Matlock, Derbyshire

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Matlock
Bank Road, Matlock - geograph.org.uk - 937427.jpg
Matlock town centre
Matlock is located in Derbyshire
Matlock
Matlock
 Matlock shown within Derbyshire
Population 9,543 (civil parish)[1]
OS grid reference SK298601
Civil parish Matlock Town
District Derbyshire Dales
Shire county Derbyshire
Region East Midlands
Country England
Sovereign state United Kingdom
Post town MATLOCK
Postcode district DE4
Dialling code 01629
Police Derbyshire
Fire Derbyshire
Ambulance East Midlands
EU Parliament East Midlands
UK Parliament Derbyshire Dales
List of places
UK
England
Derbyshire

Coordinates: 53°08′N 1°33′W / 53.14°N 1.55°W / 53.14; -1.55

Matlock is the county town of Derbyshire, England. It is situated at the south eastern edge of the Peak District. The town is twinned with the French town Eaubonne. The former spa resort Matlock Bath lies immediately south of the town on the A6. The civil parish of Matlock Town had a population in the 2011 UK census of 9,543.[1] The population of the wider Matlock urban area is approximately 20,000 (including Darley Dale, Tansley, Hackney and Matlock Bath). The Matlock area is considered to include Wirksworth, owing to the close proximity of the towns. This would bring the area's population closer to 30,000.

Matlock is nine miles (14 km) south-west of Chesterfield, and in easy reach of the cities of Derby (19 miles), Sheffield (20 miles), and Nottingham (29 miles); the Greater Manchester conurbation is 30 miles away. Matlock, in west Derbyshire, is within the Derbyshire Dales which includes the towns of Bakewell and Ashbourne, as well as Wirksworth. The headquarters of the Derbyshire County Council are contained within it.

History[edit]

A former spa town, Matlock (from the Old English for Moot Oak[2]) lies on the River Derwent, and has prospered from both the hydrotherapy industry and the cloth mills constructed on the river and its tributary Bentley Brook.

It was an unimportant collection of small villages in the Wirksworth Hundred — Matlock Town, Matlock Green, Matlock Bridge, Matlock Bank — until thermal springs were discovered in 1698.[3] The population increased rapidly in the 1800s, largely because of the popular hydros which were being built.[4] At one stage there were around twenty hydros, mostly on Matlock Bank, the largest built in 1853 by John Smedley.[3][4] This closed in 1955,[4] and re-opened in 1956[5] as the headquarters of the Derbyshire County Council. Matlock is also home to the Derbyshire Dales District Council as well as Matlock Town council.

Transportation[edit]

Bank Road Tram[edit]

Matlock taken from Matlock Bridge - looking up the hill of Bank Road across Crown Square (prior to bridge one way system).

In 1893, Matlock Cable Tramway, a cable tramway was built up Bank Road from Crown Square at Matlock Bridge to Wellington Street (at the top of Bank Road) with a stop halfway up at Smedley Street where Smedley's Hydro (built by John Smedley) was situated. Conceived by Job Smith, the tram was inspired by San Francisco's famous cable cars, and cost £20,000. When it was built it was the steepest tramway in the world at a gradient of 1 in 5½, and it rose 300 feet (91 m). The fare was tuppence up, penny down. It closed in 1927[4] after losing business to cars and buses.

Railways[edit]

Peak Rail emblem

In 1849, the railway came to Matlock.[4] Matlock railway station was opened on the Manchester, Buxton, Matlock and Midlands Junction Railway, later the Midland, line between London and Manchester, until the section between Matlock and Buxton was closed in 1968 following the Beeching cuts. Network Rail considered re-opening the line, with a study carried out by the county council. Although it proved to be unfeasible in the short term, the track bed will be kept free of development as the study showed that the line could be economically viable from around 2025.[6] The section from Wye Dale (about 3 miles (4.8 km) east of Buxton) to Coombs viaduct, a point about a mile south-east of Bakewell, has now become the Monsal Trail, an 8.5-mile (13.7 km) walk and cycle trail.

