A mathematician is a person with an extensive knowledge of mathematics who uses this knowledge in his (or her) work, typically to solve mathematical problems. Mathematics is concerned with numbers, data, collection, quantity, structure, space, models and change.
Mathematicians involved with solving problems outside of pure mathematics are called applied mathematicians. Applied mathematicians are mathematical scientists who, with their specialized knowledge and professional methodology, approach many of the imposing problems presented in related scientific fields. With professional focus on a wide variety of problems, theoretical systems, and localized constructs, applied mathematicians work regularly in the study and formulation of mathematical models. Mathematicians and applied mathematicians are considered to be two of the STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) careers.
The discipline of applied mathematics concerns itself with mathematical methods that are typically used in science, engineering, business, and industry; thus, "applied mathematics" is a mathematical science with specialized knowledge. The term "applied mathematics" also describes the professional specialty in which mathematicians work on problems, often concrete but sometimes abstract. As professionals focused on problem solving, applied mathematicians look into the formulation, study, and use of mathematical models in science, engineering, business, and other areas of mathematical practice.
Mathematicians usually cover a breadth of topics within mathematics in their undergraduate education, and then proceed to specialize in topics of their own choice at the graduate-level. In some universities, a qualifying exam serves to test both the breadth and depth of a student's understanding of mathematics; the students, who pass, are permitted to work on a doctoral dissertation.
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Mathematicians do research in fields such as logic, set theory, category theory, abstract algebra, number theory, analysis, geometry, topology, dynamical systems, combinatorics, game theory, information theory, numerical analysis, optimization, computation, probability and statistics. These fields comprise both pure mathematics and applied mathematics and establish links between the two. Some of the fields they work in is, such as the theory of dynamical systems, or game theory, are classified as applied mathematics due to the relationships they possess with physics, economics and the other sciences. Whether probability theory and statistics are of theoretical nature, applied nature, or both, is quite controversial among mathematicians. Other branches of mathematics, however, such as logic, number theory, category theory or set theory are accepted as part of pure mathematics, though they find application in other sciences (predominantly computer science and physics). Likewise, analysis, geometry and topology, although considered pure mathematics, find applications in theoretical physics—string theory, for instance.
Though it is true that mathematics finds diverse applications in many areas of research, a mathematician does not determine the value of an idea by the diversity of its applications. Mathematics is interesting in its own right, and a substantial minority of mathematicians investigate the diversity of structures studied in mathematics itself.
Furthermore, a mathematician is not someone who merely manipulates formulas, numbers or equations—the diversity of mathematics allows for research concerning how concepts in one area of mathematics can be used in other areas too. For instance, if one graphs a set of solutions of an equation in some higher-dimensional space, he may ask about the geometric properties of the graph. Thus one can understand equations by a pure understanding of abstract topology or geometry—this idea is of importance in algebraic geometry. Similarly, a mathematician does not restrict his study of numbers to the integers; rather he considers more abstract structures such as rings, and in particular number rings in the context of algebraic number theory. This exemplifies the abstract nature of mathematics and how it is not restricted to questions one may ask in daily life.
In a different direction, mathematicians ask questions about space and transformations that are not restricted to geometric figures such as squares and circles. For instance, an active area of research in differential topology concerns itself with the ways one can "smooth" higher-dimensional figures. In fact, whether one can smooth certain higher-dimensional spheres was, until recently, an open problem — known as the smooth Poincaré conjecture. Another aspect of mathematics, set-theoretic topology and point-set topology, concerns objects of a different nature from objects in our universe, or in a higher-dimensional analogue of our universe. These objects behave in a rather strange manner under deformations, and the properties they possess are completely different from those of objects in our universe. For instance, the "distance" between two points on such an object, may depend on the order in which you consider the pair of points. This is quite different from ordinary life, in which it is accepted that the straight line distance from person A to person B is the same as that between person B and person A.
Another aspect of mathematics, often referred to as "foundational mathematics", consists of the fields of logic and set theory. These explore various ideas regarding the ways one can prove certain claims. This theory is far more complex than it seems, in that the truth of a claim depends on the context in which the claim is made, unlike basic ideas in daily life where truth is absolute. In fact, although some claims may be true, it is impossible to prove or disprove them in rather natural contexts.
Category theory, another field within "foundational mathematics", is rooted on the abstract axiomatization of the definition of a "class of mathematical structures", referred to as a "category". A category intuitively consists of a collection of objects, and defined relationships between them. While these objects may be anything (such as "tables" or "chairs"), mathematicians are usually interested in particular, more abstract, classes of such objects. In any case, it is the relationships between these objects, and not the actual objects that are predominantly studied.
- Operations-Research Analyst
- Mathematical Statistician
- Mathematical Technician
- Applied Statistician
- Weight Analyst
Some notable mathematicians include Johann Bernoulli, Jacob Bernoulli, Aryabhata, Bhāskara II, Nilakantha Somayaji, Andrey Kolmogorov, Alexander Grothendieck, John von Neumann, Alan Turing, Kurt Gödel, Augustin-Louis Cauchy, Georg Cantor, William Rowan Hamilton, Carl Jacobi, Nikolai Lobachevsky, Joseph Fourier, Pierre-Simon Laplace, Alonzo Church, and Nikolay Bogolyubov.
