Parachutist Badge (United States)

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Parachutist Badge
US Army Airborne basic parachutist badge.gif
Basic Parachutist Badge
(Issued by the Army, Air Force, Navy, & Marine Corps)
Awarded by United States Armed Forces
Type Badge
Awarded for Airborne training course
Status Currently awarded
Statistics
Last awarded Currently awarded
Army Precedence
Next (higher) Expert Field Medical Badge
Next (lower) Parachute Rigger Badge[1]
USN & USMC Parachutist Badge
Navy & Marine Corps Parachutist Insignia
U.S. Army & Air Force Senior Parachutist Badge
Army & Air Force Senior Parachutist Badge
U.S. Army & Air Force Master Parachutist Badge
Army & Air Force Master Parachutist Badge

The Parachutist Badge, also commonly referred to as "Jump Wings" is a military badge of the United States Armed Forces awarded to members of the United States Army, Air Force, Marine Corps and Navy. The United States Coast Guard is the only branch that does not issue its own Parachutist Badge, but its members are authorized to receive the Parachutist Badges of other services in accordance with their prescribed requirements. The DoD military services are all awarded the same Basic Parachutist Badge. The Army and Air Force issue the same Senior and Master Parachutist Badges while the Navy and Marine Corps issue the Navy and Marine Corps Parachutist Badge to advanced parachutists. The majority of the services earn their Basic Parachutist Badge through the U.S. Army Airborne School.

Army[edit]

The Army's Basic Parachutist Badge is awarded to all military personnel of any service who complete the US Army Basic Airborne Course at Fort Benning, Georgia. It signifies that the soldier is a trained military parachutist, and is qualified to participate in airborne operations. As of June 2011, the badge and its sew-on equivalent may be worn on the Army Combat Uniform (ACU).[2]

The original Army Parachutist Badge was designed in 1941 by Captain (later Lieutenant General) William P. Yarborough and approved by the Department of the Army in March of that year. The Parachutist Badge replaced the "Parachutist Patch" which had previously worn as a large patch on the side of a paratrooper's garrison cap. LTG Yarborough also designed the Senior and Master Parachutist Badges and the addition of stars to portray the number of combat jumps. The flash that is worn behind the badge is also a contribution of William P. Yarborough.[3]

Basic Parachutist Badge[edit]

To be eligible for award of the basic Parachutist Badge, an individual must have completed the Basic Airborne Course of the Airborne School of the United States Army Infantry School at Fort Benning, Georgia,[1] or the 98th Flying Training Squadron's Airmanship 490 (AM-490)basic free fall course while a cadet at the United States Air Force Academy in Colorado.

Senior Parachutist Badge[edit]

To be eligible for the Senior Parachutist Badge, an individual must have been rated excellent in character and efficiency and have met the following requirements:

  1. Participated in a minimum of 30 jumps including fifteen jumps with combat equipment to consist of normal TOE equipment including individual weapon carried in combat whether the jump was in actual or simulated combat. In cases of simulated combat the equipment will include water, rations (actual or dummy), ammunition (actual or dummy), and other essential items necessary to sustain an individual in combat. Two night jumps must also be made during the hours of darkness (regardless of time of day with respect to sunset) one of which will be as jumpmaster of a stick. In addition, two mass tactical jumps which culminate in an airborne assault problem with either a unit equivalent to a battalion or larger; a separate company battery; or an organic staff of regimental size or larger. The soldier must fill a position commensurate with his or her rank or grade during the problem.
  2. Either graduated from the Jumpmaster Course of the United States Army Advanced Airborne School at Fort Bragg, the Airborne Department of the Infantry School or the Jumpmaster School of a separate airborne battalion or larger airborne unit, or infantry divisions and separate infantry brigades containing organic airborne elements, including the United States Army Alaska (USARAK) or the United States Army Special Operations Command (USASOC) Jumpmaster Course or served as jumpmaster on one or more combat jumps or as a jumpmaster on 15 noncombat jumps.
  3. Have served on jump status with an airborne unit or other organizations authorized parachutists for a total of at least 24 months.[1]

