|Head of Department of Environment|
10 September 2013
|Preceded by||Javad Mohammadizadeh|
|Vice President of Iran|
2 August 1997 – 3 August 2005
|Preceded by||Hadi Manafi|
|Succeeded by||Fatemeh Javadi|
|Member of the City Council of Tehran|
21 January 2007 – 3 September 2013
|Preceded by||Nasrin Soltankhah|
|Succeeded by||Reza Taghipour|
21 September 1960
|Political party||Islamic Iran Participation Front|
|Spouse(s)||Mohammad Hashemi (m. 1978)|
|Alma mater||Shahid Beheshti University
Tarbiat Modares University
|Occupation||Politician, Scientist and Journalist|
|Religion||Twelver Shi'a Islam|
Masoumeh Ebtekar (Persian: معصومه ابتکار; born Niloufar Ebtekar; 21 September 1960) is an Iranian scientist, journalist and politician who is currently the head of Iran's Environmental Protection Organization, being appointed on 10 September 2013. She has previously held the office of Vice President from 2 August 1997 to 3 August 2005, making her the first female Vice President of Iran.
Ebtekar first achieved fame as "Mary", the spokesperson of the students who took hostages and occupied the US Embassy in 1979. Later she became the head of the Environment Protection Organization of Iran during the administration of President Mohammad Khatami, and was a city councilwoman of Tehran from 2007 to 2013.
Education and family
Ebtekar was born in Tehran as Niloufar Ebtekar in a middle-class family. Her first name translates to "Innocent Water Lily" in English. Ebtekar's father studied at the University of Pennsylvania, and she lived with her parents in Upper Darby of Philadelphia. During her six years in Philadelphia, she developed "near-perfect, American-accented English." Returning to Iran she enrolled in Iranzamin (Tehran International School). Later after graduation as a student, she became a supporter of the political Islam of Ali Shariati and began wearing a traditional black chador covering everything except her face.
Ebtekar holds a BSc degree in laboratory science from Shahid Beheshti University, a MSc and PhD in immunology from Tarbiat Modares University in 1995, where she still teaches. Ebtekar is married to Seyyed Mohammad Hashemi who is a businessman in the private sector. They have two children.
Ebtekar has served as faculty member at Tarbiat Modares University, which is a post graduate academic center located in Tehran. As an Associate Professor in Immunology, she has taught, supervised and advised PhD and MSc students. Ebtekar currently teaches cytokines, viral immunology, HIV vaccines, aging, immunology of the nervous system and psychoneuroimmunology. She has currently filed 41 ISI scientific articles in the field of immunology in her name. In her speech to the Eleventh International Congress of Immunology in Tehran. She mentioned the detrimental effect of sanctions on the advancement of science in Iran and noted that sanctions should not be directed against nations. Ebtekar is a member of several research board committees and a reviewer for two international and four national immunology journals.
On 7 October 2008, eTBLAST, a text similarity search engine on MEDLINE database, noted that 85% of a paper published by Masoumeh Ebtekar came from several previously published articles. The paper, on cytokines and air pollution, was published in 2006 in the Iran Journal of Allergy Asthma Immunology (IJAAI) 5 47-56:2006. A couple weeks after the eTBLAST report, Nature magazine covered the story, quoting one of the authors of original papers, (Ian Mudway, a toxicologist at the King's College London) as saying, "the article is a veritable patchwork of other people's work, word for word, grammatical error for grammatical error." Nature also stated that Ebtekar had not replied to its emails. In response, the editor-in-chief of the IJAAI issued a statement saying: "We regret for this duplication that appeared in the journal. We are working with the editors of the JACI journal [the Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, a scholarly periodical that published three of the papers from which Ebtekar had copied] to find the best solution in this regard." In December 2008 Ebtekar's article was retracted.
The issue received some political and public attention in Iran. Ebtekar issued a statement admitting she had made a mistake and apologizing for it, but including a list of complaints such as eTBLAST's failure to inform her of their finding in advance, the fact that the article was a review article she was invited to write for the Journal, and that more than 76 references were given in the text.
