Master of Business Administration
The Master of Business Administration (MBA or M.B.A.) is a master's degree in business administration, which attracts people from a wide range of academic disciplines. The MBA designation originated in the United States, emerging from the late 19th century as the country industrialized and companies sought out scientific approaches to management. The core courses in the MBA program are designed to introduce students to the various areas of business such as accounting, finance, marketing, human resources, operations management, etc. Students in MBA programs have the option of taking general business courses throughout the program or can select an area of concentration and focus approximately one-fourth of their studies in this subject.
Accreditation bodies exist specifically for MBA programs to ensure consistency and quality of graduate business education. Business schools in many countries offer MBA programs tailored to full-time, part-time, executive, and distance learning students, with specialized concentrations.
The first graduate school of business in the United States was the Tuck School of Business, part of Dartmouth College. Founded in 1900, it was the first institution conferring advanced degrees (master's) in the commercial sciences, specifically, a Master of Science in Commerce degree, the forbearer of the modern MBA degree.
In 1908, the Graduate School of Business Administration (GSBA) at Harvard University was established; it offered the world's first MBA program, with a faculty of 15 plus 33 regular students and 47 special students.
The University of Chicago Booth School of Business first offered working professionals the Executive MBA (EMBA) program in 1943, first available in permanent campus in three continents (Chicago, London and Singapore) and this type of program is offered by most business schools today.
In 1950, the first MBA degrees awarded outside the United States were by the Richard Ivey School of Business at The University of Western Ontario in Canada, followed in 1951 with the degree awarded by the University of Pretoria in South Africa. In 1955, the Institute of Business Administration, Karachi was established under the University of Karachi in Pakistan, in collaboration with the Wharton School of the University of Pennsylvania and became the first Asian business school to offer an MBA program under the US MBA model. In 1957, INSEAD became the first European business school to offer an MBA program. In 1986, the Roy E. Crummer Graduate School of Business at Rollins College (Florida) was the first MBA program to require every student to have a laptop computer in the classroom. Initially, professors wheeled a cart of laptops into the classroom.
The MBA degree has been adopted by universities worldwide, and has been adopted and adapted by both developed and developing countries.
||The examples and perspective in this article deal primarily with the United States and do not represent a worldwide view of the subject. (September 2012)|
Business schools or MBA programs may be accredited by external bodies which provide students and employers with an independent view of their quality, and indicate that the school's educational curriculum meets specific quality standards. The three major accrediting bodies in the United States are Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business (AACSB), which accredits research universities, the Accreditation Council for Business Schools and Programs (ACBSP), which accredits universities and colleges, and the International Assembly for Collegiate Business Education (IACBE), all of which also accredit schools outside the US. The AACSB, the ACBSP, and the IACBE are themselves recognized in the United States by the Council for Higher Education Accreditation (CHEA). MBA programs with specializations for students pursuing careers in healthcare management also eligible for accreditation by the Commission on the Accreditation of Healthcare Management Education (CAHME).
In the United States, MBA programs may also be considered accredited at the institutional level. Bodies that accredit institutions as a whole include: Middle States Association of Colleges and Schools (MSA), New England Association of Schools and Colleges (NEASCSC), Higher Learning Commission of the North Central Association of Colleges and Schools (HLC), Northwest Commission on Colleges and Universities (NWCCU), Southern Association of Colleges and Schools (SACS), and Western Association of Schools and Colleges (WASC).
Accreditation agencies outside the United States include the Association of MBAs (AMBA), a UK based organization that accredits MBA, DBA and MBM programs worldwide, government accreditation bodies such as the All India Council for Technical Education (AICTE) that accredits MBA and PGDM programs across India, the Council on Higher Education (CHE) in South Africa, the European Foundation for Management Development operates the European Quality Improvement System (EQUIS) for mostly European and Asian schools, the Foundation for International Business Administration Accreditation (FIBAA), and Central and East European Management Development Association (CEEMAN) in Europe.
