Masculinity

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"Masculine" redirects here. For other uses, see Masculine (disambiguation).
"Manliness" redirects here. For the book by Harvey Mansfield, see Manliness (book).
In Greek mythology, Heracles is synonymous with Apollonian masculinity.

Masculinity (also called manliness or manhood) is a set of attributes, behaviors, and roles generally associated with boys and men. Masculinity is made up of both socially defined and biologically created factors.[1][2][3] This makes it distinct from the definition of the male anatomical sex,[4][5] as both men and women can exhibit masculine traits and behaviors. People who exhibit combination of both masculine and feminine characteristics are considered androgynous.

Traits traditionally cited as masculine include courage, independence, and assertiveness,[6][7][8] though traits associated with masculinity vary depending on location and context, and are influenced by a variety of social and cultural factors.[9] In some non-English speaking cultures, certain concepts or inanimate objects are considered masculine or feminine (the counterpart to masculine).[10]

An over-emphasised pride in masculinity and power (often associated with a disregard for consequences and responsibility) is known as machismo.[11]

Overview[edit]

Masculine qualities, characteristics or roles are generally considered typical of, or appropriate to, a boy or man. It can have degrees of comparison: "more masculine", "most masculine". The opposite can be expressed by terms such as "unmanly" or epicene.[12] A near-synonym of masculinity is virility (from Latin vir, man). Constructs of masculinity vary across historical and cultural contexts. The dandy, for instance, was regarded as an ideal of masculinity in the 19th century, but is considered effeminate by modern standards.[13] Traditional masculine norms, as described in Dr. Ronald F. Levant's Masculinity Reconstructed are: "avoidance of femininity; restricted emotions; sex disconnected from intimacy; pursuit of achievement and status; self-reliance; strength; and aggression; and homophobia."[14] These norms serve to produce and reproduce gender roles by symbolically associating specific attributes and characteristics with each gender.[15]

Academic study of masculinity underwent a massive expansion of interest in the late 1980s and early 1990s, with courses in the United States dealing with masculinity rising from 30 to over 300.[16] This has led to the investigation of the intersection of masculinity with other axes of social discrimination and also to the use of concepts from other fields – such as the social construction of gender difference,[17] a view prevalent in many philosophical and sociological theories about gender.

Development[edit]

A construction worker.

In many cultures, displaying characteristics not typical to one's gender may become a social problem for the individual. Within sociology, such labeling and conditioning is known as gender assumptions, and is a part of socialization to better match a culture's mores. Among men, some non-standard behaviors may be considered a sign of homosexuality, (despite the fact that gender expression, gender identity and sexual orientation are widely accepted to be distinct from each other),[18] which frequently runs contrary to cultural notions of masculinity. When sexuality is defined in terms of object choice, as in early sexology studies, male homosexuality is interpreted as effeminacy.[19] The corresponding social condemnation of excessive masculinity may be expressed in terms such as machismo[11] or neologisms such as "testosterone poisoning",[20] a term which has been considered misandry and an attack on masculinity by some.[21]

The relative importance of the roles of socialization and genetics in the development of masculinity continues to be debated. While social conditioning is believed to play a role, psychologists and psychoanalysts such as Sigmund Freud and Carl Jung hold that certain aspects of "feminine" and "masculine" identity instinctively exist at subconscious levels in all human males.[a]

The historical development of gender role is addressed by such fields as behavioral genetics, evolutionary psychology, human ecology, anthropology and sociology. All human cultures seem to encourage the development of gender roles, through literature, costume and song. Some examples of this might include the epics of Homer, Hengest and Horsa tales in English, the normative commentaries of Confucius. More specialized treatments of masculinity may be found in works such as the Bhagavad Gita or bushidō's Hagakure.

Nature versus nurture[edit]

The extent to which masculinity is a result of nature versus nurture, a matter of what someone is born with or how they are socialized, has been the subject of much debate. Genome research has yielded much information about the development of masculine characteristics and the process of sexual differentiation specific to the reproductive system of human beings. The SRY gene on the Y chromosome, which is critical for male sexual development, activates SOX9.[22] SOX9 associates with Sf1 gene to increase the level of Anti-Müllerian hormone to repress female development while activating and forming a feedforward loop with FGF9, which creates the testis cords and is responsible for the proliferation of sertoli cells.[23] The activation of SRY interferes with the process of creating a female, causing a chain of events that leads to testes formation, androgen production, and a range of pre-natal and post-natal hormonal effects. There is an extensive debate about how children develop gender identities. On the nature side of the debate, it is argued that masculinity is inextricably linked with the male body. In this view, masculinity is something that is associated with the biological male sex and having male genitalia, for instance, is regarded as a key aspect of masculinity.[24]

