||The neutrality of this article is disputed. (June 2014)|
Masha Gessen at the 6 Moscow International Book Festival, 2011
13 January 1967 |
Moscow, Soviet Union
|Residence||New York City, USA|
Maria Alexandrovna Gessen (Russian: Мари́я Алекса́ндровна Ге́ссен; IPA: [maˈrʲijə ɐlʲɪkˈsandrəvnəˈɡʲesʲɪn]; born 13 January 1967), better known as Masha Gessen, is a Russian and American journalist, author, and activist noted for her opposition to Russian President Vladimir Putin. Gessen identifies as a lesbian and has written extensively on LGBT rights and help founded the Pink Triangle Campaign. She has been described as "Russia's leading LGBT rights activist" and has said herself that for many years she was "probably the only publicly out gay person in the whole country."
Gessen writes primarily in English but also in her native Russian, and in addition to writing books on Putin and Russian feminist punk rock protest group Pussy Riot, she has been a prolific contributor to such publications as The New York Times, The Washington Post, the Los Angeles Times, The New Republic, New Statesman, Granta, Slate, Vanity Fair, and U.S. News & World Report.
- 1 Early life
- 2 Activism and journalism
- 3 Dismissal from Vokrug Sveta
- 4 Radio Liberty controversy
- 5 Return to U.S.
- 6 Books
- 7 Honors and awards
- 8 Media appearances
- 9 Personal life
- 10 Bibliography
- 11 See also
- 12 References
- 13 External links
Gessen was born into an Ashkenazi Jewish family in Moscow. In 1981 Gessen moved with her family to the United States. She returned in 1991 to Moscow. She holds both Russian and US citizenship. Her brothers are Keith Gessen, Daniel Gessen and Philip Gessen.
Activism and journalism
In an extensive October 2008 profile of Vladimir Putin for Vanity Fair, Gessen reported that the young Putin had been "an aspiring thug" and that "the backward evolution of Russia began" within days after his inauguration in 2000.
She contributed several dozen commentaries on Russia to The New York Times blog "Latitude" between November 2011 and December 2013. Among her subjects were the banning of Homosexual propaganda and other related laws, the harassment and beating of journalists, the depreciation in value of the ruble, and other relative issues.
In March 2013, politician Vitaly Milonov, who promoted the Russian law against foreign adoption of Russian children, championed the law by saying: "The Americans want to adopt Russian children and bring them up in perverted families like Masha Gessen's."
Dismissal from Vokrug Sveta
She was dismissed from her position as the chief editor of Russia's oldest magazine, Vokrug sveta, a popular-science journal, on 1 September 2012 after she refused to send a reporter to cover a Russian Geographical Society event about nature conservation featuring President Putin, because she considered it political exploitation of environmental concerns. After she tweeted about her firing, Putin phoned her and claimed he was serious about his “nature conservation efforts.” On his invitation, she met him, and her former publisher, at the Kremlin and was offered her job back. She rejected the offer.
Radio Liberty controversy
In September 2012, Gessen was appointed as director of the Russian Service for Radio Liberty, a U.S. government funded broadcaster based in Prague. Shortly after her appointment was announced and a few days after Gessen met with Russian President Vladimir Putin, more than 40 members of Radio Liberty's staff were fired. Radio Liberty also lost its Russian broadcasting licence several weeks after Gessen took over. Gessen's role in both of these events is unclear but has caused controversy. John O'Sullivan described Gessen in The Wall Street Journal as someone who "disdains" opposition media and had replaced Putin-critical content with "softer news features in which liberty is likely to mean sexual liberation (with illustrations) rather than ‘political’ aspects of human rights." Judy Bachrach in the journal World Affairs depicted Gessen as seeking to replace controversial news stories that reported on criticism of Putin with innocuous reports on "polar bears" and "kindergartens” and "Russian marriage and funeral traditions."