Trains still run between Matlock and Derby on the Derwent Valley Line. Peak Rail, a preserved railway, runs steam trains on a section of the closed line between Matlock, Darley Dale and Rowsley. Previously it used its own station, Matlock Riverside, a short distance to the north of the mainline station, however as of 2011 both Peak Rail and trains on the Derwent Valley Line share the same station.

Hall Leys Park[edit]

The old tram shelter in the park

Hall Leys Park is a Victorian public park in the centre of Matlock, Derbyshire which opened in 1898. It lies between the River Derwent to the south and Causeway Lane to the north. The park has many facilities and in 2004–2005 underwent major regeneration as part of the Matlock Parks Project with funding from the Millennium Commission.

At the Crown Square/Matlock Bridge end of the park there is the town's war memorial and a wishing well. Beside this there is the shelter from the former cable tramway which was moved to the park when the tramway ceased to operate in 1927.

Moving away from Crown Square there is, next, a large grass area and some tennis courts. As part of the refurbishments which took place, the old grass tennis courts were replaced with a skateboard park.

In the centre of the park is the Victorian bandstand which is used regularly in the summer months by local brass bands and for events such as the annual Matlock Victorian Christmas Weekend - held on the first weekend of December. Beside the bandstand is a footbridge over the River Derwent which has markings indicating the height of several floods that hit the town in the 1960s and 1970s. The café, on the opposite side of the bandstand, has similar markings for other floods.

Hall Leys Park is now a central part of the town's flood protection. The wall which surrounds the northern side of the park has the ability to have the footways sealed with sheets of wood which would dam the progress of any overflow from the river and turn the entire park into a large reservoir. Further down the park there is a putting green and a Crown Green Bowls green.

A boating lake, with several small islands, is home to a large number of birds, including ducks and moorhens as well as being host to the longest running pleasure boats in the country.

A miniature railway runs half the length of the park along the river but, due to the lack of any turning space, the return journey is made in reverse.

At the far end of the park is a children's playground which was significantly upgraded in 2005.

Hall Leys Park is occasionally the site for visiting "Continental Markets" and, since the summer of 2006, regular "Farmers' Markets". It is also the centre of the Matlock Victorian Christmas Weekend held annually on the first weekend of December.

Bank Road[edit]

Bank Road runs from Crown Square up Matlock Bank, a steep hill which gives the road its name, to Wellington Street. Although many consider the whole incline to be Bank Road, just over halfway up beyond Smedley Street the road is called Rutland Street. Bank Road has many local landmark buildings along it - from the bottom of the hill (Crown Square) travelling north:

Alternative text
Crown Buildings
  • The Crown Hotel - the original site of the hotel which gave its name to Crown Square is now a building society office. This was built prior to 1899.[7] The Crown is now a Wetherspoon's pub just along Bakewell Road.
  • Crown Buildings, opposite the original Crown Hotel at the bottom of Bank Road, was built in 1889[7] and currently houses a cafe on its ground floor.
  • Post Office and Sorting Office. These were built prior to 1922.[7]
  • Police Station - built after the second world war.[4]
Alternative text
Town Hall
  • Derbyshire Dales District Council Offices. Formerly Bridge Hall, then a hydro called Bridge House (established by 1861). In 1894 the Matlock Urban District Council bought Bridge House hydro for use as the Town Hall and added a large wing in the Italianate style to house an assembly room etc. It was reopened in 1898 and also housed most local authority undertakings, magistrates courts, etc.[8] Following local government reorganisation in 1974, the Town Hall became the headquarters of West Derbyshire District Council (which later changed its name to Derbyshire Dales District Council). To enable the District Council to centralise its several offices spread over the district, the Town Hall was substantially extended in 1979.
  • Our Lady & St. Joseph's Catholic Church - built in 1883 with a presbytery added in 1896. The church was described as a ‘mission’, established under St Mary’s of Derby. A church hall was built alongside in the 1990s.[8]
Alternative text
Old Methodist Church above Old Sunday School
  • Youth Hostel - a YHA youth hostel - Built in 1882 as Smedley Memorial Hospital. There is a later (Hunter) wing with a datestone of 1897 set further back from the road. The Youth Hostel opened in 1983 and closed on 30 September 2007.[8]
  • Matlock Methodist & United Reformed Church - originally Matlock Wesleyan Chapel, and later the Trinity Methodist Church. The church was designed by C.O. Ellison of Liverpool, with additions designed by Horace G. Bradley. The neo-gothic church was originally built in 1882 without the slender steeple, which is now a landmark feature reaching above the roofs of neighbouring buildings, and, from higher levels, an elegant feature against the backdrop of the hills beyond. The Manse was built at the west of the site, fronting New Street.[8]
  • Old Sunday School which is now a B&B.
  • Old Methodist Church - the Primitive Methodist congregation was founded in 1838, although the current church on Bank Road, opposite the entrance to County Hall, was rebuilt in 1856 and the adjacent School Room below was added in 1878.[8] Until recently, the Old Methodist Church housed the Matlock Wurlitzer.[9]
Alternative text
County Hall with Winter Gardens in foreground
  • County Hall - formerly Smedley’s Hydro is a grade II listed building which dominates Matlock Bank. The earliest (western) section seen today was built in c. 1867 by Smedley. Much of today's building was added after Smedley’s death in 1874. The first phase, in 1881, included the entrance hall and staircase, now in the middle section. In 1886, the eastern section was added by architect George Statham of Nottingham. Later extensions include the tall chimney, impressive for its height on the already prominent site, along with boiler house and bath in 1894. The domed glass Winter Gardens, which housed a ballroom, and the northern block on the other side of Smedley Street were added in 1901. The northern block was linked by the unusual two storey bridge over Smedley Street.[8]
    Alternative text
    The Gate and, across Bank Road, County Hall
    The hydro closed in 1955 and re-opened in 1956 as “County Offices”, when Derbyshire County Council moved its headquarters from St Mary’s Gate in Derby. Its name was changed to “County Hall” during the 1990s. Part of the County Hall complex is seen in Women in Love, Ken Russell's Oscar-winning 1969 film. As the Brangwen sisters walk out of their house (in reality No. 80, New Street) near the beginning of the film they are seen walking towards Bank Road.
  • Smedley Street traverses Bank Road. It has its own parade of shops and a post office (now closed). The east end of Smedley Street (known as Smedley Street East) is home to Laser Rail, a designer and manufacturer of rail measurement equipment now incorporated into Balfour Beatty's rail division.
Alternative text
Rutland Court
  • The Gate public house - There were known to have been numerous public houses on Matlock Bank, thought to have been the result of the ban on alcohol consumption within the hydros themselves, especially at Smedley’s. The whereabouts of many is no longer known. The Gate (dated 1869) was one of these, and still stands on the corner of Smedley Street and Bank Road, opposite Smedley's.[8]

NB. Beyond Smedley Street, Bank Road is actually Rutland Street.

Old tram depot, Bank Road (technically Rutland Street)
  • Rutland Court - the former Matlock House Hydro stands prominently on the east side of Rutland Street. The hydro was built in 1863 and an engraving of 1870 shows that the main block, at least that which is visible from the roadside today, is largely unaltered.[8]
  • Elmtree House - a former hydro, now 70-74 Rutland Street, was opened in 1862. It is located just to the north of the dominant Matlock House (now Rutland Court).[8]
  • The Old Tram Depot which is now a garage and car repair centre.
Alternative text
Rockside Hydro
  • Rockside Hydro - an imposing building with views across Matlock, is a grade II listed building, on higher ground above Smedley's and is distinctive for its two octagonal corner turrets with conical roofs topped by lanterns. Rockside was built circa 1860, but extended significantly by the firm of architects Parker and Unwin between 1901 and 1905, The building was also extended later in 1923 and 1928. An upper floor glazed conservatory with a glazed curved roof was added in c. 1923, and a block was added on Cavendish Road in 1928.[8] It probably is not so well known that during the Second World War, Rockside Hall was used as an RAF psychiatric hospital, where mentally-scarred service personnel (mostly aircrew) were rehabilitated. It was somewhat unkindly known as "Hatters Castle" by locals.[10] The building became a hall of residence to Matlock College of Further Education in 1950 but following closure, stood empty and derelict for many years but has recently been renovated and converted into apartments. Large sections have been replaced, including the Cavendish Road block and the curved conservatory roof.