Others have suggested that while masculinity may be influenced by biological factors, it is also culturally constructed. Proponents of this view argue that women can become men hormonally and physically[24] and that many aspects that are assumed to be natural are linguistically and therefore culturally driven.[25] On the nurture side of the debate, it is argued that masculinity does not have a single source of origin such as the media, certain institutions, or certain groups of people. While the military, for example, has a vested interest in constructing and promoting a specific form of masculinity, it does not create it from scratch and masculinity has influenced the creation of the military in the first place.[26] However, as an example of socialisation into masculinity, facial hair has been linked to masculinity through language, in such forms as stories about boys becoming men when they start to shave.[27]

Hegemonic masculinity[edit]

Main article: Hegemonic masculinity
Direct competition of physical skill and strength is a feature of masculinity which appears in some form in virtually every culture on Earth. Here, two U.S. Marines compete in a wrestling match.

Traditional avenues for men to gain honor were that of providing adequately for their families and exercising leadership.[28] Raewyn Connell has labelled the traditional male roles and privileges hegemonic masculinity. This is the norm, something that men are expected to aspire to and that women are discouraged from adopting. According to Connell: "Hegemonic masculinity can be defined as the configuration of gender practice which embodies the currently accepted answer to the problem of the legitimacy of patriarchy, which guarantees the dominant position of men and the subordination of women".[29]

Precarious manhood[edit]

Researchers have argued that the "precariousness" of manhood contributes to traditionally masculine behaviors.[30] By precarious, researchers mean that manhood is not a status that a man is born with; rather, he must strive to achieve it. In many cultures, men are compelled to endure painful initiation rituals to obtain the status of manhood. Furthermore, once achieved, the status of manhood can be lost. Men are often derided by other men (sometimes also other women) for not "being a man". Researchers have found that men often respond to threats to their manhood by engaging in stereotypically masculine behaviors and cognitions, such as supporting hierarchy, espousing homophobic beliefs, supporting aggression, and choosing physical tasks over intellectual tasks.[31]

Recently, Winegard, Winegard, and Geary (2014) argued that the precariousness of manhood is about social status (either prestige or dominance) in general, and that manhood may be more or less precarious depending upon the avenues men have available for achieving status.[32] Men who identify with creative pursuits such as poetry or painting, for example, may not experience manhood as precarious. However, they might respond to threats to their intelligence or creativity. On the other hand, men who identify with more traditionally masculine pursuits such as football or the military may experience masculinity as precarious. According to Winegard, Winegard, and Geary, this is functional. Poetry and painting do not require traditionally masculine traits; therefore, attacks on those traits should not induce anxiety. On the other hand, football and the military do require many traditionally masculine traits such as pain tolerance, endurance, muscularity, and courage; therefore, attacks on those traits should induce anxiety and potentially trigger retaliatory cognitions and behaviors. If true, this suggests that simple nature/nurture debates about masculinity are likely more obfuscatory than enlightening. Men evolved to pursue prestige and dominance (status). However, the way they pursue status depends upon their innate talents and traits and the possibilities available in their culture. In modern societies, there may exist more avenues to status than in more traditional societies. That may mitigate the precariousness of manhood (or of traditional manhood), and may lead to a shift in some men's behavior. However, it probably will not mitigate the intensity of male/male competition in general.

LGBT communities[edit]

General[edit]

Dr. Joseph Pleck argues that the hierarchy of masculinities among men exist largely in a dichotomy of homosexual and heterosexual males and explains that "our society uses the male heterosexual-homosexual dichotomy as a central symbol for all the rankings of masculinity, for the division on any grounds between males who are "real men" and have power, and males who are not".[33] Michael Kimmel[34] furthers this notion and adds that the trope "you're so gay" indicates that one is devoid of masculinity, rather than being sexually attracted to members of the same sex. Pleck argues that to avoid the continuation of male oppression of women and themselves and other men, patriarchal structures, institutions, and discourse must be eliminated from North American society.

