Master of Science
A Master of Science (Latin: Magister Scientiae; abbreviated M.Sc., MSc, M.Sci., M.Si., Sc.M., M.S., MSHS, MS, Mag., Mg., Mgr, S.M., or SM) is a postgraduate academic master's degree awarded by universities in many countries. The degree is typically granted for studies in the sciences.
Brazil, Mexico, Argentina and Uruguay
In Brazil, Mexico, Argentina and Uruguay, the Master of Science or Magister is a postgraduate degree of two to four years of duration. The admission to a Master program (Castilian: Maestría; Portuguese: Mestrado) in a Brazilian, Argentine or Uruguayan University requires the full completion of an undergraduate degree, as well Licentiate's degree as Professorate degree of four to five years long from any recognized university.
Australian universities commonly have coursework or research based Master of Science courses for graduate students. They typically run for 1–2 years full-time, with varying amounts of research involved. Research based Masters degrees are usually accompanied by an extensive thesis before completion.
In Bangladesh, all universities, including Dhaka University, Jahangirnagar University and Rajshahi University, have Master of Science courses as postgraduate degrees. After passing Bachelor of Science (BSc), any student becomes eligible to study in this discipline.
In Canada, Master of Science (MSc) degrees may be entirely course-based, entirely research-based or (more typically) a mixture. Master's programs typically take one to three years to complete and the completion of a scientific thesis is often required. Admission to a master's program is contingent upon holding a four-year university bachelor's degree. Some universities require a masters degree in order to progress to a doctoral program (PhD).
In the province of Quebec, the Master of Science follows the same principles as in the rest of Canada. There is one exception, however, regarding admission to a master's program. Since Québécois students complete two to three years of college before entering university, they have the opportunity to complete a bachelor's degree in three years instead of four. Some undergraduate degrees such as the Bachelor of Education and the Bachelor of Engineering requires four years of studies. Following the obtention of their bachelor's degree, students can be admitted into a graduate program to eventually obtain a master's degree.
Czech Republic and Slovakia
The Czech Republic and Slovakia are using two Master Degree systems. Both award a title of Mgr. or Ing. to be used before the name. The older system requires a 5-years programme. The new system takes only 2 years, but requires a previously completed 3-year bachelor programme (a Bc. title). It is required to write a thesis (in both master and bachelor programme) and also to pass final exams. It is mostly the case that the final exams cover the main study areas of the whole study programme, i.e. a student is required to prove his/her knowledge in many subjects he attended during the 2 resp. 3 years.
The Master of Science (M.Sc.) academic degree has been recently introduced in Germany, as the once common Diplom or Magister programmes typically lasting four to five years were replaced by separate three-year bachelor and two-year master programs. It is awarded in all sciences. The completion of a scientific thesis is required. All Master's degrees in Germany are designed to certify an equal level of education and qualify for a doctorate program only if approved by the Kultusminister and a local university.
The graduate needs to use it as awarded and cannot choose which form to use.
In Iran, similar to Canada, Master of Science (MSc) or in Iranian form Karshenasi-arshad degrees may be entirely course-based, entirely research-based or sometimes a mixture. Master's programs typically take two to three years to complete and the completion of a scientific thesis is often required.
In Israel, Master of Science (MSc) may be entirely course-based, or include research. The program is most commonly a two-year program and a thesis is required only for research based degrees.
In India the M.Sc. is mostly a course-based programme spanning two years. Only few universities will conduct any research aalokk of the msc master maind
Similar to Germany. A graduate who is awarded the title Master of Science may still use the previously awarded Dutch title ingenieur (abbreviated as ir.) (for graduates who followed a technical or agricultural programme) or doctorandus (abbreviated as drs.)(in all other cases).
For engineering, the Master of Science academic degree has been recently introduced, and has replaced the previous award forms "Sivilingeniør" (engineer, a.k.a. engineering master) and "Hovedfag" (academic master). Both were awarded after 5 years university-level studies and required the completion of a scientific thesis.
"Siv.ing", is a protected title exclusively awarded to engineering students who completed a five-year education at The Norwegian University of Science and Technology (Norwegian: Norges teknisk-naturvitenskapelige universitet, NTNU) or other universities. Historically there was no Bachelor's degree involved, and today's program is a five years Master's degree education. The "Siv.ing" title is in the process of being phased out, replaced by (for now, complemented by) the "M.Sc." title. By and large, "Siv.ing" is a title tightly being held on to for the sake of tradition. In academia, the new program offers separate three-year bachelor and two-year master programs. It is awarded in the natural sciences, mathematics and computer science fields. The completion of a scientific thesis is required. All Master's degrees are designed to certify a level of education and qualify for a doctorate program.