Replying to these critics in Forbes, Mark Adomanis found it "thoroughly bizarre" that "Masha Gessen, one of Russia‘s most outspoken and consistently anti-Putin journalists, has been dragged through the mud and been darkly portrayed as some sort of surrogate Kremlin operative." While stating that he agreed with Gessen "on almost nothing," Adomanis said "it is glaringly, blindingly obvious to anyone even passingly familiar with her work that she is not some sort of sycophantic Kremlin suck-up, but is instead an active and vocal member of the opposition that, according to O'Sullivan, she supposedly 'disdains.'" Suggesting that O'Sullivan "doesn’t actually have the faintest idea who Masha Gessen is, because the entirety of her oeuvre bears almost no resemblance whatsoever to his description of it," Adomanis concluded that "it is absurd, and remarkably tasteless, to portray one of Russia’s bravest and most outspoken voices of political opposition as a soulless apparatchik...Although I often disagree with her conclusions, Gessen has always struck me as someone of remarkable moral consistency and impeccable honesty." O'Sullivan replied to Adomanis's article by maintaining that he had never portrayed Gessen as a Kremlin stooge and that he was, rather, "inclined to think...that Ms. Gessen is herself a victim of the current Radio Liberty crisis."
One of the groups that took the lead in opposing her hiring at Radio Liberty, the Kavkaz Center, a Chechen Islamic entity, suggested that a major part of the problem had been Gessen's criticism of religious groups, stating that "the person holding her position has no right to offend the religious feelings of both Muslims and Orthodox Christians."
Return to U.S.
In December 2013 she moved to New York because Russian authorities had begun to talk about taking children away from gay parents. In March, "the St Petersburg legislator [Milonov] who had become a spokesman for the law [against ‘homosexual propaganda] started mentioning me and my ‘perverted family’ in his interviews," and Gessen contacted an adoption lawyer asking whether I had reason to worry that social services would go after my family and attempt to remove my oldest son, whom I adopted in 2000." The lawyer told Gessen "to instruct my son to run if he is approached by strangers and concluding: ‘The answer to your question is at the airport.’" In June 2013, Gessen was beaten up outside of the Parliament "and I realised that in all my interactions, including professional ones, I no longer felt I was perceived as a journalist first: I am now a person with a pink triangle.” She stated that “a court would easily decide to annul Vova's adoption, and I wouldn't even know it." Given this potential threat to her family, Gessen "felt like no risk was small enough to be acceptable," she later told the CBC. "So we just had to get out."
In a January 2014 interview with ABC News, Gessen said that the Russian gay propaganda law had "led to a huge increase in antigay violence, including murders. It's led to attacks on gay and lesbian clubs and film festivals...and because these laws are passed supposedly to protect children, the people who are most targeted or have the most to fear are LGBT parents."
She wrote in February 2014 that Citibank had closed her bank account because of concern about Russian money-laundering operations. "Like other kinds of ethnic profiling," she complained, "these policies of weeding out Russian-Americans who have money are hardly efficient. Russians who launder money don’t do it by transferring large amounts between personal accounts opened in the same name and in plain view of all the relevant authorities. They channel the money through businesses registered in offshore zones, usually under names culled from pop songs or romantic comedies."
Gessen argued in a February 2014 article for Slate that the international, and especially American, LGBT movement had failed gay Russians at the Sochi Olympics. "The Sochi Games were the U.S. gay rights movement's first real attempt to venture into international work," she wrote. "It was an embarrassment. If U.S. groups continue to do nothing but stage fundraisers and strategy sessions, it will be a disgrace."
In a 12 March 2014, article for the Los Angeles Times, Gessen described Vladimir Putin as "a playground bully." While other world leaders "have generally tried to convince themselves and others that they were good people fighting the good fight," argued Gessen, Putin "has no positive spin for his aggression — or his actions in general," having created a political culture in Russia "based on the assumption that the world is rotten to the core," and "that all governments would like to jail their opponents and invade their neighbors, but most political leaders, most of the time, lack the courage to act on these desires." Gessen suggested that "For American culture, which relies heavily on a belief in the fundamental goodness of humanity," Putin's world view is "impossible...to absorb. It is another world indeed."