Another term for a masculine woman is butch, which is used within the lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender (LGBT) and cross-dressing subcultures[35][36][37] to ascribe or acknowledge a masculine identity with its associated traits, behaviors, styles, self-perception and so on.[38]

Men[edit]

Gay men are considered by some to "deviate from the masculine norm", and are benevolently stereotyped as "gentle and refined", even amongst other gay men. For example, human rights campaigner Peter Tatchell, an openly gay man, says that:

Contrary to the well-intentioned claim that gays are "just the same" as straights, there is a difference. What is more, the distinctive style of gay masculinity is of great social benefit. Wouldn't life be dull without the flair and imagination of queer fashion designers and interior decorators? How could the NHS cope with no gay nurses, or the education system with no gay teachers? Society should thank its lucky stars that not all men turn out straight, macho and insensitive. The different hetero and homo modes of maleness are not, of course, biologically fixed.[39]

In a documentary called The Butch Factor, a number of gay men (one of them transgender) were asked about their views on masculinity. The consensus was that showing masculine traits was an advantage, both in and out the closet. For the "butch" gay men, this allowed them to conceal their sexual orientation for longer when doing masculine activities such as playing sports (as effeminacy is often incorrectly[18] associated with homosexuality),[40][19] so much so that they doubted their own sexual orientation because as they did not see themselves as effeminate, they did not feel that they were gay. They did not feel as much of a connection with gay culture because of this.[41]

On the other hand, the men who had a more feminine appearance were the first to come out of the closet, as they were the first to be labelled as gay by their peers. They were more likely to face bullying and harassment throughout their lives,[41] and many gay men have been taunted by derogatory words which imply feminine qualities (e.g. sissy). Effeminate or camp-acting gay men sometimes use what has been described by John R. Ballew as "camp humour", such as referring to one another by female pronouns, as "a funny way of defusing hate directed toward us [gay men]". However, Ballew has also stated that this "can cause us [gay men] to become confused in relation to how we feel about being men."[42]

Some feminine gay guys in the documentary felt uncomfortable about their femininity (even if they are comfortable with their sexuality),[43] and feminine gay men are often looked down upon amongst stereotypically masculine men in the gay community.[44][45]

[Heterosexual] men are sometimes advised to get in touch with their "inner feminine." Maybe gay men need to get in touch with their "inner masculine" instead. Identifying those aspects of being a man we most value and then cultivate those parts of our selves can lead to a healthier and less distorted sense of our own masculinity.

—John R. Ballew, Gay men and masculinity[42]

A study conducted by researchers from the Center for Theoretical Study at Charles University in Prague and The Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic found that there are "significant" shape differences in faces of heterosexual and gay men, with gay men having "masculine" features, which they say "undermined stereotypical notions of gay men as more feminine looking."[46]

The way in which gay men have been presented in the media has been in a stereotypical feminine way (and one which is open to ridicule), although films such as Brokeback Mountain are breaking this stereotype.[42] A newer portrayal of gay men in the LGBT community is as bears, a subculture of gay men who celebrate rugged masculinity[47][48] and "secondary sexual characteristics of the male: facial hair, body hair, proportional size, baldness".[49]

Second-wave pro-feminism paid increased attention to issues of sexuality, particularly the relationship between homosexual men and hegemonic masculinity. This shift led to more cooperation between the men's liberation and Gay Liberation movements. In part this cooperation arose because masculinity was understood to be a social construction, and as a response to the universalization of "men" seen in previous men's movements. Men's rights activists worked to stop second-wave feminists from having influence in the gay rights movement, and promoted the idea of hypermasculinity as an inherent part of gay sexuality.[50]

Western trends[edit]

According to a paper submitted by Tracy Tylka to the American Psychological Association (APA), in contemporary America: "Instead of seeing a decrease in objectification of women in society, there has just been an increase in the objectification of both sexes. And you can see that in the media today." Men and women restrict their food intake in an effort to achieve what they consider an attractively thin body, in extreme cases leading to eating disorders.[51]

Thomas Holbrook, also a psychiatrist, cites a recent Canadian study indicating as many as one in six of those with eating disorders were men.[52]

"Younger men and women who read fitness and fashion magazines could be psychologically harmed by the images of perfect female and male physiques," according to recent research in the United Kingdom. Some young women and men exercise excessively in an effort to achieve what they consider an attractively fit and muscular body, which in extreme cases can lead to body dysmorphic disorder or muscle dysmorphia.[53][54][55]

Although the actual stereotypes may have remained relatively constant, the value attached to masculine stereotypes have changed over the past few decades and it has been argued that masculinity is an unstable phenomenon and never ultimately achieved.[27]

Male construction workers without appropriate fall protection equipment.

