Master of Architecture
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The Master of Architecture (M.Arch.) is a professional degree in architecture, qualifying the graduate to move through the various stages of professional accreditation (internship, exams) that result in receiving a license.
The degree is earned through several possible paths of study, depending on both a particular program's construction, and the candidate's previous academic experience and degrees. M.Arch. degrees vary in kind, so they are frequently given names such as "M.Arch. I" and "M.Arch. II" to distinguish them. All M.Arch. degrees are professional degrees in architecture. There are, however, other master's degrees offered by architecture schools that are not accredited in any way.
Many schools offer several possible tracks of architectural education. Including study at the bachelor's and master's level, these tracks range up to 7.5 years in duration.
- One possible route is what is commonly referred to as the "4+2" course. This path entails completing a four-year, accredited, pre-professional bachelor of arts in architecture or a bachelor of science in architecture. This degree is not 3 year, depending on the nature and quality of your undergraduate study performance, and the evaluation of your master's degree program school of your undergraduate study) Master of Architecture program. This route offers several advantages: your first four years are a bit more loose, allowing the inclusion of some liberal arts study; you can attend two different institutions for your undergraduate and graduate study, which is helpful in that it allows you to have a more varied architectural education, and you can pick the best place for you to complete your thesis (because chances are, you might not pick the program that has the exact focus that you will want when it becomes time for your thesis study); and you will finish the 4+2 course of study with a master's degree that will provide you the career option of teaching architecture at the collegiate level.
- The second route to obtaining an accredited master's degree begins in graduate school, with a 3 or 3.5 year Master's degree (commonly called an "M.Arch. I"). The advantage to this route is that the student can study something else he or she is interested in his/her undergraduate study (anything else). Because students come from different undergraduate backgrounds, the breadth of knowledge and experience in the student body of an M.Arch. I program is often considered an advantage. One possible disadvantage is that the total time in school is longer (7 or 7.5 years with an undergraduate degree). Another disadvantage is that the student has a very short time to cover the extremely broad scope of subject areas of which architects are expected to have a working knowledge. Nevertheless, major schools of architecture including MIT and Harvard often offer 3.5 year program to students already with strong architectural background, fostering a competitive and productive academic environment.
- A third possible route is what schools are calling a "post-professional" master's degree. It is research-based and often a stepping-stone to a Doctor of Philosophy in Architecture. Schools include Cornell, Harvard, Princeton, MIT, and RISD.
It is worth noting that there is another route to becoming an architect: the continuous 5 year professional degree program. In such a program, after five years of study, students are awarded with a professional degree in architecture. Depending on the school and course of study, this could be either a Bachelor of Architecture (B.Arch.) or an M.Arch. In the U.S., it is typically a 5-year B.Arch. Either degree qualifies those who complete it to sit for the ARE (the Architectural Registration Exam, the architecture equivalent of the bar exam), which leads to an architect's license in the U.S.. One disadvantage of the B.Arch. degree is that it is rarely considered as sufficient qualification for teaching architecture at the university/college level in the U.S. (though there are many exceptions). Many architects who wish to teach and have only received a B.Arch. choose to pursue a 3-semester master's degree (not an M.Arch.) to obtain further academic qualification.
Graduate-level architecture programs consist of course work in design, building science, structural engineering, architectural history, theory, professional practice, and elective courses. For those without any prior knowledge of the field, coursework in calculus, physics, computers, statics and strengths of materials, architectural history, studio, and building science is usually required. Some architecture programs allow students to specialize in a specific aspect of architecture, such as architectural technologies or digital media. A thesis or final project is usually required to graduate.
Important to consider in choosing the school(s) for an architectural education is their overall "focus". Architectural schools usually, by virtue of the history of the school and the interests of the faculty, will approach the instruction of architecture from a technical, historical, or artistic bent—or a combination thereof. This is not something that will be spelled out in the school's literature, but will be more or less apparent in the lists of classes offered and the study areas of the faculty. While it may not seem important at first, in retrospect it will probably be a major factor.
An architectural thesis is the culmination of a student’s research. Submission of the thesis represents the completion of the final requirement for the degree and may be presented as graphic representations, a written work, or physical forms. According to Architectural Research Methods by Linda N. Groat and David Wang, the scope of the research inquiry must not be too broad or too narrow. A good topic will clearly and simply identify a body of literature to which the topical question can be referred. Additionally, a thesis question must have significance to not only the student, but his or her peers, and to the field of architecture.
In the United States, The National Architectural Accrediting Board (NAAB) is the sole agency authorized to accredit US professional degree programs in architecture. Since most state registration boards in the United States require any applicant for licensure to have graduated from a NAAB-accredited program, obtaining such a degree is an essential aspect of preparing for the professional practice of architecture.
Again, first time students matriculating with a 5-year B.Arch. degree can also qualify for registration, without obtaining a master's degrees. Some programs offer a concurrent learning model, allowing students the opportunity to work in the profession while they are earning their degree, so that they can test for licensure immediately upon graduation.