Master Parachutist Badge[edit]

To be eligible for the Master Parachutist Badge, an individual must have been rated excellent in character and efficiency and have met the following requirements:

  1. Participated in a minimum of 65 jumps including twenty-five jumps with combat equipment to consist of normal TOE equipment, including individual weapon carried by the individual in combat whether the jump was in actual or simulated combat. In cases of simulated combat the equipment will include water rations (actual or dummy), ammunition (actual or dummy), and other essential items necessary to sustain an individual in combat. Four night jumps must also be made during the hours of darkness, one as jumpmaster of a stick. Five mass tactical jumps must be made which culminate in an airborne assault problem with a unit equivalent to a battalion or larger; a separate company/battery; or an organic staff of regimental size or larger. The individual must fill a position commensurate with their rank or grade during the problem.
  2. Either graduated from the Jumpmaster Course of the Airborne Department of the Infantry School or the Jumpmaster School of a separate airborne battalion or larger airborne unit, or infantry divisions and separate infantry brigades containing organic airborne elements, including the U.S. Army Alaska Jumpmaster Course, or served as jumpmaster on one or more combat jumps or as jumpmaster on 33 noncombat jumps.
  3. Have served on jump status with an airborne unit or other organization authorized parachutists for a total of 36 months (may be non-consecutive).

The 25 combat equipment jumps necessary to qualify for the Master Parachutist Badge must be from a static line.[1]

The master parachutist badge is 38mm in width at the widest part of the wings and 31mm from the top of the wreath to the bottom of the parachute where the risers meet in a point.

Airborne background trimming[edit]

Basic Parachutist Badge of a World War II veteran from 2nd Battalion, 506th Parachute Infantry Regiment, 101st Airborne Division (as indicated by the background trimming) who made two combat jumps (as indicated by the two Combat Jump Devices).

Soldiers assigned to Army units on airborne status wear a cloth oval background trimming underneath their Parachutist Badge,[4] which shares the basic design of the unit's beret flash.[5] This is one method by which an individual can identify a parachute qualified soldier versus a paratrooper currently serving in an airborne unit. The original background trimming was also a contribution of William P. Yarborough.[4]

Combat Jump Device[edit]

If a soldier completes an airborne jump into a combat zone, they are authorized to wear a Combat Jump Device on their Parachutist Badge. The device consists of a star or arrangements of stars, indicating the number of combat jumps.[6] The use of stars as Combat Jump Devices did not gain official approval until after the 1983 invasion of Grenada (Operation Urgent Fury).[7] The stars are awarded as follows:[8][7]