Risk-taking[edit]

The driver crash rate per vehicle-kilometre driven is higher for women than for men; although, men are much more likely to cause deaths in the accidents in which they are involved.[56] Men drive significantly more miles than women, so, on average, they are more likely to be involved in road traffic accidents. Even in the narrow category of young (16–20) driver fatalities with a high blood alcohol content (BAC), a male's risk of dying is higher than a female's risk at the same BAC level, which means that young women drivers need to be more intoxicated to have the same risk of dying in a fatal accident as young men drivers.[57] However, a more recent study suggests that young men are less adventurous and more averse to risk than they were a generation ago, primarily because they are less motivated and in worse physical condition than their father's generation.[58]

Health care[edit]

A growing body of evidence is pointing toward the deleterious impact of masculinity (and hegemonic masculinity in particular) on men's health help-seeking behavior. American men make 134.5 million fewer physician visits than American women each year. In fact, men make only 40.8% of all physician visits, that is, if women's visits for pregnancy are included, childbirth and associated obstetrical and gynecological visits. A quarter of the men who are 45 to 60 do not have a personal physician. Many men should go to annual heart checkups with physicians but do not, increasing their risk of death from heart disease. Men between the ages of 25 and 65 are four times more likely to die from cardiovascular disease than women. Men are more likely to be diagnosed in a later stage of a terminal illness because of their reluctance to go to the doctor. Reasons men give for not having annual physicals and not visiting their physician include fear, denial, embarrassment, a dislike of situations out of their control, or not worth the time or cost.[59]

Arran Stibbe (2004) analyzed issues of a prominent men's health magazine in 2000, and claimed that while ostensibly being focused on health, the magazine also promoted hegemonic (traditional) masculinity. These potentially damaging male behaviors included the excessive consumption of convenience foods and meats, drinking of alcohol, and unsafe sex.

A British soldier drinking beer upon his return from Afghanistan.

Research on beer commercials by Lance Strate[60][clarification needed] show some results relevant to studies of masculinity. In beer commercials, the ideas of masculinity (especially risk-taking) are presented and encouraged. The commercials often focus on situations where a man is overcoming an obstacle in a group. The men will either be working hard or playing hard. For instance the commercial will show men who do physical labor such as construction workers, or farm work, or men who are cowboys. Beer commercials that involve playing hard have a central theme of mastery (over nature or over each other), risk, and adventure. For instance, the men will be outdoors fishing, camping, playing sports, or hanging out in bars. There is usually an element of danger as well as a focus on movement and speed. This appeals to and emphasizes the idea that real men overcome danger and enjoy speed (i.e. fast cars/driving fast). The bar serves as a setting for the measurement of masculinity (skills like billiards, strength and drinking ability) and serves as a center for male socializing.

Despite the beer industry's "risk-taking" marketing technique, overall alcohol consumption has declined in recent years among all age groups.[61]

History[edit]

Concepts of masculinity have varied according to time and place and are constantly subject to change and thus, argues Connell, it is more appropriate to talk of masculinities than of a single masculinity.[62]

Ancient[edit]

Odysseus, the hero of the Odyssey.

Ancient literature goes back to about 3000 BC. It includes both explicit statements of what was expected of men in laws, and implicit suggestions about masculinity in myths involving gods and heroes. In 1000 BC, the Hebrew Bible states King David of Israel told his son "be strong, and be a man" upon David's death. Men throughout history have gone to meet exacting cultural standards of what is considered attractive. Kate Cooper, writing about ancient understandings of femininity, suggests that, "Wherever a woman is mentioned a man's character is being judged – and along with it what he stands for."[63] One well-known representative of this literature is the Code of Hammurabi (c. 1750 BC).

  • Rule 3: "If any one bring an accusation of any crime before the elders, and does not prove what he has charged, he shall, if it be a capital offense charged, be put to death."
  • Rule 128: "If a man takes a woman to wife, but has no intercourse with her, this woman is no wife to him."[64]

Scholars suggest integrity and equality as masculine values in male-male relationships,[65] and virility in male-female relationships. Legends of ancient heroes include The Epic of Gilgamesh, the Iliad and the Odyssey. Such narratives are considered to reveal qualities in the hero that inspired respect, like wisdom or courage, the knowing of things that other men do not know and the taking of risks that other men would not dare.

Beowulf fighting the dragon.