In Canada, Master of Architecture degrees may be accredited by the Canadian Architectural Certification Board (CACB), allowing the recipient to qualify for both the ARE and the Examination for Architects in Canada (ExAC).
As of March 2006, there were eighty-four accredited Master of Architecture programs in the United States, including Puerto Rico. In Canada, there were ten accredited programs.
Master's Degree programs
Colleges and universities in the United States with accredited Master of Architecture degree programs are listed below.
- Note: Schools where a Bachelor of Architecture can also be earned are marked with *
- Academy of Art University*, School of Architecture,  San Francisco, California
- Andrews University, School of Architecture, Art & Design,  Berrien Springs, Michigan
- Arizona State University School of Architecture and Landscape Architecture (SALA),  Tempe, Arizona
- Ball State University*, Ball State University College of Architecture and Planning, Department of Architecture,  Muncie, Indiana
- Boston Architectural College* Boston, Massachusetts
- California College of the Arts*, Department of Architecture,  San Francisco, California
- California State Polytechnic University, Pomona, Department of Architecture,  Pomona, California
- The Catholic University of America, School of Architecture and Planning,  Washington, D.C.
- Clemson University, School of Architecture,  Clemson, South Carolina
- City College of the City University of New York*, school of architecture, urban design and landscape architecture  New York, New York
- Columbia University, Graduate School of Architecture Planning and Preservation (GSAPP),  New York, NY
- Cooper Union*, The Irwin S. Chanin School of Architecture  New York City, New York
- Cornell University*, College of Architecture, Art and Planning  New York
- Florida A&M University*, School of Architecture,  Tallahassee, Florida
- Florida International University*, School of Architecture* Miami, Florida
- Taliesin, The Frank Lloyd Wright School of Architecture,  Scottsdale, AZ
- Georgia Institute of Technology, College of Architecture,  Atlanta, Georgia
- Hampton University*, School of Engineering - Architecture,  Hampton, Virginia
- Harvard University, Graduate School of Design, Cambridge, Massachusetts
- Illinois Institute of Technology*, College of Architecture, 
- Iowa State University*, Department of Architecture,  Ames, Iowa
- Judson University,  Elgin, Illinois
- Kansas State University, Manhattan, Kansas
- Kent State University*, College of Architecture & Environmental Design, , Kent, Ohio
- Lawrence Technological University, Southfield, Michigan
- Louisiana State University*, College of Art + Design, , Baton Rouge, Louisiana
- Louisiana Tech University, School of Architecture,  Ruston, Louisiana
- Massachusetts College of Art and Design, Architectural Design, , Boston,Massachusetts
- Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Department of Architecture,  Cambridge, Massachusetts
- Miami University, Oxford, Ohio
- Montana State University
- Morgan State University, Baltimore, Maryland
- New Jersey Institute of Technology*, Newark, New Jersey
- NewSchool of Architecture and Design, , San Diego, California
- North Carolina State University*, Raleigh, North Carolina
- North Dakota State University*, Fargo, North Dakota
- Northeastern University, School of Architecture,  Boston, Massachusetts
- Norwich University*, Northfield, Vermont
- Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio
- Parsons The New School for Design, Department of Architecture, Interior Design and Lighting,  New York, New York*
- Prairie View A&M University*, Prairie View, Texas
- Pratt Institute*, Graduate Architecture and Urban Design (GAUD), New York, New York
- Princeton University, School of Architecture,  Princeton, New Jersey
- Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute*, Troy, New York
- Rhode Island School of Design,  Providence, Rhode Island*
- Rice University*, Houston, Texas
- Roger Williams University, Bristol, Rhode Island
- Savannah College of Art and Design, Savannah, Georgia
- School of the Art Institute of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois
- Southern California Institute of Architecture ("SCI-Arc"),  Los Angeles, California*
- Southern Illinois University Carbondale,  Carbondale, Illinois, Illinois
- University at Buffalo, The State University of New York
- Syracuse University*, Syracuse, New York
- Temple University, Tyler School of Art,  Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
- Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas
- Texas Tech University, Lubbock, Texas
- Tulane University, New Orleans, Louisiana
- University of Arizona*, College of Architecture and Landscape Architecture,  Tucson, Arizona
- University of California, Berkeley, College of Environmental Design,  Berkeley, California
- University of California, Los Angeles, Department of Architecture and Urban Design,  Los Angeles, California
- University of Cincinnati, College of Design, Architecture, Art and Planning, Cincinnati, Ohio
- University of Colorado Denver
- University of Detroit Mercy
- University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida
- University of Hartford, Department of Architecture, Hartford, Connecticut
- University of Houston, Gerald D. Hines College of Architecture*
- University of Idaho, Moscow, Idaho
- University of Illinois at Chicago
- University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
- University of Kansas, School of Architecture and Urban Design,  Lawrence, Kansas *
- University of Kentucky, College of Design,  Lexington, Kentucky *
- University of Louisiana at Lafayette*
