Massachusetts Board of Education
The Massachusetts Board of Education (BOE) is the state education agency responsible for interpreting and implementing laws relevant to public education in the Commonwealth of Massachusetts. Public education in the Commonwealth is organized according to the regulations adopted by the BOE, which are good faith interpretations of Massachusetts state and federal law. The BOE's responsibilities include granting and renewing charter school applications, developing and implementing the Massachusetts Comprehensive Assessment System (MCAS), submitting yearly budget proposals for public education to the Massachusetts General Court, setting the standards for and certifying teachers, principals, and superintendents, and monitoring — as well as intervening to ameliorate — the achievement of underperforming districts in the Commonwealth.
The BOE was established in 1837 and is the oldest state board of education in the United States. Governor Edward Everett had recommended the establishment of a board of education in his address to the 1837 legislature's opening session. His brief argument ran as follows:
While nothing can be further from my purpose, than to disparage the common schools as they are, and while a deep sense of personal obligation to them will ever be cherished by me, it must yet be candidly admitted that they are susceptible of great improvements. The school houses might, in many cases, be rendered more commodious. Provision ought to be made for affording the advantages of education, throughout the whole year, to all of a proper age to receive it. Teachers well qualified to give elementary instruction in all the branches of useful knowledge, should be employed; and small school libraries, maps, globes, and requisite scientific apparatus should be furnished. I submit to the Legislature, whether the creation of a board of commissioners of schools, to serve without salary, with authority to appoint a secreatry, on a reasonable compensation, to be paid from the school fund, would not be of great utility.
The legislature's Committee on Education, led by Senate chairman Josiah Quincy, Jr. and House chairman James G. Carter, sponsored a bill which was initially soundly defeated in the House. Largely as a result of efforts by Mr. Carter, the bill was eventually passed. Horace Mann, President of the Massachusetts State Senate at the time, was appointed the board's first Secretary.
The BOE is composed of eleven members. Ten are appointed by the governor, including his Secretary of Education, who serves ex officio, and one is a public school student elected by his or her peers. The eleven voting members are: "the chairman of the student advisory council established under this section; 1 representative of a labor organization selected by the governor from a list of 3 nominees provided by the Massachusetts State Labor Council, AFL-CIO; 1 representative of business or industry selected by the governor with a demonstrated commitment to education; 1 representative of parents of school children selected by the governor from a list of 3 nominees provided by the Massachusetts Parent Teachers Association; and 6 members selected by the governor."  The Chairperson of the BOE is appointed by the governor. The secretary of the BOE must be approved by a two thirds vote and serves at the Board's pleasure as the chief executive officer, the Chief State School Officer for Elementary and Secondary Education, and the Commissioner of Education. The Commissioner attends BOE meetings, but does not vote. He is responsible for managing the Massachusetts Department of Education and receives a salary which is determined by the Board. 
Prior to legislation introduced by Governor Patrick in 2008, the Board was composed of nine voting members.
Advisory Councils 
A number of Advisory Councils, created by Chapter 15: Section 1G of the General Laws of Massachusetts, support the Board with research, recommendations and — in the case of the Student Advisory Council — is represented by a voting member of the Board. The advisory councils include:
Adult Basic Education 
Arts Education 
Braille Literacy 
Community Service Learning 
Educational Personnel 
Educational Technology 
English Language Learners/Bilingual Education 
Gifted and Talented Education 
Global Education 
Interdisciplinary Health Education and Human Services 
Life Management Skills and Home Economics 
Mathematics and Science Education 
Parent and Community Education and Involvement 
Racial Imbalance 
Special Education 
Massachusetts State Student Advisory Council
Technology/Engineering Education 
Student Membership 
The Massachusetts BOE is unique in that one of its nine members is a Massachusetts public school student. Legislation was filed in 1971 by Governor Francis W. Sargent which created the position. By this same legislation, the Massachusetts State Student Advisory Council was established. The Chairperson of this Council sits as a full voting member on the Massachusetts BOE. Governor Sargent said at the filing of the bill, "If we are to replace confrontation with deliberation and shouting with dialogue, youth must be invited in, not shut out. We have ... a climate where young and old can sit together, talk, and listen."
Current members 
Maura Banta, Chair, Melrose
Harneen Chernow, Vice Chair, Jamaica Plain
Gerald Chertavian, Cambridge
Ryan P. Casey, Chair, Student Advisory Council, Franklin
Thomas E. Fortmann, Lexington
Beverly Holmes, Springfield
Jeff Howard, Reading
Ruth Kaplan, Brookline
Paul Reville, Secretary of Education, Worcester
Sandra L. Stotsky, Brookline
Dana Mohler-Faria, Bridgewater
Mitchell D. Chester, Commissioner of Elementary and Secondary Education, Secretary to the Board
Former members 
Horace Mann - First secretary of the board (1837)
George S. Boutwell
Michael D'Ortenzio Jr., Chair Emeritus, State Student Advisory Council
Jeff DeFlavio, Chair Emeritus, State Student Advisory Council
Andrew "AJ" Fajnzylber, Chair Emeritus, State Student Advisory Council
Charles D. Baker, Jr.
Dr. Stanley Z. Koplik
James A. Peyser 
Dr. Judith Gill
Henry M. Thomas, III
- Massachusetts General Court records for 1837, Senate #1, Page 17.
- Martin, George H. (1915). The Evolution of the Massachusetts Public School System: a historical sketch. New York and London: D. Appleton and Company.