Matot, Mattot, Mattoth, or Matos (מַּטּוֹת — Hebrew for “tribes,” the fifth word, and the first distinctive word, in the parashah) is the 42nd weekly Torah portion (פָּרָשָׁה, parashah) in the annual Jewish cycle of Torah reading and the ninth in the book of Numbers. It constitutes Numbers 30:2–32:42. The parashah is made up of 5,652 Hebrew letters, 1,484 Hebrew words, and 112 verses, and can occupy about 190 lines in a Torah Scroll (סֵפֶר תּוֹרָה, Sefer Torah).
Jews generally read it in July or early August. The lunisolar Hebrew calendar contains up to 55 weeks, the exact number varying between 50 in common years and 54 or 55 in leap years. In leap years (for example, 2014), parashah Matot is read separately. In common years (for example, 2015, 2017, and 2018), parashah Matot is combined with the next parashah, Masei, to help achieve the number of weekly readings needed.
- 1 Readings
- 1.1 First reading — Numbers 30:2–17
- 1.2 Second reading — Numbers 31:1–12
- 1.3 Third reading — Numbers 31:13–24
- 1.4 Fourth reading — Numbers 31:25–41
- 1.5 Fifth reading — Numbers 31:42–54
- 1.6 Sixth reading — Numbers 32:1–19
- 1.7 Seventh reading — Numbers 32:20–42
- 1.8 Readings according to the triennial cycle
- 2 In classical rabbinic interpretation
- 3 Commandments
- 4 Haftarah
- 5 Further reading
- 6 External links
- 7 Notes
First reading — Numbers 30:2–17
In the first reading (עליה, aliyah), Moses told the heads of the Israelite tribes God’s commands about nedarim (commitments commonly translated, or perhaps mistranslated, as "vows"). If a man made a vow to God, he was to carry out all that he promised. If a girl living in her father’s household made a vow to God or assumed an obligation, and her father learned of it and did not object, her vow would stand. But if her father objected on the day that he learned of it, her vow would not stand, and God would forgive her. If she married while her vow was still in force, and her husband learned of it and did not object on the day that he found out, her vow would stand. But if her husband objected on the day that he learned of it, her vow would not stand, and God would forgive her. The vow of a widow or divorced woman was binding. If a married woman made a vow and her husband learned of it and did not object, then her vow would stand. But if her husband objected on the day that he learned of it, her vow would not stand, and God would forgive her. If her husband annulled one of her vows after the day that he learned of it, he would bear her guilt.
Second reading — Numbers 31:1–12
In the second reading (עליה, aliyah), God directed Moses to attack the Midianites, after which he would die. At Moses’ direction, a thousand men from each tribe, with Phinehas son of Eleazar serving as priest on the campaign with the sacred utensils and trumpets, attacked Midian and slew every man, including five kings of Midian and the prophet Balaam. The Israelites burned the Midianite towns, took the Midianite women and children captive, seized all their beasts and wealth as booty, and brought the captives and spoil to Moses, Eleazar, and the Israelite community at the steppes of Moab.
Third reading — Numbers 31:13–24
In the third reading (עליה, aliyah), Moses became angry with the army’s commanders for sparing the women, as they were the ones who, at Balaam’s bidding, had induced the Israelites to trespass against God in the sin of Peor. Moses then told the Israelites to kill every boy and every woman who had had sexual relations, but to spare the virgin girls. Moses directed the troops to stay outside the camp for 7 days after that, directed every one of them who had touched a corpse to cleanse himself on the third and seventh days, and directed them to cleanse everything made of cloth, hide, or wood. Eleazar told the troops to take any article that could withstand fire — gold, silver, copper, iron, tin, and lead — and pass them through fire to clean them, and to cleanse everything with water of lustration. Eleazar directed that on the seventh day they should wash their clothes and be clean, and thereafter be free to enter the camp.
Fourth reading — Numbers 31:25–41
In the fourth reading (עליה, aliyah), God told Moses to work with Eleazar and the family heads to inventory and divide the booty equally between the combatants and the rest of the community. God told them to exact a levy for God of one item in 500 of the warriors’ captive persons and animals to be given to Eleazar, and one in every 50 of the other Israelites’ captive persons and animals to be given to the Levites. The total booty came to 675,000 sheep, 72,000 head of cattle, 61,000 donkeys, and 32,000 virgin women, which Moses and Eleazar divided as God had commanded.
