Massimo d'Azeglio

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Massimo d'Azeglio
Francesco Hayez 048.jpg
Francesco Hayez: Massimo d'Azeglio 1860
Prime Minister of the Kingdom of Sardinia
In office
7 May 1849 – 4 November 1852
Preceded by Claudio Gabriele de Launay
Succeeded by Camillo Benso, conte di Cavour
Personal details
Born (1798-10-24)24 October 1798
Turin, Italy
Died 15 January 1866(1866-01-15) (aged 67)
Turin, Italy
Political party Historical Right

Massimo Taparelli, marquis d'Azeglio (Italian pronunciation: [ˈmassimo tapaˈrɛlli dadˈdzɛʎʎo]) (24 October 1798 – 15 January 1866) was an Italian statesman, novelist and painter.[1]

Biography - Early Life[edit]

Massimo Taparelli, Marquis d'Azeglio, born in Turin, was descended from an ancient and noble Piedmontese family. His father, Cesare d'Azeglio, an officer in the Piedmontese army, held a high position at court; on the return of Pope Pius VII to Rome after the fall of Napoleon, he was sent as special envoy to the Holy See and took his son, then sixteen years of age, with him as an extra attaché. Young Massimo was given a commission in a cavalry regiment, which he soon relinquished on account of his health. During his residence in Rome he acquired a love for art and music and decided to become a painter, to the horror of his conservative, aristocratic family. His father reluctantly consented, and Massimo settled in Rome, devoting himself to art.

Early Political Career[edit]

He led an abstemious life in Rome, maintaining himself by painting Romantic landscapes which frequently included historical subjects. He also painted scenes for an opera composed by himself.[2] In 1830 he returned to Turin and after his father's death in 1831 moved to Milan. There he remained for twelve years, moving in the literary and artistic circles of the city and in 1834 helping to organise the Salotto Maffei salon, hosted by Clara Maffei. He became an intimate of Alessandro Manzoni the novelist, whose daughter he married. At that point, literature instead of art became his chief occupation; he produced two historical novels, Niccolò dei Lapi and Ettore Fieramosca, in imitation of Walter Scott. The noveld had a strong political context, with d'Azeglio aiming to illustrate the evils of foreign domination in Italy and to reawaken national feeling.

In 1845 d'Azeglio visited Romagna as an unauthorized political envoy, to report on its conditions and the troubles which he foresaw would break out on the death of Pope Gregory XVI. The following year he published his famous pamphlet Degli ultimi casi di Romagna at Florence; as a consequence of this he was expelled from Tuscany. He spent the next few months in Rome, sharing the general enthusiasm over the supposed liberalism of the new pope, Pius IX; like Vincenzo Gioberti he believed in an Italian confederation under papal auspices and was opposed to the Radical wing of the Liberal party. His political activity increased and he wrote various other pamphlets, among which was I lutti di Lombardia (1848).

On the outbreak of the first war of independence, d'Azeglio donned the papal uniform and took part under General Durando in the defence of Vicenza, where he was severely wounded. He retired to Florence to recover, but as he opposed the ruling democrats he was expelled from Tuscany a second time. He was now a famous man, and early in 1849 Charles Albert, king of Sardinia, invited him to form a cabinet. Realizing how impossible it was to renew the campaign, and not having the heart to sign, in such wretched internal and external conditions, a treaty of peace with Austria (Correspondance politique, by E Rendu), he refused.

As Prime Minster of Sardinia[edit]

After the defeat at the Battle of Novara (23 March 1849), Charles Albert abdicated and was succeeded by Victor Emmanuel II. D'Azeglio was again called on to form a cabinet; this time, although the situation was even more difficult, he accepted, concluded a peace treaty, dissolved the Chamber and summoned a new one to ratify it. The treaty was accepted and d'Azeglio continued in office for the next three years. While all the rest of Italy was a prey to despotism, in Piedmont the king maintained the constitution intact in the face of a general wave of reaction. D'Azeglio conducted the country's affairs with tact and ability, improving its diplomatic relations and opposing the claims of the Roman Curia.