Basic types of MBA programs 
Two-year (Full Time) MBA programs normally take place over two academic years (i.e. approximately 18 months of term time). For example, in the Northern Hemisphere, they often begin in late August/September of year one and continue until May of year two, with a three to four month summer break in between years one and two. Students enter with a reasonable amount of prior real-world work experience and take classes during weekdays like other university students.
Accelerated MBA programs are a variation of the two-year programs. They involve a higher course load with more intense class and examination schedules. They usually have less "down time" during the program and between semesters. For example, there is no three to four month summer break, and between semesters there might be seven to ten days off rather than three to five weeks vacation.
Part-time MBA programs normally hold classes on weekday evenings, after normal working hours, or on weekends. Part-time programs normally last three years or more. The students in these programs typically consist of working professionals, who take a light course load for a longer period of time until the graduation requirements are met.
Modular MBA programs are similar to part-time programs, although typically employing a lock-step curriculum with classes packaged together in blocks lasting from one to three weeks.
Executive MBA (EMBA) programs developed to meet the educational needs of managers and executives, allowing students to earn an MBA or another business-related graduate degree in two years or less while working full-time. Participants come from every type and size of organization – profit, nonprofit, government – representing a variety of industries. EMBA students typically have a higher level of work experience, often 10 years or more, compared to other MBA students. In response to the increasing number of EMBA programs offered, The Executive MBA Council was formed in 1981 to advance executive education.
Distance learning MBA programs hold classes off-campus. These programs can be offered in a number of different formats: correspondence courses by postal mail or email, non-interactive broadcast video, pre-recorded video, live teleconference or videoconference, offline or online computer courses. Many schools offer these programs.
Blended learning programs combine distance learning with face-to-face instruction. These programs typically target working professionals who are unable to attend traditional part-time programs.
Dual MBA programs combine a MBA with others (such as an MS, MA, or a J.D., etc.) to let students cut costs (dual programs usually cost less than pursuing 2 degrees separately), save time on education and to tailor the business education courses to their needs. Some business schools offer programs in which students can earn both a bachelor's degree in business administration and an MBA in four or five years.
Admissions criteria 
Many programs base their admission decisions on an applicant's performance on the Graduate Management Admission Test (GMAT), significant work experience (a resume), academic transcripts, essays, references or letters of recommendation and personal interviews. The Graduate Record Examination (GRE) is also accepted by some schools in lieu of the GMAT. Some schools are also interested in extracurricular activities, community service activities and how the student can improve the school's diversity and contribute to the student body as a whole. All of these qualifications can be important for admission; however, some schools do not weigh GMAT scores as heavily as other criteria, and some distance learning programs do not require the GMAT for admission. In order to achieve a diverse class, business schools also consider the target male-female ratio and local-international student ratios. Some MBA degrees do not require students to have an undergraduate degree and will accept experience in lieu of an undergraduate degree. In the UK for example an HND or even HNC is acceptable in some programs.
Depending on the program, type and length of work experience can be a critical admissions component for many MBA programs. Many top-tier programs require five or more years of work experience for admission.
Program content 
- For the content of the MBA core curriculum, see the overview at the Wikiversity MBA topic page.
In general, MBA programs are structured around core courses, typically taken at the start of the MBA, and elective courses allowing for a subject specialty or concentration. The core curriculum is essentially standard. A thesis, preceded by additional course work in research methodology, is usually required; some programs instead allow for a "Major Project".
Typically, in the program's first part (first year), students will acquire the analytical tools necessary for academic training in the key management functions, as well as a working knowledge of these functions. In the second part (second year) students pursue a specialized curriculum. "Business Strategy", where the key areas are synthesized or integrated, is usually offered as a capstone course; related participation in a business simulation or game is a common degree requirement. Course work in Business ethics may be included in the first or second part (or both), with a correspondingly different focus.