Medieval and Victorian eras[edit]

Jeffrey Richards describes a European, "medieval masculinity which was essentially Christian and chivalric."[66] Again ethics, courage, respect towards women of all classes, and generosity are seen as characteristic of the portrayal of men in literary history. The Anglo Saxons Hengest and Horsa[citation needed] and Beowulf are famous examples of medieval ideals of masculinity. Rosen argues that the traditional view of scholars such as J. R. R. Tolkien that Beowulf is a tale of medieval heroism overlooks the many similarities in description of both Beowulf and Grendel, the monster. Beowulf's masculinity is seen to "cut men off from women, other men, passion and the household".[67]

Masculinity in the Victorian era of was undergoing a transformation from traditional 'heroic' scripts. As the Scottish philosopher Thomas Carlyle wrote in 1831:

Modern times[edit]

A female aircraft worker during World War II.

At the beginning of the twentieth century, the traditional family structure consisted of the father as the breadwinner and the mother as the homemaker. Other examples of modern masculinity shifting radically from the masculinities of Victorian and earlier times include the willingness of men to defy stereotypes. For example, regardless of age or nationality, men more frequently rank good health, harmonious family life and good relationships with their spouse or partner as important to their quality of life.[69]

Technological developments like television, and perhaps most importantly, the internet have offered men new ways of expressing masculinity. Websites like Reddit, Tumblr, and 4chan offer platforms for men and women to discuss the role of masculinity in current cultures in a variety of geographic contexts. Some of these communities, like the subreddit /r/MensRights have been quite controversial and many have accused them of being misogynistic and representative of regressive ideas about masculinity.[70]

Criticism[edit]

It is a subject of debate whether masculinity concepts followed historically should still be applied. However, researchers[who?] have argued that there is a harmful current of masculine criticism related to the following:

  • The reshaping of contemporary values that traditional masculists uphold.
  • The gender war feminist groups have been waging on traditional masculinity values and roles.
  • Cultural hostilities that society has placed on masculine values.
  • The promotion of masculinity in women and the pressuring of men to become more feminized.

The images of boys and young men presented in the media may lead to the persistence of harmful concepts of masculinity. Men's rights activists argue that the media does not pay serious attention to men's rights issues and that men are often portrayed in a negative light, particularly in advertising.[71]

Scholar Peter Jackson writes that the dominant forms of masculinity can be "economically exploitative" and "socially oppressive". He asserts, "the form of oppression varies from patriarchal controls over women's bodies and reproductive rights, through ideologies of domesticity, femininity and compulsory heterosexuality, to social definitions of the value of work, the nature of skill and the differential remuneration of 'productive' and 'reproductive' labor."[72]

Masculine gender role stress[edit]

In 1987, Eisler and Skidmore did studies on masculinity and created the idea of 'masculine stress'. They found three mechanisms of masculinity that accompany masculine gender role often result in emotional stress. They include:

  • The emphasis on prevailing in situations requiring body and fitness
  • Being perceived as emotional
  • The need to feel adequate in regard to sexual matters and financial status

Because of social norms and pressures associated with masculinity, men with spinal cord injuries have to adapt their self-identity to the losses associated with spinal cord injuries which may "lead to feelings of decreased physical and sexual prowess with lowered self-esteem and a loss of male identity. Feelings of guilt and overall loss of control are also experienced."[73]

Masculinity is something that some[who?] fear is becoming increasingly challenged, especially in the last century, with the emergence of women's rights and the development of the role of women in society.[citation needed] In recent years many 'Man Laws' and similar masculinist manifestos have been published, as a way for men to re-affirm their masculinity.[citation needed] A popular example is the Miller Lite Man Laws, and other various sites on the internet offering rules such as: "15. A real man does not need instruction manuals." Although many of these rules are offered in a humorous fashion, they attempt to define masculinity, and indicate that proper gender is taught and performed rather than intuited.[citation needed]

Research also suggests that men feel social pressure to endorse traditional masculine male models in advertising. Research by Martin and Gnoth (2009) found that feminine men preferred feminine models in private, but stated a preference for the traditional masculine models when their collective self was salient. In other words, when concerned about being classified by other men as feminine, feminine men endorsed traditional masculine models. The authors suggested this result reflected the social pressure on men to endorse traditional masculine norms.[74]

An emerging discourse regarding masculinities in relation to other men has emerged and relates to a man's social status and political power. Dr. Joseph Pleck[33] explains that there is an inherent system of relations in male-to-male relationships within North American patriarchal society. Hierarchies are demarcated by levels of masculinity which are equated to physical composition when men are young, and the acquisition of wealth and women when men age.[33]

In the New York Times bestselling book, Raising Cain: Protecting The Emotional Life of Boys authors Dan Kindlon and Michael Thompson argue that although all boys are born as loving and empathetic creatures, their exposure to gender socialization, specifically to the tough male ideal and hypermasculinity, invalidates the male character and limits the ability for boys and men to function as healthy emotional adults. The authors argue that boys lack the ability to understand and express emotions productively because of the stress of masculine gender roles.[75]