Fifth reading — Numbers 31:42–54
In the fifth reading (עליה, aliyah), the Israelites’ half of the booty came to 337,500 sheep, 36,000 head of cattle, 30,500 donkeys, and 16,000 virgin women, which Moses and Eleazar divided as God had commanded. The commanders of the troops told Moses that they had checked the warriors, and not one was missing, so they brought as an offering to God the gold that they came upon — armlets, bracelets, signet rings, earrings, and pendants — to make expiation for their persons before God. Moses and Eleazar accepted from them 16,750 shekels of gold, but the warriors in the ranks kept their booty for themselves.
Sixth reading — Numbers 32:1–19
In the sixth reading (עליה, aliyah), the Reubenites and the Gadites, who owned much cattle, noted that the lands of Jazer and Gilead on the east side of the Jordan River suited cattle, and they approached Moses, Eleazar, and the chieftains and asked that those lands be given to them as a holding. Moses asked them if the rest of the Israelites were to go to war while they stayed on the east bank, and would that not undermine the enthusiasm of the rest of the Israelites for crossing into the Promised Land. Moses likened their position to that of the scouts who surveyed the land and then turned the minds of the Israelites against invading, thus incensing God and causing God to swear that none of the adult Israelites (except Caleb and Joshua) would see the land. They replied that they would build their sheepfolds and towns east of the Jordan and leave their children there, but then serve as shock-troops in the van of the Israelites until the land was conquered and not seek a share of the land west of the Jordan.
Seventh reading — Numbers 32:20–42
In the seventh reading (עליה, aliyah), Moses then said that if they would do this, and every shock-fighter among them crossed the Jordan, then they would be clear before God and Israel, and this land would be their holding. But Moses continued, if they did not do as they promised, they would have sinned against God. Moses instructed Eleazar, Joshua, and the family heads of the Israelite tribes to carry out the agreement. So Moses assigned the Gadites, the Reubenites, and half the tribe of Manasseh lands on the east side of the Jordan. The Gadites and Reubenites built cities on the east side of Jordan, and some leaders of Manasseh conquered cities on the east of the Jordan so half the tribe of Manasseh could settle there.
Readings according to the triennial cycle
In classical rabbinic interpretation
Numbers chapter 30
Tractates Nedarim and Shevuot in the Mishnah, Tosefta, Jerusalem Talmud, and Babylonian Talmud interpreted the laws of vows and oaths in Exodus 20:7, Leviticus 5:1–10 and 19:12, Numbers 30:2–17, and Deuteronomy 23:24.
The Sifre asked why Numbers 6:1–4 set forth the effectiveness of nazirite vows, when the general rule of Numbers 30:2 would suffice to teach that all vows — including nazirite vows — are binding. The Sifre explained that Numbers 6:1–4 warned that a person making a nazirite vow would be bound to at least a 30-day nazirite period.
Rabbi Akiva taught that vows are a fence to self-restraint. But the Jerusalem Talmud asked whether it was not enough that the Torah had forbidden us things that we should seek to forbid yet other things to ourselves. The Gemara discouraged vows. Rabbi Nathan taught that one who vows is as if he built a high place, and he who fulfils a vow is as if he sacrificed on that high place. And the Gemara deduced from Rabbi Nathan's teaching that it is meritorious to seek absolution from vows. And a Midrash told the tale of King Jannai, who owned two thousand towns, all of which were destroyed because of true oaths. A man would swear to his friend that he would eat such-and-such a food at such-and-such a place and drink such-and-such a drink at such-and-such a place. And they would go and fulfill their oaths and would be destroyed (for swearing to trifles). The Midrash concluded that if this was the fate of people who swore truthfully, how much more would swearing to a falsehood lead to destruction.
The Mishnah taught that the law of the dissolution of vows hovers in the air and has nothing on which to rest in the Biblical text. Rav Judah said that Samuel found the Scriptural basis for the law of the dissolution of vows in the words of Numbers 30:3, “he shall not break his word,” which teaches that “he” — the vower — may not break the vow, but others might dissolve it for him. The Rabbis taught in a Baraita that a Sage could annul a vow retroactively.