Social and Governmental career
In 1981, Ebtekar became the editor-in-chief of the English daily newspaper Kayhan International, selected by Khatami who was then the representative of Ayatollah Khomeini in Kayhan Institute. She served in the newspaper until 1983. In 1991 she co-founded the Institute for Women's Studies and Research. Since 1992, she has been the license holder and managing director of the journal Farzaneh Journal for Women's Studies and Research. Ebtekar was appointed as the Head of Women's NGO Coordinating Office and Vice Head of the National Committee to the Fourth World Conference on Women in Beijing in 1995. Later, she was elected as the President of the Network of Women's NGOs in Iran.
Early activism and role in the Hostage Crisis
Ebtekar served as spokesperson for the students in the Iran hostage crisis of 1979, where Muslim Student Followers of the Imam's Line occupied the US Embassy and held 52 Americans hostage of 444 days. Selected because of her good command of English, she made regular appearances on American television as translator and spokesperson for the students, where she presented the official positions of the students. She was referred to as "Mary" by foreign press, and "Tiger Lily" by the hostages, a play on the translation of "Niloufar".
Ebtekar wrote an account of the embassy takeover with Fred A. Reed entitled Takeover in Tehran: The Inside Story of the 1979 U.S. Embassy Capture. Western media have systematically depicted Ebtekar's involvement in a negative manner, as Reed describes: "For twenty years the prevailing "globalized" version of the embassy capture has cast the students at best as well intentioned but naive young people manipulated ...and at worst as irresponsible extremists."Elaine Sciolino wrote about Ebtekar's own viewpoint:
"Asked by an ABC News correspondent one day whether she could see herself picking up a gun and killing the hostages, she replied: 'yes. When I've seen an American gun being lifted up and killing my brothers and sisters in the streets, of course.'"
She is said to be remembered by many Americans (hostages such as David Roeder, Barbara Timm, the mother of hostage Kevin Hermening and those who watched her on television) with a great lack of fondness, in part because "her familiarity with America added profound emphasis to her rejection of it." When asked by an American interviewer (Elaine Sciolino) in the late 1990s about her past as spokesperson for the hostage-takers, why it did not appear on her resume, and why she had changed her name from Niloufar to Masoumeh, Ebtekar "had no apology and made no excuses" about her role, describing the hostage taking as "the best direction that could have been taken" by Iran at the time, but surprised the interviewer with her "chutzpah", insisting that the interviewer "not write much about these things." Sciolino published this article in the New York Times unaware of the fact that Ebtekar's book (Takeover in Tehran) was in print and would be published in 2001.
Ebtekar was the first woman to serve as Vice-President of Iran when the reformists came to power. Along with Zahra Shojaei, she participated in the first cabinet since the Islamic Revolution to include women. She has been described as a leftist in Mohammad Khatami's alliance. Ebtekar headed the Department of Environment for eight years, introducing major structural, organizational and directional changes enabling a re-engineering of the government body. During her tenure environmental awareness and support for civil society activism in this area was enhanced.
Ebtekar's appointment led to the revelation of her past, and in the US questions were raised about whether President Khatami was aware of "how deeply" the hostage-taking and holding, and anger towards its foremost public defender, "affected both the American government and the American people." Many academics and literary critiques have written and expressed their views on her published memoirs. Following this, "some ambassadors" in Tehran reportedly stated they would no "longer meet with her" and would "discourage official contract with her office." In her memoirs published as the "Grapes of Shahrivar", Ebtekar repeatedly refers to her cordial and official contacts with not only Western Ambassadors, but also many European Ministers and Presidents as well.( chapters 8-16-23-26-30-32-33)
On International Women's Day in 1998, as vice-president of environmental affairs, she made a speech condemning the oppression of women by the Taliban Movement in Afghanistan. Her performance caused comment by members of the Western news media in attendance as she herself was wearing a chador, a reminder of compulsory hijab in Iran which many in the West view as a violation of women's rights.
In March 2002, Ebtekar was a keynote speaker at the Meeting of Women Leaders on the Environment in Helsinki, sponsored by the Finnish Ministry of the Environment. In September 2002, Ebtekar participated in the World Summit on Sustainable Development, held in Johannesburg, South Africa. In May 2005, she chaired the International Conference on Environment, Peace, and the Dialogue Among Civilizations and Cultures, held in Tehran. This event was organized by Ebtekar's Department of the Environment and also by the United Nations Environment Programme.