Sport[edit]

Matlock is home to Matlock Town Football Club playing in the Northern Premier League Premier Division at their Causeway Lane ground.

Matlock is also home to Matlock Cricket Club playing next to the football ground, and Matlock and District Swimming Club (also known as MAD Swimming) which trained and competed in the nearby old Matlock Lido before it closed in August 2011 with subsequent events transferred to the Arc complex.

Matlock's rugby team play their home matches at nearby Cromford Meadows. They run 3 senior teams and the 1st XV compete at Level 6 in the RFU league structure. Matlock Rugby Club also has a thriving minis and junior section with over 250 members all supported by fully qualified mini and junior coaches. In 2007 the club was awarded the Derbyshire Tigger Price Memorial trophy for the team of the year award.

On the outskirts of Matlock off the A6 Bakewell Road, a new multi-use leisure centre and swimming facility was opened in 2011 known as Arc Leisure Matlock.[11][12]

Education & Arts[edit]

Matlock creative and performing arts were enhanced in 2004 when the annual arts festival Matlock Live! began[citation needed]. It takes place in June or July each year featuring local musicians, dancers, artists, etc. The local secondary school, Highfields School, achieved status as a Performing Arts College due to its connections with Matlock Live![citation needed] As part of the summer event, Matlock Live invites Buskers / Street performers to form a busking trail around Matlock raising money for the charity Aquabox. Matlock Music present a series of public concerts at Highfields School (Upper Lumsdale site).[13] Storytelling is also well represented with a monthly venue at the Imperial Rooms.[14]

Education history[edit]

Ernest Bailey School (now County Council Records Office)

The first school in Matlock was founded in 1647 as a free school for local boys, originally funded by local George Spateman of Tansley and from 1668 by Anthony Wolley.[15] This school was rebuilt in 1829 and expanded in 1860 and 1889 and girls first attended in 1816.[15] This school has since been demolished[15] (the date is unknown).

Another school, All Saints Primary School was founded in 1875 to provide for the population of the newly developed Matlock Bank.[15] This school still operates and is the biggest primary school in Matlock. In 1897, a third school, the Council School, was constructed on Matlock Bank, at the junction of Smedley Street and Chesterfield Road.[15] It also still operates as Castle View Primary School.

Before Highfields School was founded in 1982, when the tripartite education system in Matlock ended, there were two secondary schools in Matlock; Charles White Secondary Modern School (founded in 1956, and named after two local MPs, father and son, the latter of who died in 1956) and Ernest Bailey's Grammar School (founded in 1924 and named after its wealthy founder).[15]

As a Grammar school, Bailey's accepted students whose parents paid or who gained scholarships (by passing the Eleven plus exam) until fees were phased out, leaving scholarship as the only means of entry.[15] Those who didn't attain a scholarship attended Charles White - it is estimated that Charles White students outnumbered Bailey's students 3:1.[15] White had been built especially by Derbyshire County Council to accommodate the children who couldn't attend Bailey's.[15]

Highfields School 'Lower Site' at Starkholmes, formerly Charles White Secondary Modern

The two schools were merged to create Highfields, a comprehensive. The site of Charles White in Starkholmes became the 'lower site' of Highfields for years 7-8, while Bailey's was converted to the county council records offices. A new site was built to house the new 'upper site' at Lumsdale for years 9-13.[15]

The town centre development[edit]

Dale Road (A6) exiting the edge of Matlock Town, showing traditional buildings housing independent shops and businesses before the development ends behind the camera position with the road entering a more-rural aspect running alongside River Derwent in a steep-sided valley leading towards Matlock Bath

For over 10 years, the council had proposed to allow a Sainsbury's supermarket to be built in Cawdor Quarry, a disused quarry next to the railway station. In early 2007 building work started, and it opened 4 October 2007. A new access road with its own bridge over the River Derwent allows the A6 to bypass the town centre, while the old bridge has been restricted to one-way traffic (out of town) and allows pedestrian access to the train station, a newly built bus station and the supermarket from the town centre.[16] Several bus routes continue to serve only the old Bus Station on Bakewell Road, making Matlock one of the smallest towns in Britain to boast two bus stations.