Notion of "masculinity in crisis"[edit]

A mounting discourse of "masculinity in crisis" has emerged arguing that masculinity is in a state of crisis.[76][77] For instance, Australian archeologist Peter McAllister stated, "I have a strong feeling that masculinity is in crisis. Men are really searching for a role in modern society; the things we used to do aren't in much demand anymore".[78] Others see the changing labor market as a source of the alleged crisis. Deindustrialization and the replacement of old smokestack industries with new technologies has allowed more women to enter the labor force and reduced the demand for great physical strength.[79]

The crisis has also been frequently attributed to feminism and a resulting questioning both of men's dominance over women and the rights which had been granted to men solely on the basis of their sex.[80] British sociologist John MacInnes argued that "masculinity has always been in one crisis or another" and suggested that the crises arise from the "fundamental incompatibility between the core principle of modernity that all human beings are essentially equal (regardless of their sex) and the core tenet of patriarchy that men are naturally superior to women and thus destined to rule over them."[81]

Academic John Beynon examined the discourse surrounding the notion of masculinity in crisis and found that masculinity and men are often confused and conflated so that it remains unclear whether masculinity, men, or both are supposed to be in crisis.[82] He further argues that the alleged crisis is not a recent phenomenon and points out several periods of masculine crisis throughout history, many of which predate the women's movement and post-industrial societies. He suggests that due to the fact that masculinity is always changing and redefined, "crisis is constitutive of masculinity itself."[83] Film scholar Leon Hunt contends in the same vein, "Whenever masculinity's 'crisis' actually started, it certainly seems to have been in place by the 1970s".[84]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ See innate bisexuality and anima and animus for more information.

References[edit]