On 15 March 2014, Gessen wrote in the Washington Post that Putin's popularity had been restored thanks to the Sochi Olympics and invasion of Ukraine, which had played on the longstanding notion "that Russia is a country under siege, surrounded by enemies and constantly on the brink of catastrophe." She added that "the only way to continue shoring up his popularity is to escalate war rhetoric and the war effort," to paint "the Western/fascist/Ukrainian enemy as ever more dangerous and the Russian invasion of Ukraine as ever more important. This means he is not interested in a peaceful solution or, as some Western analysts have hopefully suggested, in an exit strategy that would allow him to ‘save face.’"
On 31 March 2014, Gessen wrote an op-ed piece in the Washington Post on Putin's speech to the Duma in which she expressed concern that "Russia is remaking itself as the leader of the anti-Western world". Gessen stated that when Putin "says he is protecting ethnic Russians in Ukraine, he means he is protecting them from the many terrible things that come from the West," notably gay rights. In the view of Russians, argued Gessen, the West "is literally taking over, and only Russian troops" can protect Ukraine from "the homosexuals marching in from Brussels."
The New York Times published a piece by Gessen on 28 April 2014, about two gay Russian journalists who had been allegedly framed on drug charges and fled to the U.S.
The Man Without a Face: The Unlikely Rise of Vladimir Putin
The New York Review of Books described the book as written in "beautifully clear and eloquent English," and stated that it was "at heart a description of th[e] secret police milieu" from which Putin originated and was "also very good at evoking…the culture and atmosphere within which [Putin] was raised, and the values he came to espouse." The Guardian called the book "luminous"; the Telegraph called it "courageous". The book was "translated into 20 languages," according to Gessen.
Words Will Break Cement: The Passion of Pussy Riot
A.D. Miller wrote in the Telegraph that "even readers who do not share Gessen's esteem for Pussy Riot as artists will be convinced of their courage." Miller described Gessen as "the right person to tell this story" and said her journalistic approach was "scrupulous and sensitive". Booklist described the book as "prickly, frank, precise, and sharply witty." The New York Times called it "urgent" and "damning." The Washington Post called the book an "excellent" portrait of Pussy Riot and said that "Gessen gives a particularly brilliant account of their trials." The Los Angeles Times said that Gessen was "Not just a keen observer of these events" but "also an impassioned partisan."
The Brothers: The Road to an American Tragedy
The New York Times reported in May 2013 that Gessen had signed a contract to write a book for Riverhead, an imprint of the Penguin Group, about the Tsarnaev brothers, the perpetrators of the Boston Marathon bombings.
Honors and awards
Gessen won the 2013 Media for Liberty award for her Vanity Fair article "The Wrath of Putin".
Gessen has given talks around the Western world and has appeared on Skavlan (Sweden), PBS News Hour, MSNBC, and the Australian comedy news program Mad as Hell. She spoke at the Council on Foreign Relations in 2012. In the same year, she spoke at the Personal Democracy Forum in New York.
In 2004 Gessen was married in the U.S. to Svetlana Generalova, a Russian citizen who was also involved in the LGBT movement in Moscow. By the time Gessen returned to the U.S. from Russia in December 2013, she was married to Darya Oreshkina. Gessen is, however, opposed to the existence of marriage at all, and advocates for the fundamental change of the institution of marriage, including her three children being legally able to have five parents.
Gessen has three children, the older two being a boy, Vova, and a girl, Yolka, both of whom are U.S. citizens. Vova was born in 1997 in Russia and was adopted by Gessen from an orphanage in Kaliningrad for the children of HIV-positive women. Yolka was born to Gessen in the U.S. in 2001. A third child, a son, was born to Oreshkina in February 2012. Gessen is quoted saying "her own brother is the father of her second wife's daughter."
- Masha Gessen (1993). The Rights of Lesbians and Gay Men in the Russian Republic. International Gay & Lesbian Human Rights Comm. p. 60. ISBN 978-1-884955-13-6.
- Masha Gessen, ed. (1995). Half a Revolution: Contemporary Fiction by Russian Women. Cleis Press. p. 269. ISBN 978-1-57344-006-6.
- Masha Gessen (1997). Dead Again: The Russian Intelligentsia after Communism. Verso. p. 211. ISBN 978-1-85984-147-1.