There has been a negative image of Matlock Town centre due to the limited retail offer for a town of Matlock's size which was identified in the Matlock Masterplan - a document produced by the district council. There has been a worry that many locals now choose to shop in neighbouring towns due to this perceived problem. The local council had a wider development planned for the future with key development sites on Bakewell Road, Firs Parade and Imperial Road which were identified in 2007 in the masterplan.

In 2010, Crown Square was updated with the replacement of pavements and street furniture intended to provide a new look more appropriate to the conservation area, the old tarmac pavements and traffic island being rebuilt in local sandstone, barriers replaced with heritage bollards and all the street lights replaced. Bakewell Road and Firs Parade were not included in this phase as they are just off Crown Square, and along with Imperial Road they are yet to be redeveloped.

Matlock on film and television[edit]

St Giles Church, featured in Women in Love

Youth hostels[edit]

The Youth Hostels Association (YHA) has its national headquarters in the former Severn Trent Water building on Dimple Road, Matlock. YHA has had two hostels in the town. The first (1933–1934) in Tor Dale and the second (1983–2007) in Bank Road. Despite the close proximity of the Head Office, Bank Road closed in 2007 as part of a restructuring exercise. It has subsequently been redeveloped.

Geography[edit]

The area on the western edge of the town, bounded on the north and east by Old Hackney Lane, Hurds Hollow, and Dimple Road, and on the south by Bakewell Road, is named as Dimple, on the Ordnance Survey map.[17]

Notable residents[edit]

Gallery[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "Neighbourhood Statistics". Office for National Statistics. Retrieved 8 October 2014. 
  2. ^ Matlock A Key To English Placenames, English Place Name Society database
  3. ^ a b Matlock & Matlock Bath: Water Cures, Matlock & Matlock Bath (The Andrews Pages), retrieved 2 June 2010 
  4. ^ a b c d e f "Matlock Bank: Conservation Area Appraisal. 02: Origins & Development", Matlock Bank Conservation Area, Derbyshire Dales District Council, December 2007, retrieved 28 June 2010 . See downloadable attachments at bottom of page.
  5. ^ "Matlock County Hall". Derbyshire Arts Partnership. Retrieved 2010-12-28. 
  6. ^ "Derby to Manchester rail project". Derbyshire County Council. Retrieved 2010-12-28. 
  7. ^ a b c "Matlock Bridge Conservation Area Architecture". Derbyshire Dales District Council. Retrieved 2011-01-01. 
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h i j "Matlock Bank Conservation Area Architecture". Derbyshire Dales District Council. Retrieved 2011-01-01. 
  9. ^ "Matlock Wurlitzer". Theatre Organs website. Retrieved 2011-01-01. 
  10. ^ "Rockside Hall photo". Geograph website. Retrieved 2011-01-01. 
  11. ^ Arc Leisure Matlock Retrieved 2014-09-18
  12. ^ BBC News Derby, August 2011 Retrieved 2014-09-18
  13. ^ http://www.matlockmusic.org.uk
  14. ^ Storytelling Cafe Retrieved 2014-07-08
  15. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Matlock's Schools in Earlier Times, Matlock and Matlock Bath (The Andrews Pages), retrieved 2 June 2010 
  16. ^ Matlock Area Action Plan
  17. ^ [City/Town/Village&searchp=ids.srf&mapp=map.srf "OS Map: Matlock"]. Retrieved March 2, 2014. 
  18. ^ How Isy made her mark in the tough world of comedy. This Is Derbyshire. 1 June 2012. Retrieved 14 September 2012.
  19. ^ Larkin, Colin (2000) The Virgin Encyclopedia of Nineties Music, Virgin Books, ISBN 978-0753504277, p. 315
  20. ^ Ben's finally bringing it on. This Is Derbyshire. 18 June 2010. Retrieved 14 September 2012.

External links[edit]