- University of Maine at Augusta
- University of Maryland, College Park
- University of Massachusetts-Amherst
- University of Memphis
- University of Miami*, Coral Gables, Florida
- University of Michigan, Taubman College of Architecture and Urban Planning , Ann Arbor, Michigan
- University of Minnesota, Twin Cities
- University of Nebraska–Lincoln
- University of Nevada, Las Vegas
- University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico
- University of North Carolina at Charlotte*
- University of Notre Dame*, Notre Dame, Indiana
- University of Oklahoma*, Norman, Oklahoma
- University of Oregon*, Eugene, Oregon
- University of Pennsylvania*, School of Design (PennDesign),  Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
- Universidad de Puerto Rico
- University of South Florida, Tampa, Florida
- University of Southern California*, Los Angeles, California
- University of Tennessee, Knoxville*
- University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, Texas
- University of Texas at Austin*, School of Architecture,  Austin, Texas
- University of Texas at San Antonio, College of Architecture,  San Antonio, Texas
- University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah
- University of Virginia*, Charlottesville, Virginia
- University of Washington, College of Architecture and Urban Planning,  Seattle, Washington
- University of Wisconsin–Milwaukee, School of Architecture and Urban Planning, Milwaukee, Wisconsin*
- Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, College of Architecture and Urban Studies,  Blacksburg, Virginia*
- Washington State University, School of Design and Construction Pullman, Washington
- Washington University in St. Louis, Sam Fox School of Design and Visual Arts, Graduate School of Architecture and Urban Design 
- Wentworth Institute of Technology*, Boston, Massachusetts
- Woodbury University, in Burbank, CA - Master of Architecture in Real Estate Development
- Yale University, School of Architecture,  New Haven, Connecticut
Colleges and universities in Canada with accredited Master of Architecture degree programs are listed below:
Australia and New Zealand
- Xi'an Jiaotong-Liverpool University, starting fall 2014, language: English
In Mexico, an officially-recognized Bachelor of Architecture is sufficient for practice.
Some Universities in India with accredited Master of Architecture degree programs are listed below:
- IIT Roorkee
- School of Planning and Architecture, Delhi
- IIT Kharagpur
- Rachana Sansad's Academy of Architecture, Mumbai, India
- Jamia Millia Islamia
- Kamla Raheja Vidyanidhi Institute for Architecture and Environmental Studies
- IIT Mumbai
- Cept University, India
Four United States schools are candidates for accreditation, meaning that their newly created programs may be accredited to offer the M.Arch. degree upon proof of meeting NAAB standards. This usually occurs after the school has graduated its first class of students.
|Cornell University||Ithaca, NY||Yes||2008|
Schools and Universities in Europe
- Academy of fine Arts, Vienna Institute for Art and Architecture (B.Arch. and M.Arch. language: German and English) (Austria)
- Universidad de Navarra Department of Architecture (M.D.A. language: Spanish and English) (Spain)
- The University of the Basque Country The University of the Basque Country (M.D.A. Language: Basque or Spanish) (Basque Country, Spain)
- The Edinburgh College of Art at the University of Edinburgh, Mackintosh School of Architecture at the Glasgow School of Art, University of Strathclyde, Dundee University, School of Architecture (Duncan of Jordanstone College of Art and Design) in Scotland.
- Cardiff University (M.Arch. RIBA and ARB approved) in Wales.
- Hochschule Liechtenstein (candidate for accreditation, language: English)
- DIA Dessau (Dessau International Architecture) at the Hochschule Anhalt / Bauhaus Dessau in Germany (language: English)
- WENK Gent Brussels (Sint Lucas Institute of Architecture) Sint Lucas Ghent Brussels in Belgium (language: English)
- The Rotterdam Academy of Architecture and Urban Design (the Netherlands)
- Academy of Architecture at the Amsterdam School of Art (the Netherlands)
- Artez Academy of Architecture in Arnhem (the Netherlands)
- Jointmaster of Architecture in Berne, Fribourg and Geneva, (languages: English and French)  (Switzerland)
- Accademia di Architettura di Mendrisio (Switzerland)
- Academie van bouwkunst Maastricht (the Netherlands)
- TU Delft Faculty of Architecture (M.S. Professional Degree, language: English)(The Netherlands)
- Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts (M.A. Professional Degree, language: English)(Denmark)
- Warsaw University of Technology Architecture and Urban Planning with specialisation Architecture for Society of Knowledge (M.Arch. language: English) (Poland)
- Cracow University of Technology Department of Architecture with specialisation Architecture and Urban Planning (M.Arch. RIBA accredited) (Poland)
- Architectural Association School of Architecture (England)
Schools and Universities in The middle East
- Technion Department of Architecture (M.Arch. language: English) (Israel)
- Middle East Technical University Department of Architecture (M.Arch. language: English) (Turkey)
- Doctor of Architecture
- Bachelor of architecture
- National Council of Architectural Registration Boards
Aalto University School of Arts, Design and Architecture. The Department of Architecture ( Finland )
- For instance see: Cornell. "Post-Professional Master of Architecture Program".
- Harvard. "Programs".
- Architectural Research Methods. Linda N. Groat, David Wang. John Wiley and Sons, 2002. ISBN 0-471-33365-4