Report", AMERICAN COMMITTEE ON AFRICA (1965):1, http://kora.matrix.msu.edu/files/50/304/32-130-AC3-84-32-130-AC3-84-al.sff.document.acoa000070.pdf
  157. ^ "1964 Report", AMERICAN COMMITTEE ON AFRICA (1965):3, http://kora.matrix.msu.edu/files/50/304/32-130-AC3-84-32-130-AC3-84-al.sff.document.acoa000070.pdf
  158. ^ "The '90 Day' Law", South Africa Bulletin 3 (June 1965):2, http://kora.matrix.msu.edu/files/50/304/32-130-A9A-84-al.sff.document.acoa000028.pdf
  159. ^ See for example, Mary-Louise Hooper, "We Shall Not Ride: The Johannesburg Bus Boycott", Africa Today 4:6 (November–December 1957):13-16; Mary-Louise Hooper, "Luthuli, Man of Peace", in Woman's Peace Party, Four Lights: An Adventure in Internationalism 21-22 (Women's International League for Peace and Freedom, 1961); Mary-Louise Hooper, "The African Struggle for Freedom" (1959), cited in Algernon David Black, The Young Citizens: The Story of the Encampment for Citizenship (Ungar, 1962); Mary-Louise Hooper, "The Ax Falls on the Whites" (1964), and Mary-Louise Hooper, "South Africa: ANC Leaders Hanged", in Africa Today Associates, American Committee on Africa, University of Denver Center on International Race Relations, Africa Today, (1964):10-11 (Indiana University Press, 1969); Mary-Louise Hooper, "Gestapo-Afrikaner Style" (1964).
  160. ^ a b South Africa Bulletin 1 (October 1964):1, http://kora.matrix.msu.edu/files/50/304/32-130-A98-84-al.sff.document.acoa000026.pdf
  161. ^ "1965 Report", American Committee on Africa (1966):4, http://kora.matrix.msu.edu/files/50/304/32-130-D9B-84-32-130-D9B-84-al.sff.document.acoa001043.pdf
  162. ^ a b David L. Hostetter, "Movement Matters: American Antiapartheid Activism and the Rise of Multicultural Politics", Ph.D. dissertation, Graduate School of the University of Maryland (2004):57, http://byrdcenter.academia.edu/DavidHostetter/Papers/220331/Movement_Matters_American_Antiapartheid_Activism_and_the_Rise_of_Multicultural_Politics
  163. ^ "Hear Martin Luther King Rally on Human Rights Day, December 10", http://www.aluka.org/action/showMetadata?doi=10.5555/AL.SFF.DOCUMENT.acoa000279&
  164. ^ a b "1965 Report", American Committee on Africa (1966):3, http://kora.matrix.msu.edu/files/50/304/32-130-D9B-84-32-130-D9B-84-al.sff.document.acoa001043.pdf
  165. ^ David Hostetter, "'An International Alliance of People of All Nations Against Racism': Nonviolence and Solidarity in the Antiapartheid Activism of the American Committee on Africa, 1952–1965", Peace & Change 32:2 (April 2007):134-152.
  166. ^ Lewis V. Baldwin, Toward the Beloved Community: Martin Luther King Jr. and South Africa (Pilgrim Press, 1995):48, 210-211.
  167. ^ George M. Houser, No One Can Stop the Rain: Glimpses of Africa's Liberation Struggle (Pilgrim Press, 1989):276.
  168. ^ "AMERICAN COMMITTEE ON AFRICA LAUNCHES ANTI-APARTHEID DECLARATION", South Africa Bulletin 6 (July 1966):2, http://kora.matrix.msu.edu/files/50/304/32-130-F92-84-GMH%20ACOA%20SAB7-66.pdf
  169. ^ "Wendell Foster", http://africanactivist.msu.edu/image.php?objectid=32-131-327
  170. ^ a b "Apartheid Foes Boycott Two New York Banks", Modesto Bee (Modesto, CA) (December 7, 1966):7.
  171. ^ Marie Louise Hooper, "Testimony of Mrs. Marie Louise Hooper before the Ad Hoc Working Group of Experts of the United Nations Commission on Human Rights", (29 May 1967, New York), http://www.anc.org.za/4928?t=ES%20Reddy
  172. ^ William R. Frye, In Whitest Africa: The Dynamics of Apartheid (Prentice-Hall, 1968):57.
  173. ^ Mary-Louise Hooper, Refugee Algerian Students, (Africa Defense and Aid Fund, American Committee on Africa, 1960).
  174. ^ a b "Documentary Film on Angola to be Shown", Star-News (Pasadena, CA) (January 23, 1963):20.
  175. ^ Tom Mascaro, "NBC WHITE PAPER", http://www.museum.tv/eotvsection.php?entrycode=nbcwhitepap
  176. ^ Ancestry.com. Social Security Death Index. Number: 111-36-7902;Issue State: New York;Issue Date: 1962.
  177. ^ "Archival Collection Name: Mary-Louise Hooper (papers)", http://africanactivist.msu.edu/archives.php?sort=depous