|Motto: City of paradise (Shahre behesht)|
|• Mayor (Ŝahrdār)||Sowlat Mortazavi|
|• City||850 km2 (330 sq mi)|
|• Metro||3,946 km2 (1,524 sq mi)|
|Elevation||985 m (3,232 ft)|
|• City||3,069,941 (Metropolitan)
3,131,586 (City itself)
|• Population Rank in Iran||2nd|
|Over 20 million pilgrims and tourists per year|
|Demonym||Mashhadi, Mashadi, Mashdi (informal)|
|Time zone||IRST (UTC+03:30)|
|• Summer (DST)||IRDT (UTC+04:30)|
Mashhad (Persian: مشهد ; listen (help·info)) is the second most populous city in Iran and capital of Razavi Khorasan Province. It is located in the northeast of the country, close to the borders of Afghanistan and Turkmenistan. Its population is 3,131,586 . It was a major oasis along the ancient Silk Road connecting with Merv in the East.
Mashhad is also known as the city of Ferdowsi, the Iranian poet of Shahnameh, which is considered to be the national epic of Iran. The city is the hometown of some of the most significant Iranian literary figures and artists such as Mehdi Akhavan-Sales, the famous contemporary poet, and Mohammad-Reza Shajarian, the traditional Iranian singer and composer. Ferdowsi and Akhavan Sales are both buried in Tus, an ancient city that is considered to be the main origin of the current city of Mashhad.
- 1 History
- 2 Geography and demographics
- 3 Religion
- 4 Economy
- 5 Language
- 6 Culture
- 7 Main sites
- 8 Gallery
- 9 Transportation
- 10 Colleges and universities
- 11 Major sport teams
- 12 Mashhad as capital of Persia and Independent Khorasan
- 13 Famous people from Mashhad and Tus
- 14 Sister cities
- 15 Consulates
- 16 See also
- 17 Footnotes
- 18 References
- 19 External links
The name Mashhad comes from Arabic, meaning the place of martyrdom the place where Ali ar-Ridha (Persian, Imam Reza), the eighth Imam of Shia Muslims, was martyred and so his shrine was placed there.
At the beginning of the 9th century (3rd century AH), Mashhad was a small village called Sanabad situated 24 km away from Tus. There was a summer palace of Humayd ibn Qahtaba, the governor of Khurasan. In 808, when Harun al-Rashid, Abbasid caliph, was passing through there to settle down the insurrection of Rafi ibn al-Layth in Transoxania, he became ill and died. He was buried under the palace of Humayd ibn Qahtaba. Several years later in 818 Ali al-Ridha was martyred by al-Ma'mun and was buried beside the grave of Harun.
After this event, the city was called Mashhad al-Ridha (the place of martyrdom of al-Ridha). Shias started visiting there for pilgrimage of his grave. By the end of the 9th century, a dome was built on the grave and many buildings and bazaars sprang up around it. During more than a millennium it has been devastated and reconstructed several times.
It was not considered a great city until Mongol raids in 1220, which caused the destruction of many large cities in Khurasan, leaving Mashhad relatively intact. Thus the survivors of the massacres migrated to Mashhad. When the traveller Ibn Battuta visited the town in 1333, he reported that it was a large town with abundant fruit trees, streams and mills. A great dome of elegant construction surmounts the noble mausoleum, the walls being decorated with colored tiles.
Later on, during the reign of the Timurid Shahrukh Mirza, Mashhad became one of the main cities of the realm. In 1418, his wife Goharshad funded the construction of an outstanding mosque beside the shrine, which is known as the Goharshad Mosque. The mosque remains relatively intact to this date, its great size an indicator to the status the city held in the 15th century.
Shah Ismail I, founder of the Safavid dynasty, conquered Mashhad after the death of Husayn Bayqarah and the decline of the Timurid dynasty. Mashhad was later captured by the Uzbeks during the reign of Shah Abbas I, only to be retaken by the Shah Abbas in 1597 after a long and hard struggle, defeating the Uzbeks in a great battle near Herat as well as managing to drive them beyond the Oxus River.