The courses are, typically:
- Analytical: accounting, economics, operations research, organizational behavior, statistics
- Functional: financial management, human resource management, marketing management, operations management
- Specialization: entrepreneurship, finance (including corporate finance and investment management), international business, management information systems, management science, marketing, operations management, organizational design, project management, real estate, risk management and strategy, among others.
The analytical courses may treat financial- and management accounting separately, and may focus on managerial economics as opposed to the more traditional introductory treatment. Sometimes business law and tax may be included. As regards the functional courses, further course work may be specified in parallel to the specialty. Here, the first course provides an overview, while the second revisits the subject in depth. Alternatively, the first course addresses short-term, tactical problems, while the second course addresses long-term, strategic problems (e.g. "Financial Management I" covers working capital management, while part II covers capital investment decisions).
Programs may also include (course-work based) training in soft skills, such as leadership and negotiation, in hard skills, such as spreadsheets, project management and foreign languages, and in areas such as multiculturalism and corporate social responsibility. Company visits (including overseas travel), and guest lectures or seminars with well known CEOs and management personalities, are also common. These, with the core subjects, provide the graduate with "breadth", while the specialty courses provide "depth".
Full-time students generally seek an internship during the interim. In some programs, (part-time) students' Major Projects will address a problem current in their organization; particularly in programs with an action learning orientation, these may be practically oriented. In many programs, applicants with appropriate background may be exempt from the analytical course-work.
In Executive MBAs, the curriculum will be largely as described, but the focus will differ, taking on a macro view, and emphasizing real-world applicability, in contrast with the more fundamental and functional orientation of traditional programs.
In Europe 
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History of the MBA in Europe 
In 1957, INSEAD (French name "INStitut Européen d'ADministration des Affaires", or European Institute of Business Administration) became the first European university offering the MBA degree, followed in 1959 by ESADE, EDHEC Business School and ICADE in 1960 (who had started offering in 1956 a "Technical Seminary for Business Administration"), IESE (first two-year program in Europe) in 1964, UCD Smurfit Business School in 1964, Manchester Business School and London Business School in 1965, The University of Dublin (Trinity College), the Rotterdam School of Management in 1966, the Cranfield School of Management in 1967, the Vlerick Business School in 1968 and in 1969 by the HEC School of Management (in French, the École des Hautes Études Commerciales) and the Institut d'Etudes Politiques de Paris. In 1972, Swiss business school IMEDE (now IMD) began offering a full-time MBA program, followed in 1974 by AGH University of Science and Technology in Cracow, Poland. EADA Business School in 1989. In 1991, IEDC-Bled School of Management became the first school in the ex-socialist block of the Central and Eastern to offer an MBA degree. Because of technology advances, distance or online MBA programs have recently emerged in Europe. Several business schools in the United Kingdom now offer distance MBA programs. In 2007, ESCEM became the first French Business school to offer their own distance or online MBA. See List of business schools in Europe
Bologna Accord 
In Europe, the recent Bologna Accord established uniformity in three levels of higher education: Bachelor (three years), Masters (one or two years in addition to three or four years for a Bachelor), and Doctorate (an additional three or four years after a Bachelors). Students can acquire professional experience after their initial bachelor degree at any European institution and later complete their masters in any other European institution via the European Credit Transfer and Accumulation System.
Accreditation standards are not uniform in Europe. Some countries have legal requirements for accreditation (e.g. most German states), in some there is a legal requirement only for universities of a certain type (e.g. Austria), and others have no accreditation law at all. Even where there is no legal requirement, many business schools are accredited by independent bodies voluntarily to ensure quality standards.
In Austria, MBA programs of private universities have to be accredited by the Austrian Accreditation Council (Österreichischer Akkreditierungsrat). State-run universities have no accreditation requirements, however, some of them voluntarily undergo accreditation procedures by independent bodies. There are also MBA programs of non-academic business schools, who are entitled by the Austrian government to offer these programs until the end of 2012 (Lehrgang universitären Charakters). Some non-academic institutions cooperate with state-run universities to ensure legality of their degrees.
