|Dosé, Dosai, Dosay, Dosa, Dhosha, Thosay|
|Type||Breakfast or Supper|
Place of origin
|soft crispy hot with sambar (dish) and chutney and vada|
|rice & black lentils batter|
|Variations||masala dosa, rava dosa, onion dosa, neer dosa, paneer dosa|
Dose Kannada: ದೋಸೆ, Telugu: దోస,Malayalam: ദോശ,Sinhala: තෝසේ,Tamil: தோசை), is a fermented crepe or pancake made from rice batter and black lentils. This staple dish is widely popular in all southern Indian states Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka and Kerala, as well as being popular in other countries like Sri Lanka, Malaysia and Singapore.
The origins of Dosa have been widely discussed in literature and books. A few of them are listed below:
- "The Story of our Food", a book written by K. T. Achaya, an eminent Indian food scientist and food historian, states that foods like Appam, Idiyappam, Dosa and Adai were already known in ancient Tamil country around 1st century AD, as per references in Tamil Sangam literature
- The English food writer Pat Chapman and Lisa Rayner, as well as Indian writer Thangappan Nair, state in their works that dose originated in Udupi, Karnataka.
Orthography and transliteration
There are various ways of transliterating the word dosa. The standard transliterations and pronunciations in various South Indian languages is shown in the table below.
Various non-standard spellings are used, including dosé, dosai, dhosa, dosey, dosay, doza, dozé, dozai, dhoza, dozey, dozay, thosa, thosé, thosai, thhosa, thosey, thosay, thoza, thozé, thozai, thhoza, thozey and thozay.
Dosa, a common breakfast dish and street food, is rich in carbohydrates, and contains no sugar or saturated fats. As its constituent ingredients are rice and Urad Dal (Vigna mungo), it is gluten-free and becomes a complete protein. The fermentation process increases the vitamin B and vitamin C content. There are also instant mix products for making dosai, with somewhat lower nutritional benefits.
A mixture of rice and urad dal or ulundu that has been soaked in water is ground finely to form a batter. The proportion of rice to lentils is basically 4:1 or 5:1. The batter is allowed to sit overnight and ferment (adding a pinch of yeast helps). After the overnight fermentation, save some of the batter (in the refrigerator) as a starter culture for the next batch (since it is a sourdough culture, and acid, it should keep about a week). Sometimes a few fenugreek seeds are added to the rice-urad mixture. The rice can be uncooked or parboiled. The mixture of urad dal (black lentils) and rice can be replaced with highly refined wheat flour to make a maida dosai, or semolina for a rava dosai.
A thin layer of the batter is then ladled onto a hot tava (griddle) greased with oil or ghee (clarified butter). It is spread out evenly with the base of a ladle or bowl to form a pancake. A dosai is served hot, either folded in half or rolled like a wrap. It is also served usually with aloo curry, chutney, or sambar.
Dosa can be stuffed with fillings of vegetables and sauces to make a quick meal. They are typically served with a vegetarian side dish which varies according to regional and personal preferences. Common side items are:
- Wet chutney: examples include coconut chutney (a semisolid paste made up of coconut, dal (lentils), green chilli and mint or coriander)
- Dry chutney: a powder of spices and desiccated coconut
- Indian pickles
Though dosa typically refers to the version made with rice and lentils, many other versions exist, often specific to an Indian region. Some variations include egg dosa, which is spread with an omelette, and cheese dosa, which is stuffed with cheese.
- Quinoa dosa: a dosa made with quinoa
- Moong dosa
- Chilli dosa: spread with chilli powder
- The Davanagere Benne Dosa (Kannada: ದಾವಣಗೆರೆ ಬೆಣ್ಣೆ ದೋಸೆ) or Butter Dosa is a dish originated in Karnataka. Butter is used instead of oil when frying, and a small amount is placed on top of it while serving.
- Open dosa: chutney powder is spread on it while cooking, before serving, spiced and mashed potato is placed on top
- Onion dosa: spread with chopped and sautéed onions
- Ghee (thuppa/nei) dosa: ghee is used instead of oil while frying.