Notes
  1. ^ Marianne van den Wijngaard (1997). Reinventing the sexes: the biomedical construction of femininity and masculinity. Race, gender, and science. Indiana University Press. pp. 171 pages. ISBN 0-253-21087-9. Retrieved June 3, 2011. 
  2. ^ Hale Martin, Stephen Edward Finn (2010). Masculinity and Femininity in the MMPI-2 and MMPI-A. U of Minnesota Press. pp. 310 pages. ISBN 0-8166-2445-3. Retrieved June 3, 2011. 
  3. ^ Richard Dunphy (2000). Sexual politics: an introduction. Edinburgh University Press. pp. 240 pages. ISBN 0-7486-1247-5. Retrieved June 3, 2011. 
  4. ^ Ferrante, Joan. Sociology: A Global Perspective (7th ed.). Belmont, CA: Thomson Wadsworth. pp. 269–272. ISBN 0-8400-3204-8. 
  5. ^ Gender, Women and Health: What do we mean by "sex" and "gender"?', The World Health Organization
  6. ^ Vetterling-Braggin, Mary "Femininity," "masculinity," and "androgyny": a modern philosophical discussion
  7. ^ Worell, Judith, Encyclopedia of women and gender: sex similarities and differences and the impact of society on gender, Volume 1 Elsevier, 2001, ISBN 0-12-227246-3, ISBN 978-0-12-227246-2
  8. ^ Thomas, R. Murray (2000). Recent Theories of Human Development. Sage Publications. p. 248. ISBN 0761922474. Gender feminists also consider traditional feminine traits (gentleness, modesty, humility, sacrifice, supportiveness, empathy, compassion, tenderness, nurturance, intuitiveness, sensitivity, unselfishness) morally superior to the traditional masculine traits (courage, strong will, ambition, independence, assertiveness, initiative, rationality and emotional control). 
  9. ^ Witt, edited by Charlotte (2010). Feminist Metaphysics: Explorations in the Ontology of Sex, Gender and Identity. Dordrecht: Springer. p. 77. ISBN 90-481-3782-9. 
  10. ^ "Are computers masculine or feminine?". orion.math.iastate.edu. Retrieved 7 March 2015. 
  11. ^ a b "Machismo (exaggerated masculinity) - Encyclopædia Britannica" (online ed.). Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. Retrieved 6 March 2015. 
  12. ^ Roget’s II: The New Thesaurus, 3rd. ed., Houghton Mifflin, 1995.
  13. ^ Reeser, Todd (2010). Masculinities in Theory: An Introduction. John Wiley and Sons. pp. 1–3. ISBN 1444358537. 
  14. ^ Levant, Ronald F.; Kopecky, Gini (1995). Masculinity Reconstructed: Changing the Rules of Manhood—At Work, in Relationships, and in Family Life. New York: Dutton. ISBN 978-0452275416. 
  15. ^ Dornan, Jennifer (2004). "Blood from the Moon:Gender Ideology and the Rise of Ancient Maya Social Complexity". ISSN 0953-5233. 
  16. ^ Bradley, Rolla M. (2008). Masculinity and Self Perception of Men Identified as Informal Leaders. ProQuest. p. 9. ISBN 0549473998. 
  17. ^ Flood, Michael (2007). International Encyclopaedia of Men and Masculinities. Routledge. pp. Viii. ISBN 0415333431. 
  18. ^ a b "Gender Identity and Expression Issues at Colleges and Universities". National Association of College and University Attorneys. 2005-06-02. Retrieved 2007-04-02. 
  19. ^ a b "Chrysler TV ad criticized for using gay stereotypes". The Advocate. 2006-04-07. Retrieved 2007-04-07. 
  20. ^ Alan Alda, "What Every Woman Should Know About Men", Ms., New York, October 1975
  21. ^ Patrick M. Arnold (14 May 1990). "In Academe, Misogyny Meets Its Match: Misandrosy : Behavior: The uproar at Mills College illustrates a nasty new trend: man-hating. What parent would send a son into such an environment?". The Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 7 March 2015. It is the shadow side of the extreme feminist movement, an ideology of hate whose name is not yet found in the dictionary. I term it misandrosy [sic] (Greek: "hatred of men"), the mirror opposite of misogyny. Misandrosy [sic], not yet as widespread or harmful as misogyny but not yet as well recognized, either, is beginning to show itself mainly in liberal circles in the arts, literature, religion, media and academia. [...] Carl Sagan even pompously informs us that the whole planet is imminently endangered by "testosterone poisoning." 
  22. ^ Moniot, Brigitte; Declosmenil, Faustine; Barrionuevo, Francisco; Scherer, Gerd; Aritake, Kosuke; Malki, Safia; Marzi, Laetitia; Cohen-Solal, Ann; Georg, Ina; Klattig, Jürgen; Englert, Christoph; Kim, Yuna; Capel, Blanche; Eguchi, Naomi; Urade, Yoshihiro; Boizet-Bonhoure, Brigitte; Poulat, Francis (2009). "The PGD2 pathway, independently of FGF9, amplifies SOX9 activity in Sertoli cells during male sexual differentiation". Development (The Company of Biologists Ltd.) 136 (11): 1813–1821. doi:10.1242/dev.032631. PMID 19429785. 
  23. ^ Kim, Y.; Kobayashi, A.; Sekido, R.; Dinapoli, L.; Brennan, J.; Chaboissier, M. C.; Poulat, F.; Behringer, R. R.; Lovell-Badge, R.; Capel, B. (2006). "Fgf9 and Wnt4 Act as Antagonistic Signals to Regulate Mammalian Sex Determination". PLoS Biology 4 (6): e187. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.0040187. PMC 1463023. PMID 16700629.  edit
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Bibliography
  • Beynon, John (2002). "Chapter 4: Masculinities and the notion of 'crisis'". Masculinities and culture. Philadelphia: Open University Press. pp. 75–97. ISBN 978-0-335-19988-4. 
  • Reeser, Todd W. (2010). Masculinities in theory: an introduction. Malden, MA: Wiley-Blackwell. ISBN 978-1-4051-6859-5. 
  • Connell, R.W. (2001). "3". The Social Organization of Masculinity. Berkeley and Los Angeles, California: Polity. ISBN 978-0-520-24698-0. 
  • Levine, Martin P. (1998). Gay Macho. New York: New York University Press. ISBN 0-8147-4694-2.
  • Stibbe, Arran. (2004). "Health and the Social Construction of Masculinity in Men's Health Magazine." Men and Masculinities; 7 (1) July, pp. 31–51.
  • Strate, Lance "Beer Commercials: A Manual on Masculinity" Men's Lives Kimmel, Michael S. and Messner, Michael A. ed. Allyn and Bacon. Boston, London: 2001

Further reading[edit]