One combat jump A small bronze star centered on the shroud lines 3/16 inch below the canopy
Two combat jumps A small bronze star on the base of each wing
Three combat jumps A small bronze star on the base of each wing and a small bronze star centered on the shroud lines 3/16 inch below the canopy
Four combat jumps Two small bronze stars on the base of each wing
Five or more combat jumps A large gold star centered on the shroud lines 5/16 inch below the canopy
List of Known U.S. Combat Parachute Jumps[9][10]
Date Unit Operation Troopers Country Dropzone
8 Nov. 1942 509th Parachute Infantry Battalion (PIB) Torch 556 Algeria Tafaraoui airfield, La Senia
15 Nov. 1942 509th PIB Torch 300 - 350 Algeria Youks les Bains
24 Dec. 1942 509th PIB, Hdqt's. Co. Two French paratroopers 32 Tunisia El Djem
9 Jul. 1943 504th Parachute Infantry Regiment 3rd Battalion (Jumped first); 505th Regimental Combat Team (RCT), Includes: 505th PIR, 456th PFA & Co. B, 307th Engr. Husky I 3,406 Italy Gela, Sicily
10 Jul. 1943 504th Regimental Combat Team (RCT), Includes: 504th PIR, 1st & 2nd Btn.; 376th PFA & Co.A, 307th Engr. Husky II 2,304 Italy Gela, Sicily
5 Sep. 1943 503th PIR 1,700 New Guinea Nadzab, Markham Valley
13 Sep. 1943 504th Regimental Combat Team (RCT) Includes: 504th PIR, 376th PFA & Co. "A" 307th Eng. Avalanche 1,300 Italy Paestum, Salerno
14 Sep. 1943 505th Regimental Combat Team (RCT). Includes: 505th PIR, 456th PFA & Co.B 370th Engr. Avalanche 2,105 Italy Salerno, Paestum
14 Sep. 1943 509th PIB Avalanche 640 Italy Avellino
6 June 1944 82nd Airborne Division (507, 508) 505th RCT, Includes: 505th Parachute Infantry Reg., Co. B/307 Engineer Battlion & 456th Parachute Field Artillery Battalion. 28 Pathfinders, 504th PIR, (7 returned). Overlord, Titanic (Dropping of parachute dummies, "Oscar"). 6,418 France Normandy
6 June 1944 101st Airborne Division [326, 377, 501, 502, 506] Overlord, Titanic (Dropping of parachute dummies, "Oscar"). 6,638 France Normandy
3 July 1944 503rd PRCT, 1st Bn. Table Tennis 739 New Guinea Noemfoor Island
4 July 1944 503rd PRCT, 3rd Bn. Table Tennis 685 New Guinea Noemfoor Island
15 Aug. 1944 1st Abn. Task Force (460th PFA, 463rd PFABn.; 509th PIB; 517th PCT; 551st PIB; 596th PCEng. Co.) Dragoon 5,607 France Cote d' Azur, Riviera
17 Sep. 1944 82nd Airborne Division (508), 505th RCT, Includes: 505th PIR, 456th PFA, & Co.B, 307th Engr.; 504th RCT, Includes: 504th PIR, 376th PFA, & Co.A, 307 Engr Market Garden 7,250 Holland Grave & Nijmegen
17 Sep. 1944 101st Airborne Division [501, 502, 506] Market Garden 6,769 Holland Eindhove
29 Nov. 1944, 5 Dec. 1944 Co.C, 127th Abn.Eng, Bn. Co.C., 1st Pl.., 187th P/GIR 221st AB. Med. Co.; 457th PFA 11th Abn. Div. Hdqt's Group 511th Pcht. Signal Co. 11th Abn. Div. RECON Pl. Tabletop 241 Leyte Manarawat
3 Feb. 1945 511th PIR, 457th FABn. Shoestring 1,830 Philippines Tagaytay Ridge
16 Feb. 1945 503rd PRCT, 462nd PFABn; 161st Airborne Engr. Btn. Topside 2,050 Philippines Corregidor
23 Feb. 1945 511th Parachute Infantry Regiment: 1st Btn., Co.B; Hdqt's Co., 1st Btn.; Hdqt's Co., 1st Btn., Light Machine Gun Platoon Rescue 2,147 internees 130 Philippines Los Banos Prison Camp
24 Mar. 1945 17th Airborne Division (507 PIR, 513 PIR, 464 PFA, 466 PFA, 139 AEB, 224 AMC, 155 AAB, 411 AQM, 517 ASC, 680 GFA 681 GFA, 717 AOC & 194 GIR). Also small units: MP's, Division Artillery, Reconnaissance Platoon, & Parachute Maintenance Co. Varsity 4,964 Germany Wesel
23 June 1945 511th PIR Gypsy 1,030 Philippines Aparri
20 Oct. 1950 187th ARCT, 2nd Battalion DZ Easy 1,203 Korea Sukchon