Shah Abbas I wanted to encourage Iranians to go to Mashhad for pilgrimage. He is said to have walked from Isfahan to Mashhad during the Safavid. During the Safavid era, Mashhad gained even more religious recognition, becoming the most important city of Greater Khorasan, as several Madrasah and other structures were built besides the Imam Reza shrine.
Besides its religious significance, Mashhad has played an important political role as well. It saw its greatest glory under Nadir Shah, ruler of Iran from 1736 to 1747 and also a great benefactor of the shrine of Imam Reza, who made the city his capital. Mashhad was ruled by Shahrukh Afshar and remained the capital of the Afsharid dynasty during Zand dynasty until Agha Mohammad Khan Qajar conquered the then larger region of Khorasan in 1796.
In 1912, the sanctuary of the Imam Reza was bombed by the Russian artillery fire, causing some damage, including to the golden dome, resulting in a widespread and persisting resentment in the Shiite Muslim world.
1935 Imam Reza shrine rebellion
In 1935, a backlash against the modernizing, anti-religious policies of Reza Shah erupted in the Mashhad shrine. Responding to a cleric who denounced the Shah's heretical innovations, corruption and heavy consumer taxes, many bazaaris and villagers took refuge in the shrine, chanted slogans such as "The Shah is a new Yezid." For four days local police and army refused to violate the shrine and the standoff was ended when troops from Azerbaijan arrived and broke into the shrine, killing dozens and injuring hundreds, and marking a final rupture between Shi'ite clergy and the Shah.
1994 Imam Reza shrine bombing
On June 20, 1994, an explosion from a bomb occurred in a prayer hall of the shrine of the Imam Reza The bomb that killed at least 25 people on June 20 in Mashhad exploded at Ashura. The Baluch terrorist, Ramzi Yousef, a Sunni Muslim turned Wahhabi, one of the main perpetrators of the 1993 World Trade Center bombing, was found to be behind the plot. However, official state media blamed Mehdi Nahvi, a supposed member of the People's Mujahedin of Iran (MKO) in order to prevent sectarian violence.
Panoramic view of Mashhad City
Geography and demographics
The city is located at 36.20º North latitude and 59.35º East longitude, in the valley of the Kashaf River near Turkmenistan, between the two mountain ranges of Binalood and Hezar-masjed. The city benefits from the proximity of the mountains, having cool winters, pleasant springs, mild summers, and beautiful autumns. It is only about 250 km (160 mi) from Ashgabat, Turkmenistan.
The city is the administrative center of Mashhad County (or the Shahrestan of Mashhad) as well as the somewhat smaller district (Bakhsh) of Mashhad. The city itself, excluding parts of the surrounding Bakhsh and Shahrestan, is divided into 13 smaller administrative units, with a total population of more than 3 million.
The vast majority of Mashhadi people are ethnic Persians, who form over 95% of the city's population. Other ethnic groups include Kurdish and Turkmen people who have emigrated recently to the city from the North Khorasan province. The people of Mashhad who look like Asians are of Turkmen or Hazara descent.
Among the non-Iranians, there are immigrant population of Afghanistan, Iraq and Pakistan. The Afghan immigrants have several neighborhoods around the city. One of the districts inhabited by Afghan immigrants is Golshahr.
There are also over 20 million pilgrims who visit the city every year.
Mashhad features a steppe climate (Köppen BSk) with hot summers and cool winters. The city only sees about 250 mm of precipitation per year, some of which occasionally falls in the form of snow. Mashhad also has wetter and drier periods with the bulk of the annual precipitation falling between the months of December and May. Summers are typically hot and dry, with high temperatures sometimes exceeding 35 °C (95 °F). Winters are typically cool to cold and somewhat damper, with overnight lows routinely dropping below freezing. Mashhad enjoys on average just under 2900 hours of sunshine per year.
|Climate data for Mashhad|
|Record high °C (°F)||24
|Average high °C (°F)||7.2
|Average low °C (°F)||−3.8
|Record low °C (°F)||−27
|Precipitation mm (inches)||33
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||149.1||147.3||161.2||198.6||279.2||341.7||366.1||358.7||304.5||247.4||187.5||151.1||2,892.4|
Today, the holy shrine and its museum hold one of the most extensive cultural and artistic treasuries of Iran, in particular manuscript books and paintings. Several important theological schools are associated with the shrine of the Eighth Imam.
