Takashima debuted in the 1987 film Totto Channel, directed by Kazuki Ōmori. His part as Tsuda in Busu that same year earned him the Japan Academy Prize for Newcomer of the Year, as well as the Blue Ribbon Award, Hochi Film Award, Kinema Junpo Award, and the Mainichi Film Award for Best New Actor in 1988. Since that time he has appeared in feature films, including Gunhed, ''Legend of Zipang (1990), Godzilla vs. Mechagodzilla II, Godzilla vs. Destoroyah, and Kakushi Toride no San-Akunin: The Last Princess, and The Climbers High. He appeared in the television crime drama Sangaku kyûjotai Shimon Ikki.
Takashima's love of rock music, especially progressive rock, is well-known. He is a fan of Kiss, and admitted in an interview with the Japanese weekly magazine Flash, that the first concert he attended was a Kiss show at Nippon Budokan in 1978. Takashima appeared on the Japanese music show Rock Fujiyama in 2006 and 2007, speaking about his favorite English band King Crimson, stating that he had attended live concerts of the following groups: King Crimson, Michael Schenker Group, Yes and AC/DC. Takashima was asked to write the liner notes for King Crimson's compilation album after his first appearance on Rock Fujiyama.
As a singer, Takashima released singles and albums from 1992 to 1994. He covered the King Crimson song Starless. on the B side of his 1993 single Kowarerukurai Dakishimetai (こわれるくらい抱きしめたい). On Rock Fujiyama, he was nicknamed Starless Takashima (スターレス髙嶋) because he was a King Crimson enthusiast.
Takashima professes to like Grand Funk Railroad, Thin Lizzy and the Sex Pistols. Takashima surprised Kiss enthusiast Marty Friedman of Megadeth when he showed rare Kiss memorabilia on Rock Fujiyama.
- IMDb: Biography for Masahiro Takashima. Retrieved 4 November 2008.
- "Entertainment News from Japan: Takashima, Grab to Wed at Historical Shrine". Japan Zone. 2006-10-29. Retrieved 2014-08-01.
- IMDb: Awards for Masahiro Takashima Retrieved 4 November 2008.
- IMDb: Masahiro Takashima. Retrieved 4 November 2008.
- New York Times: Movies: Masahiro Takashima Filmography Retrieved 4 November 2008.
- オレ的BEST LIVE In JAPAN－芸能界一のロック通が激白！(Japanese)
- Starless Takashima - Starless (1993)
- Rock Fujiyama #19 (Japanese)
- Rock Fujiyama #34 (Japanese)
- Rock Fujiyama #42 (Japanese)
- Official page (Japanese)