20 Oct. 1950 187th ARCT, 1st, 3rd. Bn's. DZ William 1,470 Korea Sukchon
21 Oct. 1950 187th Airborne Regimental Combat Team (ARCT). DZ William 671 Korea Sukchon
23 Mar. 1951 187th ARCT, 2nd & 3rd Bns; 674th ABN Field Artillery Bn; 2nd & 4th ABN Ranger Cos, and Indian army surgical team. Tomahawk 3,486 Korea Munsan-Ni
12 Feb. 1962 FTT-1 White Star SF Team Nam Beng Valley Campaign vs. Pathet Lao 12 Laos Nam Tha airstrip
2 Jan. 1963 Joint General Staff reserve ARVN Paratroopers with U.S. MACV "Red Hat" Advisors from Saigon Ap Bac 300 South Vietnamese, 2 Americans South Vietnam Ap Tan Thoi
22 Feb. 1967 173rd Airborne Brigade, 503rd P.I.R., 2nd & 3rd Btl's,; 3/319 Airborne Field Artillery Regiment (AFAR). Junction City 845 Vietnam Katum
2 Apr. 1967 5th Special Force Group (ABN), 1st Special Forces: Detachments, A-503 Mike Force & A-344, Operation Harvest Moon (Includes Montagnards) Harvest Moon 356 (includes Montagnards) Vietnam Bunard, Phouc Long "Happy Dragon" Province
5 Sep. 1967 USMC, 1st Long Range Reconnaissance Patrol (LRRP) Oregon 10 Vietnam South
5 Oct. 1967 5th Special Force Group (ABN), 1st Special Forces: Pathfinder Detachment (12 SF, 37 ARVN Pathfinders), "B" Co II CTZ (Pleiku) Mike Force (50 SF) & 275 LLDB (Includes Montagnards) Blue Max 374 Vietnam Bu Prang CIDG fighting camp, Quang Duc "Great Virtue" Province
1968-73? Military Assistance Command Vietnam, Studies and Observations Group (MACV-SOG) Airborne Studies Group (SOG 36) Eldest Son, Italian Green, Pole Bean North Vietnam, Laos, Cambodia
28 Nov. 1970 Team RT Florida, Special Operations Group (SOG) 6 troopers, one ARVN officer and 2 Montagnards Laos NVA road, just inside LAOS
7 May 1971 Team RT Alaska, Special Operations Group (SOG) 4 troopers Laos Ashau Valley, near Laotian Highway 921
22 June 1971 Team One Zero, Special Operations Group (SOG) 4 troopers Vietnam 60 miles SW of Danang
22 Sep. 1971 Team Storter, Special Operations Group (SOG) 4 troopers Vietnam Plei Trap Valley, NW of Pleiku
11 Oct. 1971 Team RT Wisconsin, Special Operations Group (SOG) 5 troopers and 5 Montagnards Vietnam 25 miles, SW of Pleiku in the La Drang Valley
25 Oct. 1983 75th Ranger Regiment LRS Detachment, 82nd Abn Div. combat controllers (CCT), Air Force Special Operations Command (AFSOC), 12 troopers; 4 troopers, 1st Bn, tactical air control parties (TACP). Urgent Fury 16(?) Grenada Point Salines
25 Oct. 1983 SEAL Team Urgent Fury 11 Grenada Governor's residence
25 Oct. 1983 75th Ranger Regiment 1st, 2nd.Bns. & Two paratroopers: Sgt. Spain and SPC Richardson, 618th Engineer Co., 307th Engineer Btn., Urgent Fury 500 Grenada Point Salines airfield
20 Dec. 1989 UNIT: (0100) Rangers, 75th Inf. Reg., Task Force Red, 1,300 troops; 82nd Abn. Div. Ready Brigade (DRB), 2,700 troops. Just Cause 4,000 Panama Rio Hato east to Fort Cimarron
20 Dec. 1989 (0124) Rangers; (0145) 82nd Abn. Div., 1st Brigade Task Force: 1/504th PIR, 1/505th PIR; 2nd Bn., 504th PIR; 4th Bn., 325th Abn. Inf. Reg., Co. B and C; A Co., 3/505 PIR; 3rd Bn., 73rd Abn. Armor Reg.; 82nd Abn. MP Co., 3 platoons (0411). All joined to form: Task Force Pacific. Just Cause 2,176 Panama Torrijos-Tocumen Airport
15 Jan. 1991 Special Forces, HALO team Desert Storm 12 Iraq Northwest desert
19 Oct. 2001 75th Ranger Regiment Operation Enduring Freedom 200 Afghanistan Objective Rhino at Dry Lake Airstrip
26 Mar. 2003 173rd Airborne Brigade Operation Iraqi Freedom 954 Iraq Bashur Drop zone
30 May 2007 ODA 074 (HALO Team), 3rd Battalion, 10th Special Forces Group Operation Iraqi Freedom 11 Iraq