- Masha Gessen (2004). Ester and Ruzya: How My Grandmothers Survived Hitler's War and Stalin's Peace. Dial Press Trade Paperback. p. 384. ISBN 978-0-385-33605-5.
- Masha Gessen (2008). Blood Matters: From Inherited Illness to Designer Babies, How the World and I Found Ourselves in the Future of the Gene. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. p. 336. ISBN 978-0-15-101362-3. (a New York Times Notable Book of the year)
- Masha Gessen (2009). Perfect Rigor: A Genius and the Mathematical Breakthrough of the Century. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. p. 256. ISBN 978-0-15-101406-4. (about Grigori Perelman)
- Masha Gessen (2012). The Man Without a Face: The Unlikely Rise of Vladimir Putin. Riverhead Hardcover. p. 304. ISBN 978-1-59448-842-9.
- Masha Gessen (2014). id=zVw2AAAAQBAJ&printsec=frontcover Words Will Break Cement: The Passion of Pussy Riot. Riverhead Hardcover. p. 320. ISBN 978-1-59463-219-8.
- Masha Gessen (co-editor) (2014). Gay Propaganda: Russian Love Stories. OR Books. p. 224. ISBN 978-1-939293-35-0.
- Gessen, Masha (2014-01-09). "A Kind of Racism We’re Not Used To". New York Times. Retrieved 2014-05-31.
- UNC. "Masha Gessen: "The Rise of Radical ‘Family Values’ in Russia". University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. Retrieved 15 May 2014.
- Hayes, Chris. "Russian Journalist Gives a Snapshot of Gay Life in Russia Masha Gessen w Chris Hayes". MSNBC. Retrieved 15 May 2014.
- Joanna Smith Rakoff. Talking with Masha Gessen. Newsday, 2 January 2005.
- Biography of Maria Hessen. (Russian)
- Gessen, Masha. "Dead Soul". Vanity Fair. Retrieved 15 May 2014.
- NYT. "Powerlessness and Pretense". The New York Times. Retrieved 12 May 2014.
- Gessen, Masha. "When Putin Declared War on Gay Families, It Was Time for Mine to Leave Russia". Slate. Retrieved 15 May 2014.
- Amos, Howard (10 September 2012). "Vladimir Putin,Animals (News),Endangered species (Environment),Wildlife (Environment),World news,Conservation (Environment),Environment,Russia (News),Europe (News),Birds (environment)". The Guardian (London).
- Gessen, Masha (10 September 2012). "Flying Putin, Fired Editor". The New York Times.
- Skavlan, Fredrik. "American/Jewish/Russian journalist Masha Gessen wrote negative book about President Putin". Skavlan. Retrieved 15 May 2014.
- Aschberg, Robert. "Stora Journalistpriset 2012: Masha Gessen". Stora Journalistpriset 2012. Retrieved 15 May 2014.
- "Radio Liberty Hires Gessen". The Moscow Times. 17 September 2012. Retrieved 5 January 2013.
- Cohen, Ariel; Helle Dale (December 13, 2012). "How to Save Radio Liberty". The Heritage Foundation. Retrieved 5 January 2013.
- O'Sullivan, John. "Turmoil Over America's Radio Voice in Russia". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 15 May 2014.
- Bachrach, Judy. "Steven Korn's Disastrous Tenure at Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty: A Postmortem". World Affairs. Retrieved 15 May 2014.
- National Review. "On Masha Gessen and Radio Liberty". National Review Online. Retrieved 15 May 2014.
- Kavkaz Center. "Radical sodomite Masha Gessen fired from radio Liberty because of scandal". Kavkaz Center. Retrieved 19 May 2014.
- Ghomeshi, Jian. "World Pride: Masha Gessen on defiance and exile". Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved 28 June 2014.
- O'Brien, Lara. "Masha Gessen on the State of Vladimir Putin's Russia". CBC Radio. Retrieved 11 May 2014.
- ABC. "Russian Author and Activist Masha Gessen Answers 5 Questions". ABC News. Retrieved 12 May 2014.
