Mary Impey (2 March 1749 – 20 February 1818) was an English natural historian and patron of the arts in Bengal. The wife of Elijah Impey, the chief justice of Bengal, she established a menagerie in Calcutta and commissioned Indian artists to paint the various creatures.
Born Mary Reade in Oxfordshire, she was the eldest of the three children of John and Harriet Reade. In 1768, at Hammersmith parish church (Fulham North Side) then just outside London, she married a thirty-six year-old barrister, Elijah Impey, and over the next five years bore him four children. In 1773, Elijah Impey was made chief justice of Fort William in Bengal and the couple moved to India, leaving the children with their father's brother in Hammersmith. In 1775, having settled in Fort William, Impey started a collection of native birds and animals on the extensive gardens of the estate, which had formerly been that of Henry Vansittart, governor of Bengal from 1760 to 1764.
Beginning in 1777, Impey hired local artists to paint the various birds, animals and native plants, life-sized where possible, and in natural surrounds. The collection is an important example of Company style painting. She also kept extensive notes about habitat and behaviour, which were or great use to later biologists such as John Latham in his work on Indian birds. The three artists who are known were Sheikh Zain al-Din, Bhavani Das, and Ram Das. More than half the over 300 paintings made were of birds. The collection was dispersed in an auction in 1810, and several pieces are in various museums including the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York, with 3 in the Victoria and Albert Museum in London, and 18 in the Radcliffe Science Library of the University of Oxford.
Between 1775 and 1783, Impey bore four more children, three of whom survived to return with them to England when her husband was impeached. She bore one more child back in England. Her husband died in 1809 and she died in 1818 in Newick Park, near Lewes, East Sussex, and both were buried in Hammersmith parish church.
The Himalayan Monal, Lophophorus impejanus, was named in her honour.
- John Reade (1721–1773) was the 5th Baronet of Reade.
- Ekhtiar, Maryam D., ed. (2011). Masterpieces from the Department of Islamic Art in The Metropolitan Museum. New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art. p. 401. ISBN 978-1-58839-434-7.
- "V&A collections database: Impey". Victoria and Albert Museum.
- Cannon-Brookes, Caroline (24 February 2013). "Review of 'Lady Impey’s Indian Bird Paintings'". British Society for Eighteenth-Century Studies. Retrieved 2 March 2013.
- Impey, Ethel Jane Adair (1963). About the Impeys. Worcester, England: Ebenezer Baylis. OCLC 561554858.
- Losty, J. P. (2004), "Impey, Mary, Lady Impey (1749–1818)", Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/66116
- Exhibition of "Lady Impey’s Indian Bird Paintings" at the Ashmolean Museum, Oxford (until 14th Apr 2013)
- "Memoirs of Sir Elijah Impey: Knt., First Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of Judicature, at Fort William, Bengal; with Anecdotes of Warren Hastings, Sir Philip Francis, Nathaniel Brassey Halhed, Esq., and Other Contemporaries; Comp. from Authentic Documents, in Refutation of the Calumnies of the Right Hon. Thomas Babington Macaulay" (Google eBook), Simpkin, Marshall, and Company, 1846