Czech Republic 
January 1999 saw the first meeting of the Association of the Czech MBA Schools (CAMBAS). The Association is housed within the Centre for Doctoral and Managerial Studies of UEP, Prague. All of the founding members of the Association to have their MBA programs accredited by partner institutions in the United Kingdom or United States of America.
In Finland, as in most countries, MBA does not have the status of official degree. MBA programs are run by various universities including the top universities in the country.
France and French speaking countries 
In France and in the Francophone countries such as Switzerland, Monaco, Belgium, and Canada, the MBA degree programs at the public accredited schools are similar to those offered in the Anglo-Saxon countries. Most French Business Schools are accredited by the Conférence des Grandes Écoles, which is an association of higher educational establishments outside the mainstream framework of the public education system.
Germany was one of the last western countries to adopt the MBA degree. In 1998, the Hochschulrahmengesetz (Higher Education Framework Act), a German federal law regulating higher education including the types of degrees offered, was modified to permit German universities to offer master's degrees. The traditional German degree in business administration was the Diplom in Betriebswirtschaft (Diplom-Kaufmann; Master's degree equivalent) but since 1999, bachelor's and master's degrees have gradually replaced the traditional degrees (see Bologna process). Today most German business schools offer the MBA. Most German states require that MBA degrees have to be accredited by one of the six agencies officially recognized by the German Akkreditierungsrat (accreditation council), the German counterpart to the American CHEA. The busiest of these six agencies (in respect to MBA degrees) is the Foundation for International Business Administration Accreditation (FIBAA). All universities themselves have to be institutionally accredited by the state (staatlich anerkannt).
There are several MBA programs offered in Poland. Some of these are run as partnerships with American or Canadian Universities. For example, the CEMBA program is run by the Warsaw School of Economics and the University of Quebec at Montreal, Warsaw-Illinois Executive MBA (WIEMBA) run as partnership of University of Warsaw and University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. Others like the programs offered by the Institute of Economics of the Polish Academy of Sciences (INE PAN) rely on their own faculty and enrich their courses by inviting visiting lecturers. The CEMBA, WIEMBA and INE PAN programs as several other programs in Poland, are offered also in English.
There are several schools in Switzerland that offer an MBA, the most prominent being the International Institute for Management Development and St. Gallen MBA-HSG. Both programs offer full-time, part-time and executive education programs.
Recently MBA programs appeared in Ukraine where there are now about twenty schools of business offering a variety of MBA programs. Three of these are subsidiaries of European schools of business, while the remaining institutions are independent. Ukrainian MBA programs are concentrated mainly on particulars of business and management in Ukraine. For example, 2/3 of all case studies are based on real conditions of Ukrainian companies.
United Kingdom 
The UK-based Association of MBAs (AMBA) was established in 1967 and is an active advocate for MBA degrees. The association's accreditation service is internationally recognised for all MBA, DBA and Masters in Business and Management (MBM) programmes. AMBA also offer the only professional membership association for MBA students and graduates. UK MBA programmes typically consist of a set number of taught courses plus a dissertation or project.
Australia and Oceania 
|This section does not cite any references or sources. (October 2010)|
In Australia, 42 Australian business schools offer the MBA degree. Universities differentiate themselves by gaining international accreditation and focusing on national and international rankings. Most MBAs are one to two years full-time. There is little use of GMAT, and instead each educational institution specifies its own requirements, which normally entails several years of management-level work experience as well as proven academic skills.
Business schools administered as colleges within the traditional universities offer a variety of MBA programs. In addition, a few standalone business schools allied with foreign business schools exist.
South Africa 
In 2004 South Africa’s Council on Higher Education (CHE) completed an extensive re-accreditation of MBA degrees offered in the country.