The second largest holy city in the world, Mashhad attracts more than 20 million tourists and pilgrims every year, many of whom come to pay homage to the Imam Reza shrine (the eighth Shi'ite Imam). It has been a magnet for travellers since medieval times. Thus, even as those who complete the pilgrimage to Mecca receive the title of Haji, those who make the pilgrimage to Mashhad—and especially to the Imam Reza shrine—are known as Mashtee, a term employed also of its inhabitants.
Mashhad is Iran's second largest automobile production hub.The city’s economy is based mainly on dry fruits, salted nuts, saffron, Iranian sweets like gaz and sohaan, precious stones like agates, turquoise, intricately designed silver jewelry studded with rubies and emeralds, eighteen carat gold jewelry, perfumes, religious souvenirs, trench coats, scarves, termeh, carpets and rugs.
Among the major industries in the city, there is nutrition industries, clothing, leather, textiles, chemicals, steel and non-metallic mineral industries, construction materials factories, handicraft industry and metal industries.
With more than 55% of hotels in Iran, Mashhad is the hub of tourism in Iran
In the geography of tourism, religious places known as the most powerful hub to attract travelers around the world, every year 20 to 30 million pilgrims from Iran and more than 2 million pilgrims and tourists from around the world come to Mashhad.
Mashhad is one of the main producers of leather products in the region.
The city's International Exhibition Center is the second most active exhibition center after Tehran, which due to proximity to Central Asian countries hosts dozens of international exhibitions each year.
Companies such as Smart-innovators in Mashhad are pioneers in electrical and computer technology.
The language mainly spoken in Mashhad is Persian Mashhadi accent.
Long a center of secular and religious learning, Mashhad has been a center for the arts and for the sciences. The Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, named after the great Iranian poet, is located here. The Madrassa of Ayatollah Al-Khoei, originally built in the seventeenth century and recently replaced with modern facilities, is the city's foremost traditional centre for religious learning. The Razavi University of Islamic Sciences, founded in 1984, stands at the centre of town, within the shrine complex. The prestige of traditional religious education at Mashhad attracts students, known as Talabeh, or "Mollah" internationally.
Mashhad is also home to one of the oldest libraries of the Middle-East called the Central Library of Astan-e Quds Razavi with a history of over six centuries. The Astan-e Quds Razavi Museum, which is part of the Astan-e Quds Razavi Complex, is home to over 70,000 rare manuscripts from various historical eras. There are some six million historical documents in the foundation's central library.
In 1569 (977 H), 'Imad al-Din Mas'ud Shirazi, a physician at the Mashhad hospital, wrote the earliest Islamic treatise on syphilis, one influenced by European medical thought. Kashmar rug is a type of Persian rug indigenous to this region.
Mashhad active galleries include: Mirak Gallery, Parse Gallery, Rezvan Gallery, Soroush Gallery, and the Narvan Gallery.
Apart from Imam Reza shrine, there are a number of large parks, the tombs of historical celebrities in nearby Tus and Nishapur, the tomb of Nadir Shah and Kooh Sangi park. The Koohestan Park-e-Shadi Complex includes a zoo, where many wild animals are kept and which attracts many visitors to Mashhad. It is also home to the Mashhad Airbase (formerly Imam Reza airbase), jointly a military installation housing Mirage aircraft, and a civilian international airport.
Some points of interest lie outside the city: the tomb of Khajeh Morad, along the road to Tehran; the tomb of Khajeh Rabi' located 6 kilometers north of the city where there are some inscriptions by the renowned Safavid calligrapher Reza Abbasi; and the tomb of Khajeh Abasalt, a distance of 20 kilometers from Mashhad along the road to Neishabur. (The three were all disciples of Imam Reza).
The Shah Public Bath, built during the Safavid era in 1648, is an outstanding example of the architecture of that period. It was recently restored, and is to be turned into a museum.
Mashhad is the major trade center of saffron in Iran.
Many beautiful handicraft products are sold in Shandiz and Torghabeh.