- Gessen, Masha. "Banking While Russian". The New York Times. Retrieved 15 May 2014.
- Gessen, Masha. "How the International LGBTQ Rights Movement Failed Russian Gays in Sochi". Slate. Retrieved 15 May 2014.
- Gessen, Masha. "Is Vladimir Putin insane? Hardly". Olean Times Herald. Retrieved 19 May 2014.
- Gessen, Masha. "Putin wins in Russia only by escalating his war rhetoric". The Washington Post. Retrieved 19 May 2014.
- eng.kremlin.ru: "Presidential Address to the Federal Assembly" 12 Dec 2013
- washingtonpost.com: "Russia is remaking itself as the leader of the anti-Western world" (Gessen) 31 Mar 2014
- Gessen, Masha. "Salon of the Exiled". The New York Times. Retrieved 15 May 2014.
- Applebaum, Anne. "Vladimir’s Tale". New York Review of Books. Retrieved 17 May 2014.
- Harding, Luke. "The Man Without a Face by Masha Gessen – review". The Guardian. Retrieved 17 May 2014.
- Miller, A D. "The Man Without a Face: the Unlikely Rise of Vladimir Putin by Masha Gessen: review". The Telegraph. Retrieved 17 May 2014.
- Vuolo, Mike. "Words Will Break Cement: The Passion of Pussy Riot". Slate. Retrieved 17 May 2014.
- Miller, A D. "Words Will Break Cement: The Passion of Pussy Riot, by Masha Gessen, review". The Telegraph. Retrieved 17 May 2014.
- Booklist review
- Nazaryan, Alexander. "Punk, Skirts, Balaclavas: A Russian Revolution". The New York Times. Retrieved 17 May 2014.
- Applebaum, Anne. "Book review: ‘Words Will Break Cement: The Passion of Pussy Riot’ by Masha Gessen". The Washington Post. Retrieved 17 May 2014.
- Marcus, Sara. "'Words Will Break Cement' documents the Pussy Riot revolution". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 17 May 2014.
- Bosman, Julie. "First Book Is Planned on the Tsarnaev Brothers". The New York Times. Retrieved 17 May 2014.
- Swedish Grand Prize for Journalism
- Business Wire. "2013 Media for Liberty Award Honors Vanity Fair's "The Wrath of Putin" by Masha Gessen". Daily Finance.
- Council on Foreign Relations. "Russia Update". Retrieved 17 May 2014.
- Personal Democracy Forum. PDF12 - Masha Gessen - The Future of the Russian Protest Movement (YouTube). Council on Foreign Relations. Retrieved 17 May 2014.
- "Oslo Freedom Forum 2014 Speakers" (PDF).
- Семья Генераловых (участники ОСВВП), «Эхо Москвы», 09.06.2002. (Russian)
- Bethune, Brian. "Russian dissident Masha Gessen on Pussy Riot, Putin and Sochi". Maclean's. Retrieved 17 May 2014.
- Margolin, Emma; Johnny Simon. "Faces of Russia's LGBT community". Retrieved 17 May 2014.
- Lesbian Speaks Openly About Eradicating Marriage (YouTube). 2013. Retrieved 2014-05-31.
- Gessen, Masha. "As a gay parent I must flee Russia or lose my children". The Guardian. Retrieved 17 May 2014.
- Rucker, Jessi; Laura L. Griffin. "Developing: Six Arrested at Pussy Riot Demonstration". New York Observer. Retrieved 17 May 2014.
- theguardian.com, July 10 2004, 
- Bloomsbury Books author pages
- Review of Blood Matters, The Independent
- Review of "Words Will Break Cement: The Passion of Pussy Riot"
- "Vladimir Putin: The Grey Cardinal of Russia", Vanity Fair, October 2008.
- "The Wrath of Putin" re: Russian prime minister's relationship with Mikhail Khodorkovsky, Vanity Fair, April 2012.
- "A Call from the Kremlin" re: face-to-face meeting with Russian President Vladimir Putin, The New York Times, September 2012.
- "Putin Biography Chronicles Rise Of A 'Street Thug'", interview with Dave Davies on Fresh Air, 1 March 2012.