Contemporary
  • Arrindell, Willem A., Ph.D. (1 October 2005) "Masculine Gender Role Stress" Psychiatric Times Pg. 31
  • Ashe, Fidelma (2007) The New Politics of Masculinity, London and New York: Routledge.
  • bell hooks, We Real Cool: Black Men and Masculinity, Taylor & Francis 2004, ISBN 0-415-96927-1
  • Broom A. and Tovey P. (Eds) Men’s Health: Body, Identity and Social Context London; John Wiley and Sons Inc.
  • Burstin, Fay "What's Killing Men". Herald Sun (Melbourne, Australia). October 15, 2005.
  • Canada, Geoffrey "Learning to Fight" Men's Lives Kimmel, Michael S. and Messner, Michael A. ed. Allyn and Bacon. Boston, London: 2001
  • Connell, R.W. (2005). Masculinities. Cambridge: Polity Press. ISBN 0745634273. 
  • Courtenay, Will "Constructions of masculinity and their influence on men's well-being: a theory of gender and health" Social Science and Medicine, yr: 2000 vol: 50 iss: 10 pg: 1385–1401
  • Donovan, Jack (2012). The way of men. Milwaukie, Oregon: Dissonant Hum. ISBN 9780985452308. 
  • Durham, Meenakshi G.; Oates, Thomas P. (2004). "The mismeasure of masculinity: the male body, 'race' and power in the enumerative discourses of the NFL Draft". Patterns of Prejudice (Taylor & Francis Online) 38 (3): 301–320. doi:10.1080/0031322042000250475. 
  • Galdas P.M. and Cheater F.M. (2010) Indian and Pakistani men’s accounts of seeking medical help for angina and myocardial infarction in the UK: Constructions of marginalised masculinity or another version of hegemonic masculinity? Qualitative Research in Psychology
  • Juergensmeyer, Mark (2005): Why guys throw bombs. About terror and masculinity (pdf)
  • Kaufman, Michael "The Construction of Masculinity and the Triad of Men's Violence". Men's Lives Kimmel, Michael S. and Messner, Michael A. ed. Allyn and Bacon. Boston, London: 2001
  • Lawson, Robert (2013). "The construction of ‘tough’ masculinity: Negotiation, alignment and rejection". Gender and Language (Equinox) 7 (3): 369–395. doi:10.1558/genl.v7i3.369. 
  • Levant & Pollack (1995) A New Psychology of Men, New York: BasicBooks
  • Mansfield, Harvey. Manliness. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2006. ISBN 0-300-10664-5
  • Reeser, T. Masculinities in Theory, Malden: Wiley-Blackwell, 2010.
  • Robinson, L. (October 21, 2005). Not just boys being boys: Brutal hazings are a product of a culture of masculinity defined by violence, aggression and domination. Ottawa Citizen (Ottawa, Ontario).
  • Stephenson, June (1995). Men are Not Cost Effective: Male Crime in America. ISBN 0-06-095098-6
  • Simpson, Mark (1994). Male Impersonators: Men Performing Masculinity. New York: Routledge. ISBN 0-41590991-0. Also published by Cassell, London, ISBN 0-304-32808-1 pbk,
  • Walsh, Fintan. Male Trouble: Masculinity and the Performance of Crisis. Basingstoke and New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2010.
  • Williamson P. "Their own worst enemy" Nursing Times: 91 (48) 29 November 95 p 24–7
  • Wray Herbert "Survival Skills" U.S. News & World Report Vol. 139, No. 11; Pg. 63 September 26, 2005
  • "Masculinity for Boys"; published by UNESCO, New Delhi, 2006;
  • Smith, Bonnie G., Hutchison, Beth. Gendering Disability. Rutgers University Press, 2004.
Historical
  • Michael Kimmel, Manhood in America, New York [etc.]: The Free Press 1996
  • A Question of Manhood: A Reader in U.S. Black Mens History and Masculinity, edited by Earnestine Jenkins and Darlene Clark Hine, Indiana University press vol1: 1999, vol. 2: 2001
  • Gary Taylor, Castration: An Abbreviated History of Western Manhood, Routledge 2002
  • Klaus Theweleit, Male fantasies, Minneapolis : University of Minnesota Press, 1987 and Polity Press, 1987
  • Peter N. Stearns, Be a Man!: Males in Modern Society, Holmes & Meier Publishers, 1990
  • Shuttleworth, Russell. "Disabled Masculinity." Gendering Disability. Ed. Bonnie G. Smith and Beth Hutchison. Rutgers University Press, New Brunswick, New Jersey, 2004. 166–178.

External links[edit]

Bibliographic

  • The Men's Bibliography, a comprehensive bibliography of writing on men, masculinities, gender and sexualities, listing over 16,700 works. (mainly from a constructionist perspective)
  • Boyhood Studies, features a 2200+ bibliography of young masculinities.

Other