He served in the city assembly of Ōno for one term since 1975 and then in the assembly of Fukui Prefecture for four terms since 1979. He was elected to the House of Councillors for the first time in 1992.
Yamazaki also served as Parliamentary Secretary for Finance (Hashimoto Cabinet), Deputy Secretary-General of LDP, Deputy Chief Cabinet Secretary (Koizumi Cabinet), Secretary-General for the LDP in the House of Councillors.
Toshiaki Yamazaki is his eldest son.
On April 21, 2014 Yamazaki sent a ritual offering to Yasukuni Shrine, with a wooden sign showing "President of the House of Councillors Masaaki Yamazaki" next to the one with "Prime Minister Shinzō Abe".
Like Abe, Yamazaki is in favor of the revision of the constitution.
Yamazaki is a member of the following right-wing Diet groups:
- Nippon Kaigi Diet discussion group (日本会議国会議員懇談会 - Nippon kaigi kokkai giin kondankai)
- Diet Celebration League of the 20th Anniversary of His Majesty The Emperor’s Accession to the Throne (天皇陛下御即位二十年奉祝国会議員連盟)
- Conference of parlementarians on the Shinto Association of Spiritual Leadership (神道政治連盟国会議員懇談会 - Shinto Seiji Renmei Kokkai Giin Kondankai) - NB: SAS a.k.a. Sinseiren, Shinto Political League
- Yamazaki Masaaki profile on LDP website: jimin.jp/english/profile/members/114804.html (retrieved Dec 11, 2014)
- "Yasukuni Shrine visits face strong criticism in Japan" - China Daily - April 24, 2014
- Nippon Kaigi website
- Decoraties Staatsbezoeken Japan en Republiek Korea - website of the Dutch Royal House
- Official website in Japanese.