Haruniyeh Dome in Tous
St. Mesrop Armenian church in Mashhad
Nader Shah Museum in Mashhad
Mashhad is served by the Mashhad International Airport, which handles domestic flights to Iranian cities and international flights, mostly to neighbouring Arab countries.The airport is the country's second busiest after Tehran Mehrabad Airport and above the famous Tehran's Imam Khomeini International Airport.
The Mashhad Urban Railway Corporation (MURCO) is constructing a metro system for the city of Mashhad which includes four lines with 77 km length. The first phase (line) of the metro has been exploited in 21 Feb 2011 with 19 km length and 22 stations and will be connected to Mashhad International Airport. The second line with 14 km length and 12 stations is under construction and is projected to be finished by 2014.
Mashhad is connected to three major rail lines: Tehran-Mashhad, Mashhad-Bafgh (running south), and Mashhad-Sarakhs at the border with Turkmenistan. Some freight trains continue from Sarakhs towards Uzbekistan and to Kazakhstan, but have to change bogies because of the difference in Rail gauge. A rail line is being constructed off the Mashhad-Bafgh line to connect Mashhad to Herat in Afghanistan, but has not yet been completed and one is planned to connect to the Gorgan railhead and the port of Bandar Torkaman on the Caspian Sea to the west. Passenger rail services are provided by Raja Passenger Trains Company and all trains are operated by R.A.I., Rah-Ahan (Railway) of Iran, the national railway company.
Colleges and universities
- Ferdowsi University of Mashhad (FUM)
- Mashhad University of Medical Sciences
- Islamic Azad University of Mashhad
- Mashhad Technical Institute (Shahid Mohammad Montazeri)
- Payame Noor University of Mashhad
- Khorasan Institute of Higher Education
- Sadjad Institute of Higher Education
- Khayyam Higher Education Inistitute (KHEI)
- Imam Reza International University
- Razavi University of Islamic Sciences
- Sport Sciences Research Institute of Iran
- Salman Institute of Higher Education
- Iranian Academic Center for Education, Culture and Research, Mashhad Branch (Jahad Daneshgahi of Mashhad)
- Khavaran Institute of Higher Education
- Toos Institute of Higher Education
- Shahid Beheshti Teacher Training College
- Shahid Khorshidi Teacher training College
- Asrar Institute of Higher Education
- Samen Institute of Higher Education
- Khayyam Institute of Higher Education
- Alzahra Girls Technical College of Mashhad
- Bahar Institute of Higher Education
- Binalood Institute of Higher Education
- Eqbal Lahoori Institute of Higher Education
- Institute of Applied and Practical Sciences, Khorasan Razavi
Major sport teams
||Football||Samen Stadium and Takhti Stadium (Mashhad)||
|Mizan Khorasan VC||
||Volleyball||Shahid Beheshti Sport Complex||
|Farsh Ara Mashhad FSC||
||Futsal||Shahid Beheshti Sport Complex||
|Ferdosi Mashhad FSC||
||Futsal||Shahid Beheshti Sport Complex||
|Rahahan Khorasan W.C.||
||Freestyle wrestling||Mohammad Ali Sahraei Hall|
Mashhad as capital of Persia and Independent Khorasan
- Kianid Dynasty
- Malek Mahmoud Sistani 1722–1726
- Afsharid dynasty
- Nadir Shah
- Adil Shah
- Ebrahim Afshar
- Shah Rukh of Persia
- Nadir Mirza of Khorasan
- Safavid Dynasty
- Soleyman II
- Autonomous Government of Khorasan
- Colonel Mohammad Taghi Khan Pessyan
Famous people from Mashhad and Tus
- Religious and political figures
- Amirteymour Kalali, prominent Iraninan statesman
- Abdolhossein Teymourtash, prominent Iraninan statesman and first minister of justice under the Pahlavis
- Shaykh Tusi, 385–460 A.H.; prominent Persian scholar of the Shi'a Twelver Islamic belief
- Nasir al-Din al-Tusi, born February 1201 in Tūs, Khorasan – 26 June 1274 in al-Kāżimiyyah near Baghdad; Persian of the Ismaili and subsequently Twelver Shī‘ah Islamic belief
- Seyyed Ali Khamenei, born 17 July 1939; former president and current supreme leader of Iran
- Sheikh Ali Tehrani, brother-in-law of Seyyed Ali Khamenei, currently living in Iran. He is one of the oppositions of current Iranian government.