Air Force[edit]

Like the Army, the Air Force issues the same parachutist badges in the same three degrees (Basic, Senior, & Master) but have different criteria for the awarding of these badges. The level of degree is determined by the number of jumps the wearer has successfully completed, years of service in the Air Force, and other requirements as specified by AFI 11-402, Aviation and Parachutist Service, Aeronautical Ratings and Badges.[11]

Historical Air Force Parachutist Badges (1956-1963)

Air Force Basic Parachutist Badge
Basic Parachutist Badge
Air Force Senior Parachutist Badge
Senior Parachutist Badge
Air Force Master Parachutist Badge
Master Parachutist Badge

In 1956 the Air Force began issuing a unique Basic, Senior, and Master Parachutist Badges. These parachutist badges were modeled after the Air Force's Medical Badges. Due to popular demand, the Air Force decided to revert to issuing the Army style parachutist badges in 1963.[12]

Common recipients of Air Force Parachutist Badges include:

NOTE 1: USAF Airborne RED HORSE personnel consist of a limited number of USAF personnel within selected USAF civil engineering squadrons and RED HORSE squadrons, not the entire career USAF civil engineering field. Additionally, most aircrew flight equipment/life support and physiology technicians do not attend Airborne training nor serve on jump status.

NOTE 2: USAF personnel assigned to the Airborne portion of JCSE and USAF JCSS (to include those USAF JCSS in the Air National Guard) consist of a limited number of personnel within the larger USAF communications and cyber career fields and not all personnel in those career fields.

Basic Parachutist Badge[edit]

The Air Force Basic Parachutist Badge is the same as the Army Basic Parachutist Badge. Air Force personnel may be awarded the decoration following completion of basic parachute training through a designated Air Force Air-Ground Training Program. Air Force personnel generally earn the basic parachutist badge either through the Army's Airborne School at Fort Benning, or USAFA cadets and USAF officers who graduated from USAFA through completion of the AM-490 freefall parachute training course taught by AETC's 98th Flying Training Squadron (98 FTS) at the U.S. Air Force Academy.[11]

The freefall program is offered to all U.S. Air Force Academy cadets and, as a result, a large percentage of Air Force officers who are Air Force Academy graduates wear the Basic Parachutist Badge. The course is designed for USAFA cadets to develop character, confidence, and courage. The course, however, is not recognized by other Department of Defense jump units, and all other Air Force members, to include college/university AFROTC cadets, interested in pursuing a job requiring jump status must attend the United States Army Airborne School.[13] [14]

Senior Parachutist Badge[edit]

The Air Force Senior Parachutist Insignia consists of the standard Air Force Parachutist with a star atop the parachute. Awarded for 30 static line jumps. Those 30 jumps must include: (1) Two jumps during the hours of darkness; (2) 15 jumps with operational equipment (prescribed by MAJCOM); (3) Two jumps with an operational unit that ended in an airborne assault or operational problem (real or training), or four test jumps with experimental equipment; (4) Actually perform one night jump as a Primary Jumpmaster (PJM); and (5) Seven jumps performing as PJM.[11]

Master Parachutist Badge[edit]

The Air Force Master Parachutist Insignia consists of the Senior Air Force Parachutist with a star centered within the wreath. Awarded for 65 static line jumps. The 65 jumps must include (1) Four jumps during the hours of darkness; (2) 25 jumps with operational equipment as prescribed by the MAJCOM; (3) Five jumps with an operational unit culminating in an airborne assault or operational problem (real or training), or ten test jumps with experimental equipment; (4) Two night jumps performing PJM duties; and (5) 15 jumps performing as PJM.[11]

Army & Air Force Freefall Parachutist Badges[edit]