Business schools of the traditional universities run a variety of MBA programs. In addition, foreign accredited institutions offer MBA degrees by distance learning in Ghana.
MBA programs are offered in many public and private universities.
Students choose to specialize in one of the following areas: Accounting, Finance, Entrepreneurship, Insurance and Human Resources. The course takes 4 semesters of about 4 months each.
Bangladesh was one of the first countries in Asia to offer MBA degree through Institute of Business Administration, University of Dhaka along with Institute of Business Administration, Karachi in erstwhile Pakistan.
There are now more than 50 business schools in Bangladesh offering MBA; predominantly targeting graduates without any work experience. Most MBAs are two years full-time. There is little use of GMAT. The Business Schools conduct their own admission tests instead. The medium of teaching is English in all business schools except National University.
There are many business schools in India offering two-year MBA programs accredited by AICTE or UGC. The students are a mix of fresh graduates as well as with experience and get either at public or private schools depending on entrance examinations. Typically programs offer full-time, part-time and executive education programs.
In Japan, the concept of an MBA is still not considered mainstream as traditional companies still perceive that knowledge and learning with respect to business and management can only be effectively gained through experience and not within a classroom. In fact, some companies have been known place recent MBA recipients in unrelated fields, or try to re-acclimate their Japanese employees who have spent years overseas earning the degree. As a consequence, academic institutions in Japan are attempting to reinvent the perception of the MBA degree, by taking into account the local corporate culture. Globis University Graduate School of Management is considered as a significant indicator to the acceptance of the MBA system in Japan.
The Institute of Business Administration Karachi was the first institute to offer an MBA program outside the United States, set up in 1955 in collaboration with the Wharton School of the University of Pennsylvania. Now in Pakistan, there are only 87 Universities/Institutes which are recognized by the Higher Education Commission of Pakistan, offering MBA programs to students and professionals.
Other Asian countries 
International MBA programs are acquiring brand value in Asia. For example, while a foreign MBA is still preferred in the Philippines, many students are now studying at one of many "Global MBA" English language programs being offered. English-only MBA programs are also offered in Hong Kong, Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore, South Korea, Taiwan, and Thailand. For international students who want a different experience, many Asian programs offer scholarships and discounted tuition to encourage an international environment in the classroom.
Rankings have been done for Asia Pacific schools by the magazine Asia Inc. which is a regional business magazine with distribution worldwide. The importance of MBA education in China has risen, too. See List of business schools in Asia.
MBA program rankings 
As MBA programs proliferated over time, differences in the quality of schools, faculty, and course offerings became evident. As a means of establishing criteria to assess quality among different MBA programs, a variety of publications began compiling program information and ranking quality. Different methods of varying validity were used. The Gourman Report, which ran from 1967 until 1997, did not disclose criteria or ranking methods, and these reports were criticized for reporting statistically impossible data, such as no ties among schools, narrow gaps in scores with no variation in gap widths, and ranks of nonexistent departments. In 1977 The Carter Report published rankings of MBA programs based on the number of academic articles published by faculty. Also in 1977, the Ladd & Lipset Survey relied on opinion surveys of business school faculty as the basis for rankings, and MBA Magazine ranked schools based on votes cast by business school deans.
