In computing, a materialized view is a database object that contains the results of a query. For example, it may be a local copy of data located remotely, or may be a subset of the rows and/or columns of a table or join result, or may be a summary based on aggregations of a table's data.
The process of creating a materialized view is sometimes called materialization. It is sometimes described as a form of precomputation. As with other forms of precomputation, materialized views are typically created for performance reasons, i.e. as a form of optimization.
Materialized views, which store data based on remote tables, are also known as snapshots. A snapshot can be redefined as a materialized view.[clarification needed] According to C. J. Date, the term "materialized view" is deprecated in favor of "snapshot".
In any database management system following the relational model, a view is a virtual table representing the result of a database query. Whenever a query or an update addresses an ordinary view's virtual table, the DBMS converts these into queries or updates against the underlying base tables. A materialized view takes a different approach in which the query result is cached as a concrete table that may be updated from the original base tables from time to time. This enables much more efficient access, at the cost of some data being potentially out-of-date. It is most useful in data warehousing scenarios, where frequent queries of the actual base tables can be expensive.
In a materialized view, indexes can be built on any column. In contrast, in a normal view, it's typically only possible to exploit indexes on columns that come directly from (or have a mapping to) indexed columns in the base tables; often this functionality is not offered at all.
Example syntax to create a materialized view in Oracle:
CREATE MATERIALIZED VIEW MV_MY_VIEW REFRESH FAST START WITH SYSDATE NEXT SYSDATE + 1 AS SELECT * FROM <table_name>;
In PostgreSQL, version 9.3 and newer natively support materialized views. In version 9.3, a materialized view is not auto-refreshed, and is populated only at time of creation (unless
WITH NO DATA is used). It may be refreshed later manually using
REFRESH MATERIALIZED VIEW. In version 9.4, the refresh may be concurrent with selects on the materialized view if
CONCURRENTLY is used.
Materialized views are also supported in Sybase SQL Anywhere. In IBM DB2, they are called "materialized query tables"; Microsoft SQL Server has a similar feature called "indexed views". MySQL doesn't support materialized views natively, but workarounds can be implemented by using triggers or stored procedures  or by using the open-source application Flexviews.
- C.J. Date (28 August 2006). The Relational Database Dictionary: A Comprehensive Glossary of Relational Terms and Concepts, with Illustrative Examples. "O'Reilly Media, Inc.". pp. 59–. ISBN 978-1-4493-9115-7.
- Karen Morton; Kerry Osborne; Robyn Sands; Riyaj Shamsudeen, Jared Still (28 October 2013). Pro Oracle SQL. Apress. p. 48. ISBN 978-1-4302-6220-6.
- Marie-Aude Aufaure; Esteban Zimányi (16 January 2012). Business Intelligence: First European Summer School, EBISS 2011, Paris, France, July 3-8, 2011, Tutorial Lectures. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 43. ISBN 978-3-642-27357-5.
- Michael L. Gonzales (25 February 2003). IBM Data Warehousing: with IBM Business Intelligence Tools. John Wiley & Sons. p. 214. ISBN 978-0-471-45736-7.
- Oracle8i Tuning Release 8.1.5. Ecst.csuchico.edu. Retrieved on 2012-02-09.
- PostgreSQL: Materialized Views. Wiki.postgresql.org (2010-05-07). Retrieved on 2013-09-25.
- PostgreSQL: Documentation: 9.3: CREATE MATERIALIZED VIEW. PostgreSQL.com. Retrieved on 2014-01-25.
- PostgreSQL: Documentation: 9.4: REFRESHED MATERIALIZED VIEW. PostgreSQL.com. Retrieved on 2015-01-23.
- Materialized Views – Sybase SQL Anywhere. Ianywhere.com. Retrieved on 2012-02-09.
- Improving Performance with SQL Server 2005 Indexed Views. Microsoft.com. Retrieved on 2012-02-09.
- Implementing materialized views in MySQL. Shinguz.ch (2006-11-06). Retrieved on 2012-02-09.
- Flexviews for MySQL – incrementally refreshable materialized views w/ MySQL. Flexviews.sourceforge.net. Retrieved on 2012-02-09.
- Materialized View Concepts and Architecture – Oracle
- SQL Snippets: SQL Features Tutorials – Materialized Views – Oracle
- Oracle9i Replication Management API Reference Release 2 (9.2)