Army & Air Force HALO/HAHO Badge
Army & Air Force Freefall Parachutist Badge
Army & Air Force Master HALO/HAHO Badges
Army & Air Force Master Freefall Parachutist Badge

Qualified Army and Air Force personnel may go on to earn the Military Freefall Parachutist Badge in special operations training for High Altitude Low Opening (HALO) and High Altitude High Opening (HAHO) jumps. HALO/HAHO training is conducted by Company B, 2nd Battalion, 1st Special Warfare Training Group (Airborne) of the US Army Special Operations Command and lasts four weeks. It is awarded in two degrees: Basic and Master. As with the Army's Parachutist Badges, the Freefall Parachutist Badges awarded to Army personnel are also eligible for Combat Jump Devices. The last awarding of a Freefall Parachutist Badge with Combat Jump Device was in 2008 for a 30 May 2007 HAHO jump by ODA 074, 3rd Battalion, 10th Special Forces Group in Iraq.[1][8][10]

Navy & Marine Corps[edit]

The United States Navy and Marine Corps issue parachutist insignia in two degrees: the U.S. Military Basic Parachutist Badge, also called the Basic Parachustist Insignia (the same badge that's awarded to all DoD military services), and the Navy and Marine Corps Parachutist Insignia. Parachutist insignia is available to personnel who perform jumps as a:[18]

  • Static-Line Parachute Jumper,
  • Military Free-Fall Parachute Jumper, and
  • High Altitude Low Opening (HALO) Parachute Jumper (used for premeditated personnel parachute (P3) operations).

Training is accomplished by successful completion of the prescribed course of instruction while attending the:[18]

Basic Parachutist Insignia[edit]

The right to wear the Basic Parachutist Insignia is based on the completion of prescribed training defined in MCO 3120.11.:[18]

When an enlisted member initially qualifies as a static line parachutist, an entry shall be made on NAVPERS 1070/613 (commonly referred to as a "Page 13" entry) of the service record indicating the date of qualification, type(s) of aircraft in which qualified, and unit at which the training was received. Enlisted members are authorized the parachutist (PJ) designator added to their rating.[18]

A qualified static-line parachute jumper who successfully completes the prescribed program of instruction while attending a formal, interservice training facility including a minimum of 10 military free-fall parachute jumps, at least 2 of which must have been conducted carrying full combat equipment (1 day/1 night), may qualify. Enlisted members are authorized the military free-fall parachutist (FPJ) designator added to their rating.[18]

When an officer initially qualifies as a static line parachutist, the additional qualification designator (AQD) of BT1 will be entered into the officer's record by their detailer (NAVPERS). Free-fall qualification will result in an AQD of BT2.[18]

For both Static Line and Military Free Fall Parachutist qualified personnel, a service record entry shall also indicate whether or not the member is HALO-qualified.[18]

The Basic Parachutist Badge is a prerequisite for the Special Warfare Badge since parachutist training is an integral part of the Navy’s Basic Underwater Demolition/SEAL (BUD/S) program. SEAL personnel generally do not wear the Basic badge once they earn their Special Warfare insignia, but will wear their Navy and Marine Corps Parachutist Badge in addition to the Special Warfare Badge, the latter nicknamed the "Budweiser" badge. Navy EOD technicians are generally also jump qualified with a number of them also being qualified in military free-fall (HALO/HAHO). Currently, due to a recent change, newly pinned Navy EOD technicians are required to attend the U.S. Army's Basic Airborne School upon graduation. As well, a small number of SWCC personnel earn Basic Parachutist badges in conjunction with their assignment to a Special Boat Team detachment that uses the Maritime Craft Air Delivery System (MCADS). This enables them to drop small watercraft and their crews from C-130 aircraft.[18]

Navy & Marine Corps Parachutist Insignia[edit]

The Navy and Marine Corps Parachutist Insignia (formerly the Naval Parachutist Insignia) is a gold-colored embroidered or metal insignia depicting an open parachute with outstretched wings. It is authorized for officers and enlisted personnel who were awarded the Basic Parachutist Insignia and, under competent orders, have completed a minimum of five additional static-line or P3 jumps, to include: (1) combat equipment day jump, two (2) combat equipment night jumps, and employ at least two (2) different types of military aircraft.[18]