Post vice presidential activism
Ebtekar was named one of the seven 2006 Champions of the Earth by the United Nations Environment Program as a prominent and "inspirational" environmental leader who has made an impact at policy level in a region of the world. Ebtekar said that she believes the award was a team effort, earned by the scholars and experts that she assembled in her Department of the Environment. She names President Khatami as instrumental in stressing the importance of environmental initiatives. She was also named as one of 50 environmental leaders by The Guardian newspaper on January 5, 2008; the only Iranian or Muslim woman in the list.
Ebtekar co-founded the Center for Peace and Environment in 2005, a non-governmental organization devoted to the promotion of just and sustainable peace and the protection of the environment. More than 120 experts and academicians are currently members of the Center.
Ebtekar served as a moderator in June 2008 at the International "Women, Equality and Peace" Conference held in Oslo, Norway. The conference was sponsored by the Foundation for Dialogue Among Civilizations, Club de Madrid and the Oslo Center. In the 2012 edition of The Muslim500 Ebtekar has been named as one of the 500 most influential Muslims in the world. Under the political section of this yearbook, Ebtekar is described as "a considerable force in the reformist movement in Iran".
Ebtekar considered for running in the 2009 presidential election after Guardian Council indicated that there is no “legal restraint” against women doing so. However, she withdrew a few weeks before the election.
Ebtekar published her memoir as the first female Vice President of Iran, entitled the Grapes of Shahrivar on May 3, 2009. She has also published a collection of her essays and speeches on the environment and sustainable development, called Natural Peace. After leaving her government position in 2005, Ebtekar has spoken as inaugural or keynote speaker at many international events.
Membership in Tehran City Council
Ebtekar ran for and was elected to the city council of Tehran for the term beginning in 2007, coming in 9th out of 21 candidates, just after Parvin Ahmadinejad, the sister of the Mahmoud Ahmadinejad. She established and heads the Tehran City Council Environment Committee and currently runs 20 working groups on environmental issues.
After election to the City Council of Tehran in early 2007, Ebtekar began a weblog in Persian entitled "EbtekareSabz" under the free blog service Persianblog. In her blog she wrote 430 posts in environmental, political, social and women's issues, posted over 10,000 comments, the blog had one million viewers in 3.5 years. EbtekareSabz, which criticized the policies of the government and supported the reformist movement in Iran, was filtered by the Government once in early 2010 and again in June 2010. and finally obstructed with a judicial verdict in August. Citing the "right to freedom of expression in our constitution" as her incentive, she continued blogging by setting up a new blog.
In 2009, the New York Times described her as "informally represent[ing] the views of many of the former hostage-takers", supporting "engagement with the West" and a renewal of the "original ideals of the revolution, including justice and freedom," which many of her peers believe have been abandoned by the current regime.
In May 2013, Ebtekar signed up as a candidate for Tehran in the 2013 local elections, along with hundreds of reformist candidates. During the vetting process that is conducted by government and Majlis representatives, the majority of candidates, including Ebtekar were disqualified. Ebtekar mentioned her harsh criticism of government policies leading to air pollution and the deterioration of environmental standards as the main reason for her disqualification. Candidates who have objected to their disqualification will be considered for a final round in the Supreme Council for Election Regulation. She was also one of Reformists' candidates as Mayor of Tehran. However, Mohsen Hashemi becomes the final's nominate.
Reappointment as Vice President
After Hassan Rouhani elected as President of Iran, Ebtekar who supported Rouhani openly, was one of the candidates for the Ministry of Science. However, she was appointed as Head of Environmental Protection Organization on 10 September 2013, a position she was formerly served for eight years under Mohammad Khatami.
In 2010 Ebtekar contributed to Moral Ground a testimony of over eighty visionaries—theologians and religious leaders, scientists, elected officials, business leaders, naturalists, activists, and writers—to present a diverse and compelling call to honor our individual and collective moral responsibility to our planet. In her essay entitled "Peace and Sustainability Depend on the Spiritual and the Feminine" Ebtekar provides her views on the interrelated nature of peace and sustainable development. She also took part in a project to develop a book entitled Women, Power and Politics in 21st Century Iran. The book, published in 2012 by Ashgate, provides an objective perspective on the conditions of women in Iran. Chapter 10 titled "Women and the Environment" has been authored by Massoumeh Ebtekar. In 2011 Ebtekar also co-authored a chapter in the book Stem Cells and Cancer Stem Cells published by Springer. Chapter 3 "Characteristics of Cord Blood Cells" is a review performed by a team of researchers in Iran.