Euclid, fl. 300 BC
Archimedes, c. 287 – 212 BC
Brahmagupta, 598 – 670
Muḥammad ibn Mūsā al-Khwārizmī, c. 780 – 850
Omar Khayyám, 1048 – 1131
René Descartes, 1596 – 1650
Pierre de Fermat, 1601 – 1665
Isaac Newton, 1642 – 1727
Gottfried Wilhelm von Leibniz, 1646 – 1716
Leonhard Euler, 1707 – 1783
Joseph-Louis Lagrange, 1736 – 1813
Carl Friedrich Gauss, 1777 – 1855
Niels Henrik Abel, 1802 – 1829
Évariste Galois, 1811 – 1832
Bernhard Riemann, 1826 – 1866
Felix Klein, 1849 – 1925
Henri Poincaré, 1854 – 1912
David Hilbert, 1862 – 1943
Emmy Noether, 1882 – 1935
Hermann Weyl, 1885 – 1955
Srinivasa Ramanujan, 1887 – 1920
Quotations about mathematicians
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The following are quotations about mathematicians, or by mathematicians.
- A mathematician is a device for turning coffee into theorems.
- Die Mathematiker sind eine Art Franzosen; redet man mit ihnen, so übersetzen sie es in ihre Sprache, und dann ist es alsobald ganz etwas anderes. (Mathematicians are [like] a sort of Frenchmen; if you talk to them, they translate it into their own language, and then it is immediately something quite different.)
- Each generation has its few great mathematicians...and [the others'] research harms no one.
- In short, I never yet encountered the mere mathematician who could be trusted out of equal roots, or one who did not clandestinely hold it as a point of his faith that x squared + px was absolutely and unconditionally equal to q. Say to one of these gentlemen, by way of experiment, if you please, that you believe occasions may occur where x squared + px is not altogether equal to q, and, having made him understand what you mean, get out of his reach as speedily as convenient, for, beyond doubt, he will endeavor to knock you down.
- —Edgar Allan Poe, The purloined letter
- A mathematician, like a painter or poet, is a maker of patterns. If his patterns are more permanent than theirs, it is because they are made with ideas.
- —G. H. Hardy, A Mathematician's Apology
- Some of you may have met mathematicians and wondered how they got that way.
- It is impossible to be a mathematician without being a poet in soul.
- There are two ways to do great mathematics. The first is to be smarter than everybody else. The second way is to be stupider than everybody else—but persistent.
- Mathematics is the queen of the sciences and arithmetic the queen of mathematics.
Women in mathematics
While the majority of mathematicians are male, there have been some demographic changes since World War II. For example in Europe, from 1992 onwards, several women have been laureates of the prestigious EMS Prize. Some prominent female mathematicians throughout History are Hypatia of Alexandria (ca. 400 AD), Ada Lovelace (1815–1852), Maria Gaetana Agnesi (1718–1799), Emmy Noether (1882–1935), Sophie Germain (1776–1831), Sofia Kovalevskaya (1850–1891), Alicia Boole Stott (1860–1940), Rózsa Péter (1905–1977), Julia Robinson (1919–1985), Olga Taussky-Todd (1906–1995), Émilie du Châtelet (1706–1749), Mary Cartwright (1900–1998), Olga Ladyzhenskaya (1922–2004), Olga Oleinik (1925–2001) and Maryam Mirzakhani.
The Association for Women in Mathematics is a professional society whose purpose is "to encourage women and girls to study and to have active careers in the mathematical sciences, and to promote equal opportunity and the equal treatment of women and girls in the mathematical sciences." The American Mathematical Society and other mathematical societies offer several prizes aimed at increasing the representation of women and minorities in the future of mathematics.
Prizes in mathematics
There is no Nobel Prize in mathematics, though sometimes mathematicians have won the Nobel Prize in a different field, such as economics. Prominent prizes in mathematics include the Abel Prize, the Chern Medal, the Fields Medal, the Gauss Prize, the Nemmers Prize, the Balzan Prize, the Crafoord Prize, the Shaw Prize, the Steele Prize, the Wolf Prize, the Schock Prize, and the Nevanlinna Prize.
- Human computer
- List of amateur mathematicians
- List of female mathematicians
- Lists of mathematicians
- Mathematical joke
- A Mathematician's Apology
- Men of Mathematics (book)
- Mental calculator
- "Thinking About a STEM Career: Read This!". The Learning Curve. Retrieved 10 May 2013.
- "020 OCCUPATIONS IN MATHEMATICS". Dictionary Of Occupational Titles. Retrieved 2013-01-20.
- "Biography of Alfréd Rényi". History.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk. Retrieved 2012-08-17.
- Maximen und Reflexionen, Sechste Abtheilung cited in Moritz, Robert Edouard (1958) , On Mathematics / A Collection of Witty, Profound, Amusing Passages about Mathematics and Mathematicians, Dover, p. 123, ISBN 0-486-20489-8
- Alfred Adler, "Mathematics and Creativity," The New Yorker, 1972, reprinted in Timothy Ferris, ed., The World Treasury of Physics, Astronomy, and Mathematics, Back Bay Books, reprint, June 30, 1993, p, 435.
- Sartorius von Waltershausen: Gauss zum Gedachtniss. (Leipzig, 1856), p. 79 cited in Moritz, Robert Edouard (1958) , On Mathematics / A Collection of Witty, Profound, Amusing Passages about Mathematics and Mathematicians, Dover, p. 271, ISBN 0-486-20489-8
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- Occupational Outlook: Mathematicians. Information on the occupation of mathematician from the US Department of Labor.
- Sloan Career Cornerstone Center: Careers in Mathematics. Although US-centric, a useful resource for anyone interested in a career as a mathematician. Learn what mathematicians do on a daily basis, where they work, how much they earn, and more.
- The MacTutor History of Mathematics archive. A comprehensive list of detailed biographies.
- The Mathematics Genealogy Project. Allows to follow the succession of thesis advisors for most mathematicians, living or dead.
- Weisstein, Eric W., "Unsolved Problems", MathWorld.
- Middle School Mathematician Project Short biographies of select mathematicians assembled by middle school students.
- Career Information for Students of Math and Aspiring Mathematicians from MathMajor