- Nizam al-Mulk, 1018 – 14 October 1092; celebrated Persian scholar and vizier of the Seljuq Empire
- Al-Hurr al-Aamili, Shia scholar and muhaddith
- Al-Ghazali, 1058–1111; Islamic theologian, jurist, philosopher, cosmologist, psychologist and mystic of Persian origin
- Timur Shah Durrani, Emir of Afghanistan 1772-1793
- Ali al-Sistani, born approximately August 4, 1930; Twelver Shi'a marja residing in Iraq since 1951
- Mohammad-Kazem Khorasani, 1839–1911; Twelver Shi'a Marja, Persian (Iranian) politician, philosopher, reformer
- Hossein Vahid Khorasani, born in 1924; Iranian Twelver Shi'a Marja
- Mohammad-Ali Abtahi, born January 27, 1958; former Vice President of Iran and a close associate of former reformist President Mohammad Khatami
- Abu Muslim Khorasani, c. 700–755; Abu Muslim Abd al-Rahman ibn Muslim al-Khorasani, Abbasid general of Persian origin
- Manouchehr Eghbal, October 14, 1909 – November 25, 1977, a Prime Minister of Iran
- Shah Rukh (Timurid dynasty), August 20, 1377 – March 12, 1447; ruler of the eastern portion of the empire established by the Central Asian warlord Timur (Tamerlane)
- Goharshad, Persian noble and wife of Shāh Rukh, the emperor of the Timurid Dynasty of Herāt
- Mohammad Bagher Ghalibaf, born August 23, 1961 in Torghabeh, near Mashhad; the current Mayor of Tehran, Iran
- Hassan Rahimpour Azghadi, Conservative political strategist and popular television personality in the Islamic Republic of Iran
- Hadi Khamenei, b. 1947; mid-ranking cleric who is a member of the reformist Association of Combatant Clerics
- Seyed Hassan Firuzabadi, current major general, Islamic Republic of Iran
- Saeed Jalili, born 1965 in Mashhad; Iranian politician and the present secretary of Iran's Supreme National Security Council
- Writers and scientists
- Arion Golmakani, آریان گلمکانی An American author of Iranian origin. His award-winning memoir Solacers details his childhood in Mashhad.
- Ferdowsi, 935–1020 in Tus; a Persian poet
- Abu-Mansur Daqiqi, 935/942–976/980
- Abolfazl Beyhaqi, 995–1077; a Persian historian and author
- Abusa'id Abolkhayr, December 7, 967 – January 12, 1049 / Muharram ul Haram 1, 357 – Sha'aban 4, 440 AH; famous Persian Sufi who contributed extensively to the evolution of Sufi tradition
- Anvari, 1126–1189, one of the greatest Persian poets
- Mehdi Akhavan-Sales, 1928, Mashhad, Iran – 1990, Tehran, Iran; a Persian poet
- Mohammad-Taghi Bahar, November 6, 1884, Mashhad, Iran – April 22, 1951; Tehran, Iran
- Asadi Tusi, born in Tus, Iranian province of Khorasan, died 1072 Tabriz, Iran; Persian poet of Iranian national epics
- Mohammad Mokhtari (writer), Iranian writer who was murdered on the outskirts of Tehran in the course of the Chain Murders of Iran.