- http://web.archive.org/web/20061227004151/http://news.yahoo.com/s/ap/20061218/ap_on_re_mi_ea/iran_elections November 2008
- Janjigian, Jane (26 February 1981). "What next for 'Mary' of Tehran?". Chicago Tribune. p. B4.
- "A Brief History of Global Engagement at the University of Pennsylvania". Archives.upenn.edu. Retrieved 2008-11-18.
- Sciolino, Elaine, Persian Mirrors : the Elusive Face of Iran, Free Press, (2005), p.116
- Bowden, Mark, Guests of the Ayatollah, Atlantic Monthly Press, 2006, p.161
- Advancement of Science and Peace
- Iran National Science Foundation
- ISRN Immunology
- "Entry 9866 information | Deja vu > Browse". Spore.swmed.edu. Retrieved 2008-11-18.
- Iranian paper sparks sense of deja vu, 23 October 2008, Vol 455,
- "Alef.ir". Alef.ir. Retrieved 2008-11-18.
- "ابتكار سبز >> بازگشت از بارسلون و پاسخ به یک ادعا". Greenebtekar.persianblog.ir. Retrieved 2008-11-18.
- Sciolino, Persian Mirrors, (2005), p.117
- Daniel, Elton L. (2012). The History of Iran. The Greenwood Histories of the Modern Nations (2 ed.). ABC-CLIO. p. 248. ISBN 0313375100.
- Ebtekar, Masoumeh; Reed, Fred A. (2000). Takeover in Tehran: The Inside Story of the 1979 U.S. Embassy Capture. Talonbooks; Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. ISBN 0-88922-443-9. The Persian translation of this book was published in Tehran by Etellaat Newspaper Publications the same year and the Arabic translation was published in Beirut by Al Hadi Publications.
- Takeover in Tehran, 2001 , Talon Books, p.16
- Bowden, Mark, Guests of the Ayatollah , Atlantic Monthly Press, 2006, p.162-3
- "Top Woman in Iran's Government Once Spoke for Hostage-Takers", New York Times, January 28, 1998, p.A6
- Sciolino, Persian Mirrors (2005), p.118
- "Top Woman in Iran's Government Once Spoke for Hostage-Takers," New York Times, January 28, 1998, p.A6
- [dialnet.unirioja.es/servlet/articulo?codigo=2419961 -]
- "Haven't I seen you somewhere before?", New York Times, Feb. 1, 1998
- Seven environmental heroes to be honoured by UN agency
- BaniComm Co. "Iranian Students News Agency (in Persian)". Isna.ir. Retrieved 2008-11-18.
- Vidal, John; Adam, David; Watts, Jonathan; Hickman, Leo; Sample, Ian (Saturday 5 January 2008 12.55 GMT). "50 people who could save the planet". The Guardian (London).
- Ebtekar does not rule out presidential candidacy. tehran times, April 14, 2009
- Ebtekar, Masoumeh (May 3, 2009). "Memoirs". Green Ebtekar. Archived from the original on June 2, 2009. Retrieved December 31, 2012. Published by Etelleat Newspaper Publishing House, the memoirs refer to the events of the reforms period in Iran.
- published in 2005 by the Iranian Department of Environment. These speeches include titles such as Human Rights and Challenges of the Century, Perspectives on Sustainable Development and the Role of the Woman in Iranian Society, etc. She also had two articles from Natural Peace published in Our Planet, the Magazine of the United Nations Environment Program (in 2005), and Market Messengers (in 2006). www.unep.org
- Local vote embarrassing Iran president By ALI AKBAR DAREINI, Associated Press, December 18, 2006]
- In Iran, From Heroes to State Enemies By MICHAEL SLACKMAN, November 3, 2009
- news report
- «معصومه ابتکار» رئیس سازمان حفاظت محیط زیست شد
- Moral Ground