He invited Count Camillo Cavour, then a rising young politician, to enter the ministry in 1850. Cavour and Farini, also a member of the cabinet, made certain declarations in the Chamber (May 1852) which led the ministry in the direction of an alliance with Rattazzi and the Left. D'Azeglio disapproved of this and resigned office, but on the king's request formed a new ministry, excluding both Cavour and Farini. In October, however, owing to ill health and dissatisfaction with some of his colleagues, and for other reasons not quite clear, he resigned once more and retired, suggesting to tke kind that Cavour should be his successor.

Retirement[edit]

For the next four years he lived modestly at Turin, devoting himself once more to art, although he also continued to take an active interest in politics. Cavour continued to consult him. In 1855 d'Azeglio was appointed director of the Turin art gallery. In 1859 he was given various political missions, including one to Paris and London to prepare the basis for a general congress of the powers on the Italian question. When war between Piedmont and Austria appeared inevitable he returned to Italy and was sent as royal commissioner by Cavour to Romagna, whence the papal troops had been expelled.

After the peace of Villafranca, d'Azeglio was recalled with orders to withdraw the Piedmontese garrisons but saw the danger of allowing papal troops to reoccupy the province, and after a severe struggle left Bologna without the troops and interviewed the king. The latter approved of his action and said that his orders had not been accurately expressed; thus Romagna was saved. That same year d'Azeglio published a pamphlet in French entitled De la Politique et du droit chrêtien au point de vue de la question italienne, with the object of inducing Napoleon III to continue his pro-Italian policy. Early in 1860 Cavour appointed him governor of Milan, evacuated by the Austrians after the battle of Magenta, a position which he held with great ability. But, disapproving of the government's policy with regard to Garibaldi's Sicilian campaign and regarding the occupation by Piedmont of the kingdom of Naples as inopportune, he resigned office.

The deaths of his two brothers in 1862 and of Cavour in 1861 caused d'Azeglio great grief; he subsequently led a comparatively retired life, continuing to take part in politics, both as deputy and writer, his two chief subjects of interest being the Roman question and the relations of Piedmont (now the kingdom of Italy) with Mazzini and the other revolutionaries. In his opinion Italy needed to be unified by means of the Franco-Piedmontese army alone, avoiding any connection with the other armies. And he continued that the pope should enjoy nominal sovereignty over Rome with full spiritual independence, with the capital of Italy being established elsewhere but the Romans being Italian citizens. He strongly disapproved of the convention of 1864 between the Italian government and the pope. The last few years of d'Azeglio's life were spent chiefly at his villa of Cannero, where he wrote his own memoirs. He died of fever in Turin on 15 January 1866.

Reputation[edit]

Besides a variety of newspaper articles and pamphlets, d'Azeglio's chief works are the two novels Ettore Fieramosca (1833) and Niccolò dei Lapi (1841) as well as a volume of autobiographical memoirs entitled I Miei Ricordi, (D'Azeglio Memoirs - p. 1867) a work published after his death, in 1866, but unfortunately incomplete. A quote from his memoirs is "L'Italia è fatta. Restano da fare gli italiani", translated colloquially as "We have made Italy. Now we must make Italians."

His landscape paintings influenced Salvatore Mazza and Luigi Riccardi.[3]

Trivia[edit]

At the school named after him, the Massimo D'Azeglio Lyceum, the club Juventus was founded.[citation needed]

There is a poetry contest organized by a cultural organization in Puglia (Italian region) named after D'Azeglio.[citation needed]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/46756/Massimo-Taparelli-marquis-dAzeglio
  2. ^ *Bryan, Michael (1889). Walter Armstrong & Robert Edmund Graves, ed. Dictionary of Painters and Engravers, Biographical and Critical (Volume II L-Z). York St. #4, Covent Garden, London; Original from Fogg Library, Digitized May 18, 2007: George Bell and Sons. p. 551. 
  3. ^ *Caimi, Antonio (1862). Delle arti del designo e degli artisti nelle provincie di Lombardia dal 1777-1862. Milan, Italy: Presso Luigi di Giacomo Pirola. pp. 94–96.