- Abū Ja'far al-Khāzin, 900–971; Persian astronomer and mathematician from Khorasan
- Abū al-Wafā' Būzjānī, 10 June 940 – 1 July 998; Persian mathematician and astronomer
- Sharaf al-Dīn al-Ṭūsī, 1135–1213; Persian mathematician and astronomer of the Islamic Golden Age (during the Middle Ages)
- Jābir ibn Hayyān, c. 721 in Tus – c. 815 in Kufa; prominent polymath: a chemist and alchemist, astronomer and astrologer, engineer, geologist, philosopher, physicist, and pharmacist and physician
- Mohammad-Reza Shajarian, born September 23, 1940 in Mashhad, Iran; internationally and critically acclaimed Persian traditional singer, composer and Master (Ostad) of Persian music
- Homayoun Shajarian, Mohammad-Reza Shajarian's son, born May 21, 1975; renowned Persian classical music vocalist, as well as a Tombak and Kamancheh player
- Hamid Motebassem, born 1958 in Mashhad, Iranian musician and tar and setar player
- Noureddin Zarrinkelk, born 1937 in Mashhad, Iran; renowned Iranian animator, concept artist, editor, graphic designer, illustrator, layout artist, photographer, script writer and sculptor
- Dariush Arjmand, Iranian actor
- Reza Kianian, born July 17, 1951 in Mashhad, Iran, Iranian actor
- Reza Attaran, born 31 March 1968 in Mashhad; Iranian actor and director
- Hamed Behdad, born 17 November 1973 in Mashhad, Iran; Iranian actor
- Marshall Manesh, born 16 August 1950 in Mashhad; Iranian-American actor
- Navid Negahban, born 2 June 1968 in Mashhad; Iranian-American actor
- Mahdi Bemani Naeini, born November 3, 1968; Iranian film director, cinematographer, TV cameraman and photographer
- Rafi Pitts, born 1967 in Mashhad, Iran; internationally acclaimed Iranian film director
- Javad Jalali, born 30 May 1977 in Mashhad, Iranian Photographer and Cinematographer
- Iran Darroudi, born September 2, 1936 in Mashhad; Iranian artist
- Mohsen Namjoo, born 1976 in Torbat-e-Jaam; Iranian singer-songwriter, author, musician, and setar player
- Mitra Hajjar, born February 4, 1977; Iranian actress
- Ovanes Ohanian, ?–1961 Tehran; Armenian-Iranian filmmaker who established the first film school in Iran
- Abū al-Wafā' al-Būzjānī, 10 June 940 – 1 July 998; Persian mathematician and astronomer
- Anousheh Ansari, born 12 September 1966; the Iranian-American co-founder and chairman of Prodea Systems, Inc and a spaceflight participant with the Russian space program
- Sports figures
- Heshmat Mohajerani, born January, 1936 in Mashhad, Iran; Iranian football coach, manager, and former player
- Khodadad Azizi, born June 22, 1971 in Mashhad, Iran; retired professional football striker
- Alireza Vahedi Nikbakht, born June 30, 1980 in Mashhad; Iranian professional football player
- Hossein Badamaki, Iranian professional football player
- Mohammad Mansouri, Iranian professional football player
- Reza Enayati, Iranian professional football player
- Reza Ghoochannejhad, Iranian-Dutch professional football player
- Kia Zolgharnain, Iranian-American former Futsaler/Indoor soccer player
- Mohsen Ghahramani, Iranian football referee
- Mohsen Torki, Iranian football referee
- Hasan Kamranifar, Iranian football referee
- Hossein Sokhandan, Iranian football referee
- Amir Reza Khadem, born February 10, 1970 in Mashhad, wrestler
- Rasoul Khadem, born February 17, 1972 in Mashhad, wrestler
- Mohammad Khadem, wrestler
- Amir Tavakkolian, wrestler
- Majid Khodaei, wrestler
- Ali Baghbanbashi, athlete
- Maryam Sedarati, athlete, Iran record holder in women high jump for three decades
- Abolfazl Safavi, Iran professional football player for Aboumoslem team in Takhte Jamshid League; He was later executed in prison by the Iranian regime in 1982 for his affiliation with Iranian opposition, the MEK
- Abbas Golmakani, World's wrestling champion during the 1950s
- Hamed Afagh, basketballer
- Masoud Haji Akhondzadeh, judoka
- Javad Mahjoub, judoka
- Amir Ghaseminejad, judoka
- Hamid Reza Mobarez, swimmer
- Ali Akbar Fayyaz, a renowned historian of early Islam and literary critic, founder of the School of Letters and Humanities at the Ferdowsi University of Mashhad
- Mahmoud Khayami, born 1930 in Mashhad, Iran; Iranian born industrialist and philanthropist, of French nationality
- Hossein Sabet, Iranian businessman and Persian carpet dealer who owns Sabet International Trading Co.