Rabbah bar bar Hana told of how an Arab merchant took him to see Mount Sinai, where he saw scorpions surround it, and they stood like white donkeys. Rabbah bar bar Hana heard a Heavenly Voice expressing regret about making an oath and asking who would annul the oath. When Rabbah bar bar Hana came before the Rabbis, they told him that he should have annulled the oath. But Rabbah bar bar Hana thought that perhaps it was the oath in connection with the Flood, where in Genesis 8:21, God promised never to destroy the world again with another flood. The Rabbis replied that if that had been the oath, the Heavenly Voice would not have expressed regret.
Rava employed Numbers 30:3 to interpret Exodus 32:11, which says: “And Moses besought (וַיְחַל, va-yechal) the Lord his God” in connection with the incident of the Golden Calf. Rava noted that Exodus 32:11 uses the term “besought” (וַיְחַל, va-yechal), while Numbers 30:3 uses the similar term “break” (יַחֵל, yacheil) in connection with vows. Transferring the use of Numbers 30:3 to Exodus 32:11, Rava reasoned that Exodus 32:11 meant that Moses stood in prayer before God until Moses annulled for God God’s vow to destroy Israel, for a master had taught that while people cannot break their vows, others may annul their vows for them. Similarly, Rabbi Berekiah taught in the name of Rabbi Helbo in the name of Rabbi Isaac that Moses absolved God of God’s vow. When the Israelites made the Golden Calf, Moses began to persuade God to forgive them, but God explained to Moses that God had already taken an oath in Exodus 22:19 that “he who sacrifices to the gods . . . shall be utterly destroyed,” and God could not retract an oath. Moses responded by asking whether God had not granted Moses the power to annul oaths in Numbers 30:3 by saying, “When a man vows a vow to the Lord, or swears an oath to bind his soul with a bond, he shall not break his word,” implying that while he himself could not break his word, a scholar could absolve his vow. So Moses wrapped himself in his cloak and adopted the posture of a sage, and God stood before Moses as one asking for the annulment of a vow.
Rabbi Simeon ben Yohai taught that just as the texts “He shall not break his word” in Numbers 30:3 and “Defer not to pay it” in Ecclesiastes 5:3 apply to vows, so they also apply to valuations, and thus Moses exhorts the Israelites in Leviticus 27:2: “When a man shall clearly utter a vow of persons to the Lord, according to your valuation . . . .”
The Mishnah taught that a father or husband could annul vows of self-denial (which, in the words of Numbers 30:14, “afflict the soul”), such as bathing and adorning oneself. But Rabbi Jose said that these were not vows of self-denial. Rabbi Jose taught that vows of self-denial that a father or husband could annul include if she said, “konam (that is, prohibited) be the produce of the whole world to me.” Rabbi Jose taught that if she said, “konam be the produce of this country to me,” he could not annul, as he could bring her to a different country. And if she said, “konam be the fruits of this shopkeeper to me,” he could not annul, unless that shopkeeper was his only source of sustenance, in which case he could annul.
The Gemara deduced from the words “between a man and his wife, between a father and his daughter” in Numbers 30:17 that in addition to vows of self-denial, a husband could also annul vows that affected the relationship between husband and wife.
A Midrash taught that just as a husband could annul only vows that would cause personal affliction between the spouses, so too, a father could annul only vows that would cause personal affliction between him and his daughter.
The Mishnah taught that in the case of a betrothed young woman, her father and her fiancé could annul her vows, if they both did so. If her father but not her fiancé attempted to annul her vow, or if her fiancé but not her father attempted to annul her vow, it was not annulled. And the Mishnah taught that it went without saying that her vow was not annulled if one of them confirmed it.
The Mishnah taught that one could annul vows on the Sabbath.
Numbers chapter 31
A Midrash deduced from the proximity of the report in Numbers 31:9 that “the children of Israel took captive the women of Midian . . . and all their cattle” with the report of Numbers 32:1 that “the children of Reuben and the children of Gad had a very great multitude of cattle” that God cast the Midianites down before Israel so that the Reubenites and Gadites might grow rich. The Midrash cited this turn of events as proof of the words of Psalm 32:1 that “God is judge; He puts down one, and lifts up another.”
