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The Carthaginian army was largely mercenary, and at the conclusion of the First Punic War, when because of the terms of the settlement with Rome the Carthaginian government was unable to pay the agreed dues of its mercenaries, Mathos led their revolt against it. Hamilcar Barca suppressed the revolt with the help of the Berber leader Naravas, and crucified Mathos around 237 BC.
- Hoyos, Dexter (2007), Truceless War: Carthage's Fight for Survival, 241 to 237 BC, Brill, pp. 66–100, ISBN 9789004160767
- Carthage, Libyan Revolt Circa 241-238 BC. BI Shekel (7.79 gm, 12h). Carthage mint. Head of Herakles left wearing lion skin / Lion walking right; Punic "M" above. Carradice & La Niece 1 (same rev. die); MAA 53; SNG Copenhagen 241
- Hannibal's Dynasty, Power and Politics in the Western Mediterranean, 247-183 BC
- Brill’s New Pauly : Classical Studies