- Hesam Kolahan, World Wide Web Consortium (W3C).
- Munich, Germany
- Milan, Italy (August 2012)
- Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia (October 2006)
- Karachi, Pakistan (May 2012)
- Lahore, Pakistan (2006)
- Fresno, United States
- Santiago de Compostela, Spain
- Ürümqi, China
- Mazari Sharif, Afghanistan
- Afghanistan (1921- )
- Iraq (2007- )
- Kyrgyzstan (1996- )
- Pakistan (1975- ) 
- Saudi Arabia (2004- ) 
- Tajikistan (Visa Interests Office: 1995-2010, Consulate-General: 2010- )
- Turkmenistan (1995- )
- United Kingdom (1889–1975)
- Russia (1889–1917)
- USSR (1917–1937,1941-1979)
- Turkey (1930-?)
- China (c.1940s)
- USA (1949-?)
- West Germany (c.1984)
- Kazakhstan (1995-2009)
- The National Library of Astan Quds Razavi
- Mashadi Jewish Community
- Sport Sciences Research Institute of Iran
- "Sacred Sites: Mashhad, Iran". sacredsites.com. Retrieved 2006-03-13.
- "Local Government Profile". United Nations Office for Disaster Risk Reduction. Retrieved 4 February 2014.
- E.J. Brill's First Encyclopaedia of Islam 1913–1936 p. 127
- The Shias: A Short Gistory, Heinz Halm, p. 26
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- Zabeth (1999) pp. 13–16.
- Zabeth (1999) pp. 14–15.
- نوایی، عبدالحسین. کریم خان زند
- Cyrus Ghani (6 January 2001). Iran and the Rise of the Reza Shah: From Qajar Collapse to Pahlavi Power. I.B.Tauris. p. 9. ISBN 978-1-86064-629-4. Retrieved 4 November 2012.
- Ervand, History of Modern Iran, (2008), p.94
- Bakhash, Shaul, Reign of the Ayatollahs : Iran and the Islamic Revolution by Shaul, Bakhash, Basic Books, c1984, p.22
- "ABC Evening News for Monday, Jun 20, 1994". Tvnews.vanderbilt.edu. 1994-06-20. Retrieved 2009-06-19.
- "Explosive circles: Iran. (Mashhad bombing)". Highbeam.com. 1994-06-25. Retrieved 2009-06-19.
- "Context of 'Mid-1994: Ramzi Yousef Works Closely with Al-Qaeda Leaders". Historycommons.org. Retrieved March 25, 2010.
- . Fars News Agency. 21 February 2011 http://www.farsnews.com/newstext.php?nn=8912020113. Retrieved 29 July 2011 (in Persian). Check date values in:
|accessdate=(help); Missing or empty
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|accessdate=(help); Missing or empty
- "هیات کشتی استان خراسان رضوی". Razavisport.ir. Retrieved 2010-11-12.
- "Mashad-Kuala Lumpur Become Sister cities". FARS News Agency. 2006-10-14. Retrieved 2010-09-23.
- "Karachi and Mashhad Declared Sister Cities". Daily Times. 2012-05-12.
- "Leading News Resource of Pakistan". Daily Times. 2007-03-02. Retrieved 2010-11-12.
- "Saudi consulate opens in Iranian city of Mashhad". Asia Africa Intelligence Wire. 12 July 2004.
- Onley, James. The Arabian Frontier of the British Raj: Merchants, Rulers, and the British in the Nineteenth-Century Gulf. New York: Oxford University Press, 2007, p. 15. ISBN 0-19-922810-8.
- Zabeth, Hyder Reza (1999). Landmarks of Mashhad. Mashhad, Iran: Islamic Research Foundation. ISBN 964-444-221-0.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Mashhad.|
|Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Mashhad.|
- Municipality of Mashhad Official website (in Persian)
- Astan Quds Razavi
- e-Mashhad Mashhad Portal Official website (in Persian)
|Capital of Iran (Persia)
|Capital of Afsharid dynasty