Most recently, well-known publications such as US News & World Report, Business Week, Financial Times, The Economist, the Wall Street Journal and the Forbes publish rankings of selected MBA programs. Often a schools’ rank will vary significantly across publications, as the methodology used to create the ranks is different among each publication. The U.S. News & World Report ranking incorporates responses from deans, program directors, and senior faculty about the academic quality of their programs as well as the opinions of hiring professionals. The ranking is calculated through a weighted formula of quality assessment (40%), placement success (35%), and student selectivity (25%). The BusinessWeek rankings are similarly based on student surveys, a survey of corporate recruiters, and an intellectual capital rating. The Financial Times incorporates criteria including survey responses from alumni who graduated three years prior to the ranking and information from business schools. Salary and employment statistics are weighted heavily. Rankings by the Economist Intelligence Unit and published in The Economist result from surveys administered to business schools (80%) and to students and recent graduates (20%). Ranking criteria includes GMAT scores, employment and salary statistics, class options, and student body demographics. Although the Wall Street Journal stopped ranking full-time MBA programs in 2007, its ranking are based on skill and behavioral development that should lend toward career success, such as social skills, teamwork orientation, ethics, and analytic and problem-solving abilities. In contrast to the aforementioned rankings, the Forbes MBA ranking only considers the return of investment five years after graduation. MBA alumni are asked about their salary, the tuition fees of their MBA program and other direct costs as well as opportunity costs involved. Based on this data, a final "5-year gain" is calculated and determines the MBA ranking position.
An often overlooked differentiator among MBA rankings are the weights attributed to the participating groups and their answers. At first glance, for instance, the Financial Times Global MBA Ranking seems to provide more emphasis to the opinion of schools' representatives than to alumni: Schools provide data for 11 out of 20 criteria whereas alumni only contribute to 8 criteria. The answers of the alumni, however, are weighted by 59 percent whereas the schools' answers are weighted only by 31 percent. Hence, the ranking strongly builds on the opinion of alumni. In contrast, the Economist MBA Ranking primarily relies on the data provided by business schools and the Bloomberg Businessweek MBA Rankings equally emphasizes the opinion of alumni and corporate recruiters.
Other rankings base methodologies on attributes other than standardized test scores, salary of graduates, and recruiter opinions. The Beyond Grey Pinstripes ranking, published by the Aspen Institute is based on the integration of social and environmental stewardship into university curriculum and faculty research. Rankings are calculated on the amount of sustainability coursework made available to students (20%), amount of student exposure to relevant material (25%), amount of coursework focused on stewardship by for-profit corporations (30%), and relevant faculty research (25%). The 2011 survey and ranking include data from 150 universities. The QS Global 200 Business Schools Report compiles regional rankings of business schools around the world. Ranks are calculated using a two-year moving average of points assigned by employers who hire MBA graduates. Since 2005, the UT-Dallas Top 100 Business School Research Rankings ranks business schools on the research faculty publish, not unlike The Carter Report of the past.
The ranking of MBA programs has been discussed in articles and on academic Web sites. Critics of ranking methodologies maintain that any published rankings should be viewed with caution for the following reasons:
- Rankings limit the population size to a small number of MBA programs and ignore the majority of schools, many with excellent offerings.
- The ranking methods may be subject to biases and statistically flawed methodologies (especially for methods relying on subjective interviews of hiring managers).
- The same list of well-known schools appears in each ranking with some variation in ranks, so a school ranked as number 1 in one list may be number 17 in another list.
- Rankings tend to concentrate on the school itself, but some schools offer MBA programs of different qualities (e.g. a school may use highly reputable faculty to teach a daytime program, and use adjunct faculty in its evening program).
- A high rank in a national publication tends to become a self-fulfilling prophecy.
- Some leading business schools including Harvard, INSEAD, Wharton and Sloan provide limited cooperation with certain ranking publications due to their perception that rankings are misused.
One study found that objectively ranking MBA programs by a combination of graduates' starting salaries and average student GMAT score can reasonably duplicate the top 20 list of the national publications. The study concluded that a truly objective ranking would be individualized to the needs of each prospective student. National publications have recognized the value of rankings against different criteria, and now offer lists ranked different ways: by salary, GMAT score of students, selectivity, and so forth. Other publications have produced “rankings of the rankings”, which coalesce and summarize the findings of multiple independent rankings. While useful, these rankings have yet to meet the critique that rankings are not tailored to individual needs, that they use an incomplete population of schools, may fail to distinguish between the different MBA program types offered by each school, or rely on subjective interviews.