In 1963, the Chief of Naval Operations, Admiral George W. Anderson, on the recommendation by Major Bruce F. Meyers of the Marine Corps Test Unit, authorized the adoption of a new, distinctively naval badge modeled after the insignia of the Paramarines from World War II and the historic Naval Aviator wings.[19]

1st Marine Parachute Regiment
Plus+.svg
Naval Aviator Insignia
Equals.svg
Navy & Marine Corps Parachutist Insignia

While all Marines can be awarded the Navy and Marine Corps Parachutist Badge, its wear in conjunction with the Combatant or SCUBA Diver insignia identify Battalion Recon and Force Recon Marines. Recon Marines not yet qualified for the Navy and Marine Corps Parachutist Insignia continue to wear the Basic Parachutist Insignia.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e U.S. Army Regulation 600-8-22, Military Awards, Official Department of the Army Regulation, dated 11 Dec 06, revised 15 Sep 11, last accessed 4 Oct 11
  2. ^ Army Directive 2011-11, Change to Wear of the Army Combat Uniform (ACU) Items, Secretary of the Army, 13 June 2011, last accessed 18 February 2013
  3. ^ Born, K (1998). "U.S. Army Parachute Badge". US Army Quartermaster Museum. Retrieved 2008-11-22. 
  4. ^ a b Lanham, Howard G. (2001). "Insignia of Airborne Units U.S. Army". American Military Patches, Other Insignia and Decorations of World War Two. Retrieved 2008-11-15. 
  5. ^ "Beret Flashes and Background Trimmings". The Institute of Heraldry. United States Department of the Army. Archived from the original on 2008-08-22. Retrieved 2008-11-15. 
  6. ^ "US Army Badges". US Army Institute of Heraldry. Retrieved 8 February 2010. 
  7. ^ a b U.S. Army Parachute Badge, U.S. Army Quartermaster Museum, last accessed 18 February 2013
  8. ^ a b Army Regulation 670-1, Wear and Appearance of Army Uniforms and Insignia, dated 3 February 2005, revised 11 May 2012, accessed 1 June 2012
  9. ^ United States Combat Jumps, GlobalSecurity.org, last updated 7 May 2011, last accessed 17 February 2013
  10. ^ a b Hitting the ground with coalition partners; Special Warfare Magazine; Valume 21, Issue 6; dated November–December 2008, last accessed 17 February 2013
  11. ^ a b c d AFI 11-402, Aviation and Parachutist Service, Aeronautical Ratings and Badges, U.S. Air Force Instructions, dated 13 December 2010, last accessed 11 January 2014
  12. ^ Obsolete USAF Insignia, USAF Flag Ranks website, last accessed 1 June 2012
  13. ^ a b "AIRMANSHIP 490 - Frequently Asked Questions". Air Education and Training Command. United States Air Force. Retrieved 2008-11-15. 
  14. ^ a b U.S. Air Force ROTC - College Life - Summer Programs - Parachuting. Afrotc.com. Retrieved on 2010-08-20.
  15. ^ Airborne RED HORSE (Combat Engineers). Usmilitary.about.com. Retrieved on 2010-08-20.
  16. ^ Air Force Enlisted Job Descriptions, 1P0X1-Aircrew Equipment, About.com Guide, by Rod Powers, last accessed 18 February 2013
  17. ^ Air Force Enlisted Job Descriptions, 4M0X1-Aerospace Physicolgy, About.com Guide, By Rod Powers, last accessed 18 February 2013
  18. ^ a b c d e f g h i U.S. Marine Corps Order 3120.11, U.S. Marine Corps Parachuting Policy and Program Administration, dated 4 May 2009, last accessed 18 February 2013
  19. ^ Fortune Favors the Brave: A Story of First Force Recon, by Bruce F. Meyers, Naval Institute Press, circa 2004