Master of Science in Business is the English title for those taking a higher business degree, "Siviløkonom" in Norwegian. In addition there is for example the 'Master of Business Administration' (MBA), a practically oriented masters degree in business, but with less mathematics and econometrics, due to its less specific entry requirements and smaller focus on research.
Pakistan inherited its conventions pertaining to higher education from United Kingdom after independence in 1947. Master of Science degree is typically abbreviated as M.Sc. (as in United Kingdom) and which is awarded after 16 years of education. Recently, in pursuance to some of the reforms by the Higher Education Commission (the regulatory body of higher education in Pakistan), the traditional 2-year Bachelor of Science (B.Sc.) degree has been replaced by the 4-year Bachelor of Science degree, which is abbreviated as B.S. to enable the Pakistani degrees with the rest of the world. Subsequently, students who pass 4-year B.S. degree that is awarded after 16 years of education are then eligible to apply for M.S. degree, which is considered with Master of Philosophy (M.Phil.) degree.
The Polish equivalent of Master of Science is "magister" (abbreviation "mgr", placed before one's name, like Dr). In the 2001, the MSc programs typically lasting 5 years started to split and were replaced as described below:
- 3-year associates programs (termed "licencjat". No abbreviation or title is placed before one's name)
- 3.5-year engineer programs (termed "inżynier" with abbreviation "inż.", placed before one's name)
- 2-year master programs available to both bachelors and engineers.
- 1.5-year master programs available only to engineers.
The degree is awarded mostly in the natural sciences, mathematics and computer science fields, and economics, but also in the arts and other disciplines. Those who finished engineer program prior to being awarded master degree are allowed to precede their names by "mgr inż." (which means "master engineer"), that occurs mostly in engineering and agricultural field of studies. The completion of a research thesis is required. All Master's degrees in Poland qualify for a doctorate program.
The Master of Science academic degree has, like in Germany, recently been introduced in Sweden. Students studying Master of Science in Engineering programmes are rewarded both the English Master of Science Degree, but also the Swedish equivalent "Teknologie masterexamen" and "Civilingenjör".
The M.Sc. is typically a "taught" postgraduate degree, involving lectures, examination, and a short project. Taught masters programmes involve 1 or 2 years of full-time study (or the equivalent period part-time). Some universities also offer research MSc programmes, where a longer project or set of projects is undertaken full-time.
Until recently, both the undergraduate and postgraduate masters degrees were awarded without grade or class (like the class of an honours degree). Nowadays however, masters degrees are normally classified into the categories of Pass and Distinction, with some universities also using an intermediate Merit category.
The more recent M.Sci. degree, now offered by UK institutions, is an abbreviation for Master in Science. It is equally reputed and acknowledged by employers within the UK and internationally. According to the UK National Qualifications Framework, an M.Sci. and other such masters degrees (M.Phys., M.Chem. etc.) are termed integrated masters and are classed as level 7 qualifications—the same level as a Master of Science or Master of Arts degree. Many research universities are now demanding M.Sci. degrees for entry to Ph.D. research programmes.
The Master of Arts (Magister Artium) and Master of Science (Magister Scientiæ) degrees are the two primary types in most subjects and may be entirely course-based, entirely research-based, or, (more typically), a combination of the two. The combination often involves writing and defending a thesis or completing a research project which represents the culmination of the material learned.
Admission to a master's program is normally contingent upon holding a bachelor's degree, and progressing to a doctoral program may require a master's degree. In some fields or graduate programs, work on a doctorate can begin immediately after the bachelor's degree. Some programs provide for a joint bachelor's and master's degree after about five years. Some universities use the Latin degree names, and due to the flexibility of word order in Latin, Artium Magister (AM) or Scientiæ Magister (SM) may be used in some institutions.
- Master of Science in Accounting
- Master of Science in Administration
- Master of Science in Biological Sciences
- Master of Science in Corporate Communication
- Master of Science in Project Management
- Master of Science in Economics
- Master of Science in Engineering
- Master of Science in Finance
- Master of Science in Information Systems
- Master of Science in Information Technology
- Master of Science in Management
- Master of Science in Nursing
- Master of Science in Geographic Information Science and Systems
- Master of Social Science
- "CONEAU: Tipos de Posgrado". Ministerio de Education Republica Argentina. 2009-06-08. Retrieved 2009-06-08.[dead link]
- See university law of the respective German states, or their common structural standards
- "The framework for higher education qualifications in England, Wales and Northern Ireland 2008". QAA. Retrieved 2 April 2012.