MBA degree and current financial crisis 
The Financial crisis of 2007–2010 has raised new challenges and questions regarding the MBA degree. Graduates of MBA programs have a reported tendency to go into Finance shortly after receiving the degree. As the field of Finance is tightly linked to the global economic downturn, anecdotal evidence suggests new graduates are stepping onto alternate paths.
Deans at top business schools have acknowledged media and public perception of the MBA has shown some shifts as a result of the financial crisis. Articles about public perception related to the crisis range from schools' acknowledgment of issues related to the training students receive to criticisms of the MBA's role in society.
See also 
General information 
- Wikiversity:Master of Business Administration, MBA Curriculum
- Business school rankings
- Australian MBA Star Ratings
- Outline of business management
Related graduate business degrees 
- Master of Accountancy (MAcc or MAcy) / Master of Professional Accountancy (MPA, or MPAcc), a postgraduate degree in accounting
- Master of Commerce (MCom or MComm), a postgraduate business degree usually focused on a particular area
- Master of Economics (M.Econ.)/M.Ec.)
- Master of Enterprise (MEnt), a postgraduate, technology & enterprise-based qualification
- Master of Bioscience Enterprise (MBioEnt), a postgraduate degree focussed on the commercialisation of biotechnology
- Master of Finance (MFin), a postgraduate degree in finance
- Master of Health Administration (MHA), a postgraduate health administration degree
- Master of International Business (MIB), a postgraduate degree focused on International Business
- Master of Management (MM), a postgraduate business degree
- Master of Science in Management, a postgraduate business degree
- Master of Marketing Research (MMR) a postgraduate degree focusing on research in the field of marketing
- Master of Nonprofit Organizations (MNO or MNPO), the postgraduate degree for philanthropy and voluntary sector professionals
- Master of Public Administration (MPA), a postgraduate public administration degree
- Master of Social Science (MSS), a postgraduate degree
- Master of Project Management (MSPM or MPM), a postgraduate project management degree
- Masters of Management: Co-operatives and Credit Unions, a post-graduate degree for co-operative and credit union managers
- Master in Sustainable Business (MSB)
- Master of Real Estate (MScRE), a postgraduate degree focusing on real estate.
- Technology Management Masters of Business Administration (TMMBA), a postgraduate degree for managing technology businesses
- Executive Master of Science in Business Administration (Executive MScBA), a postgraduate degree focusing advanced-level conceptual foundation in a student’s chosen field such as operational excellence in the biotech/pharma industry.
- Doctor of Business Administration (DBA), a doctorate in business administration
- Doctor of Education (EdD), assessed by Carnegie Foundation as a PhD equivalent
- Doctor of Management (D.M.)
- PhD in Management (PhD), a business doctoral degree
- D.Phil in Management (D.Phil), a doctorate in business
- Engineering Doctorate (EngD), A professional doctorate involving a management thesis and taught MBA courses in the UK
MBA accreditation agencies 
- Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business (AACSB)
- Accreditation Council for Business Schools and Programs (ACBSP)
- All India Council for Technical Education (AICTE)
- Association of MBAs (AMBA)
- European Quality Improvement System (EQUIS)
- International Assembly for Collegiate Business Education (IACBE)
- Richard Ivey School of Business page showing awarding of first MBA in 1950, one year ahead of the University of Pretoria's claim
- University of Pretoria page claiming to have awarded the first MBA outside of America
- Insead MBA
- "Rollins information".
- McIntyre, John R. and Ilan Alon, eds. (2005), Business and Management Education in Transitioning and Developing Countries: A Handbook, Armonk, NY: ME Sharpe.
- Differences in MBA accrediting bodies
- Programmatic Accrediting Organizations 2008–2009
- Koenig, Ann; Lofstad, Rolf (18 September 2004). "Higher Education Accreditation in the United States" (PDF). EAIE Conference.