- Roast: the dosai is spread thinly and fried until crisp.
- Kerala dosa: a different kind of traditional dosa, it is small, thick, soft and spongy. It is more like a pancake and somewhat similar to appam, but dal is used in the batter for appam, and the appam is not flat.
- Family roast: a long dosa which can be spread over two or three feet
- Paper dosa: a long and very thin, delicate dosa which can be spread over two feet
- Green dosa: stuffed with fresh vegetables and mint chutney
- Thalir dosa:made of Maida and is very soft and delicate,eaten with sugar.
- Chow-chow dosa: stuffed with (Indian flavored) Chinese noodles
- Masala dose: stuffed with spiced potatoes, invented by Udupi hotels
- Mexican Dosa: 
- Vendhaya dosa: flavoured with fenugreek
- Baby Corn Dosa: Stuffed with baby corn gravy
- Keerai Dosa: Dosa filled with Keerai greens gravy
- Cone Dosa: Dosa prepared with ghee instead of oil and shaped as a cone
- Mudakkathan Dosa:Stuffed with marinated herb
- Rave dosa: made with rave (semolina), it does not need fermentation and is usually considered a snack or fast food.
- Wheat dosa: made with wheat flour, and served with coconut chutney
- Vella dosa: made of jaggery with ghee or nei
- Ragi Dose: made of ragi or millet flour
- Muttai dosa: eggs are added to the regular batter; the word muttai in Tamil means "egg".
- Uththapam: thick round dosa in South India
- Set dosa: a popular type of dosa in Karnataka, it is cooked only on one side and served in a set of two to three, hence the name.
- Cabbage dosa: made of cabbage, a paste is prepared with rice, red chillies, asafoetida and turmeric. Once the batter is ready, cabbage cut into small pieces is added to the paste and left for about 30 minutes. Once this is done, the batter is poured and the dosa is made crisp
- Neer dose (Kannada: ನೀರ್ ದೋಸೆ): It literally means Water dosa. It is a very famous delicacy from Karnataka. It is part of Udupi cuisine. Rice is soaked in water for 3 to 4 hours. It is then ground to make a runny rice batter. Most types of dosa require the batter to be fermented for a few hours or even a day. However, fermentation can be skipped while preparing a neer dose. Salt is added. A thin layer of batter is poured onto a heated flat griddle (tawa) greased with oil. The batter is spread with the base of a ladle or bowl to form a pancake. It is flipped to heat both crusts and removed from the griddle when the crust becomes dry. It is served hot.
- 70 MM dosa: similar to masala dose, it is larger, about 60 cm in diameter
- American chop suey dosai: served with a filling of fried noodles and tomato ketchup
- Uppu Huli Dose (Kannada: ಉಪ್ಪು ಹುಳಿ ದೋಸೆ): This is originated in Karnataka and is a very popular break fast dish in Mangalore and Udupi of Karnataka. It is made by adding Uppu (salt in Kannada) and Huli (the taste of tamarind in Kannada) to the batter. It requires no accompaniment of Chutney or Sambar.
It is listed as number 49 on World's 50 most delicious foods compiled by CNN Go in 2011.
Some variants are:
- Mysore masala dose (Kannada: ಮೈಸೂರು ಮಸಾಲೆ ದೋಸೆ ): masala dose with coconut and onion chutneys spread inside along with the potato stuffing
- Vegetable masala dose: instead of potatoes, peas and other vegetables are mashed to make the stuffing
- Rava masala dosa: rava (semolina), especially the Bombay rava, is used instead of rice
- Chinese masala dosa: noodles and other Chinese ingredients like schezwan sauce are added
- Paneer chilli dosa: stuffed with sautéed cottage cheese (paneer) and capsicum
- Keerai Masala dosa: coated with a thin layer of puréed spinach, and filled with the traditional potato/onion mixture
- Egg Masala dosa: one or two fried eggs served on top
- Davanagere benne masala dose (Kannada: ದಾವಣಗೆರೆ ಬೆಣ್ಣೆ ಮಸಾಲೆ ದೋಸೆ ): named after Davanagere in Karnataka, this is prepared by adding liberal doses of butter and also a potato filling.