- de l’Etraz, Paris (1 November 2009). "What Can an Online Program Do for You?". BizEd Magazine.
- Karen Hebert-Maccaro (8 Sept 2011). "Blended MBA Programs: An Optimized Form of Learning". Worcester Polytechnic Institute.
- Ward, Barabara (31 July 2009). "GRE: Wharton joins the club". MBA Channel.
- MBAapplicant.com (31 July 2009). "Number 5 – YOUR WORK EXPERIENCE:". MBA Applicant.com.
- SMU Cox (19 January 2010). "Part Time MBA Programs – Side By Side Comparison". SMU Cox School of Business.
- See: GMAC's Curriculum and Course Selection.
- MBA degree-guide, degree.net
- See: AACSB’s Standard 15: Management of Curricula; AMBA’s New Accreditation Criteria; ETF's Major Field Test for the MBA.
- Executive MBA (EMBA) vs. Traditional MBA , rutgers.edu.sg
- http://www.mbastrategy.ua/content/view/1078/312/lang,Eng/ MBA strategy in Ukraine
- The New York Times (November 24, 2010). "M.B.A.s in Japan Struggle for Respect". The New York Times.
- "Japan's Continued Retreat From U.S. Classrooms". Forbes. Retrieved March 19, 2013.
- Alon, Ilan and John R. McIntyre, eds. (2005), Business and Management Education in China: Transition, Pedagogy and Training, Singapore: World Scientific.
- Selingo, Jeffrey. A Self-Published College Guide Goes Big-Time, and Educators Cry Foul. Chronicle of Higher Education (7 November 1997).
- Bedeian, Arthur G. Caveat Emptor: The Gourman Report. The Industrial-Organizational Psychologist (June 2002).
- Schatz, Martin; Crummer, Roy E. (1993). "What's Wrong With MBA Ranking Surveys?". Management Research News 16 (7): 15–18. doi:10.1108/eb028322. Retrieved 22 July 2011.
- "Business Methodology". U.S. News & World Report. L.P. Retrieved 2007-12-18.
- "MBA Rankings: Updated October 2006". BusinessWeek.com. The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Retrieved 2007-12-18.
- Milton, Ursula (2007-01-29). "How to read the rankings: How the raw data are processed". The Financial Times Ltd. Retrieved 2007-12-25.
- "Rankings methodology". The Economist Intelligence Unit Limited. Retrieved 2007-12-19.
- "How the Rankings were Compiled". The Wall Street Journal. 16 September 2009. Retrieved 22 July 2011.
- "Forbes 'The Best Business Schools'". 3 August 2011. Retrieved 3 August 2011.
- "Comparison of fulltime MBA Rankings". 15 October 2012. Retrieved 15 October 2012.
- "Methodology". Beyond Grey Pinstripes. Retrieved 2011-06-18.
- Samuelson, Judy (Summer 2011). "The Business of Education: Why change-minded MBA candidates turn to the Institute before they pick a business school". The Aspen Idea: 66–67. Retrieved 18 July 2011.
- "Global Business Schools Report Methodology".
- Mahajan-Bansal, Neelima. "Does The World Need Another B-School Ranking?". Poets & Quants. Retrieved 22 July 2011.
- "Caution and Controversy". University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. Retrieved 6 September 2005.
- Schatz, Martin; Crummer, Roy E. (1993). "What's Wrong with MBA Ranking Surveys?". Management Research News 16 (7): 15–18. doi:10.1108/eb028322.
- Hemel, Daniel J (12 April 2004). "HBS Blocks Media Access to Students". The Harvard Crimson. Retrieved 29 January 2008.
- The Official MBA Guide uses this approach, allowing researchers to rank a large population of MBA programs based on a range of criteria and combinations.
- Milton, Ursula (29 January 2007). "How to read the rankings: How the raw data are processed". The Financial Times. Retrieved 22 July 2011.
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