- Set Masala dose: or simply set masale contains two smaller masala dose. Sometimes one of them is filled with vegetable korma/kurma and the other one with the usual potato-onion mix.
In Bangalore, the masala dose is usually served with a red chutney applied to its inside surface. The red chutney usually has generous amounts of garlic.
- Pesarattu: a dosai-like preparation prepared from mung bean, which is typically served with a ginger and tamarind chutney in Andhra Pradesh. The variations include:
- using soaked whole moong seeds (along with green cover), which gives a greenish tint to the pesarattu; and
- using yellow-coloured moong (green cover is removed and the dal is refined), which gives a golden-yellow tint to it when roasted.
- Adai: a dosa-like dish prepared from a combination of lentils, namely urad, kadalai and moong paruppu.
- Appam, aappam or hopper in Sri Lanka — a pancake prepared from a combination of patted rice (avalakki), rice and yoghurt. The primary differences between an appam and a dosai are that an appam is thicker (up to five times as thick as a dosa), can optionally contain curd, the dough differs in the ratio of rice and ulundu and is more finely ground than dosa batter, the center is thicker and the outer rim is very thin (whereas a dosai is more or less uniformly thick). Sometimes other ingredients are added to the top of the appam as it is cooked. This gives rise to the Sri Lankan "egg hopper" where an egg is cooked on top of the appam/hopper as it is fried, or the uttapam (see below).
- Uttapam: a dosai-like dish made by cooking the ingredients in its batter. Unlike a dosai, which is crisp and crepe-like, an uttapam is a thick pancake. Uttapam is sometimes characterized as an Indian pizza.
- Injera: a pancake-like flatbread made out of teff flour that is traditionally eaten in Ethiopia, Eritrea, Somalia (where it is also called canjeero or laxoox) and Yemen (where it is known as lahoh).
- Chakuli pitha: similar to utthappam, although it has more black gram and less rice flour. It is found in Oriya cuisine.
- K. T. Achaya. The Story of Our Food. Universities Press. p. 80. ISBN 81-7371-293-X.
- Raja M - The dosa, like most other south Indian culinary exports, is often linked to Udipi, a small temple town in the state of Karnataka. "India's new offering to curry Western flavor". Asia Times, June 24, 2004. Retrieved 2010-08-23.
- Lisa Rayner (2009). Wild Bread: Hand-baked Sourdough Artisan Breads in Your Own Kitchen (First ed.). Lifeweaver LLC Flagstaff, AZ. p. 132. ISBN 978-0-98006081-2.
- Pat Chapman (2007). India: Food & Cooking: The Ultimate Book on Indian Cuisine. New Holland Publishers (UK) Ltd. p. 40. ISBN 978 184537 619 2.
- P. Thankappan Nair and Punthi Pustak (2004). South Indians in Kolkata: history of Kannadigas, Konkanis, Malayalees, Tamilians, Telugus, South Indian dishes, and Tippoo Sultan's heirs in Calcutta. p. 396. ISBN 81-86791-50-7.
- "Eat healthy: dosa". livestrong.com. Retrieved 2011-05-21.
- Dalal, Tarla. Mumbai Roadside Snacks. Sanjay & Co. p. 3. ISBN 978-81-89491-66-6.
- Srilakshmi, B. (2006) . Nutrition Science (Revised 2nd ed.). New Age International (formerly Wiley Eastern Ltd.). p. 403. ISBN 978-81-224-1633-6. Retrieved 2011-05-22.
- Pal, Dr J. S. (December 2006). "Traditional Indian Foods: Physio-Chemical Aspects". PFNDAI Bulletin: 3. Retrieved 2012-08-30.
- Nutrition and Dietetics - Higher Secondary - First Year. Directorate of School Education, Government of Tamil Nadu. 2004. p. 31. Retrieved 2012-08-30.
- "Calories in Dosai (Pan Cake)". calorie count. Retrieved 2011-05-21.
- Recipe Preparation
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- CNN Go World's 50 most delicious foods 21 July 2011.