Noting that in Joshua 1:5, God told Joshua, “As I was with Moses, so I will be with you,” the Rabbis asked why Joshua lived only 110 years (as reported in Joshua 24:29 and Judges 2:8) and not 120 years, as Moses did (as reported in Deuteronomy 34:7). The Rabbis explained that when God told Moses in Numbers 31:2 to “avenge the children of Israel of the Midianites; afterward shall you be gathered to your people,” Moses did not delay carrying out the order, even though God told Moses that he would die thereafter. Rather, Moses acted promptly, as Numbers 31:6 reports: “And Moses sent them.” When God directed Joshua to fight against the 31 kings, however, Joshua thought that if he killed them all at once, he would die immediately thereafter, as Moses had. So Joshua dallied in the wars against the Canaanites, as Joshua 11:18 reports: “Joshua made war a long time with all those kings.” In response, God shortened his life by ten years.
The Rabbis differed about the meaning of “the holy vessels” in Numbers 31:6. Rabbi Johanan deduced from the reference of Exodus 29:29 to “the holy garments of Aaron” that Numbers 31:6 refers to the priestly garments containing the Urim and Thummim when it reports that “Moses sent . . . Phinehas the son of Eleazar the priest, to the war, with the holy vessels.” But the Midrash concluded that Numbers 31:6 refers to the Ark of the Covenant, to which Numbers 7:9 refers when it says, “the service of the holy things.”
Numbers chapter 32
A Midrash deduced from Numbers 32:1 that the Reubenites and Gadites were rich, possessing large amounts of cattle, but they loved their possessions so much that they separated themselves from their fellow Israelites and settled outside the Land of Israel. As a result, they became the first tribes to be taken away into exile, as 1 Chronicles 5:26 reports, “Tillegath-pilneser king of Assyria . . . carried . . . away . . . the Reubenites, and the Gadites, and the half-tribe of Manasseh.”
Similarly, a Midrash taught that the Reubenites and the Gadites cherished their property more than human life, putting their cattle before their children when they told Moses in Numbers 32:16, “We will build sheepfolds here for our cattle, and cities for our little ones.” Moses told them that their priorities were wrong and that they should rather do the more important things first, when Moses told them in Numbers 32:24, “Build you cities for your little ones, and folds for your sheep.” The Midrash saw in their different priorities application of the words of Ecclesiastes 10:2, “A wise man's understanding is at his right hand” — applying to Moses — and “A fool's understanding at his left” — applying to the Reubenites and the Gadites. God told the Reubenites and the Gadites that as they showed greater love for their cattle than for human souls, there would be no blessing in it for them. The Midrash thus saw in their fate application of the words of Proverbs 20:21, “An estate may be gotten hastily at the beginning; but the end thereof shall not be blessed,” and the words of Proverbs 23:4, “Do not weary yourself to be rich; cease from your own wisdom.”
In the Mishnah, Rabbi Meir noted that Numbers 32:20 and 29 stated the same condition in both positive and negative formulations. Numbers 32:29 states the condition in the positive: “And Moses said to them, if the children of Gad and the children of Reuben will pass with you over the Jordan, . . . then you shall give them the land of Gilead for a possession.” And Numbers 32:20 states the same condition in the negative: “But if they will not pass over with you armed, then they shall have possessions among you in the land of Canaan.” Rabbi Meir deduced that every stipulation must be stated in both the negative and positive formulations, like the condition of the children of Gad and the children of Reuben in Numbers 32:20 and 29, or it is not a binding stipulation. Rabbi Hanina ben Gamaliel II maintained, however, that Moses stated the matter both ways because he needed to do so to be understood; otherwise one might have concluded that the Gadites and Reubenites would receive no inheritance even in the land of Canaan.
The Sages taught in a Baraita that they honored the memory of the family that baked the Temple showbread, for they never allowed fine bread to be found in their children's hands. And the Sages honored the memory of the family that made the Temple incense, for they never allowed a bride of their house to go about perfumed. In both cases, the families did so to fulfill the command of Numbers 32:22 that “you shall be clear before the Lord and before Israel” — meaning that people should act so as to avoid even the appearance of transgression.
According to Maimonides
- Not to transgress in matters that one has forbidden oneself
According to Sefer ha-Chinuch
- The precept of the law of nullifying vows
- That we should not break our word in vows that we make
When parashah Matot is combined with parashah Masei (as it is in 2015, 2016, and 2017), the haftarah is the haftarah for parashah Masei:
The haftarah in Jeremiah 1:1–2:3 begins by identifying its words as those of Jeremiah the son of Hilkiah, a priest in Anathoth in the land of Benjamin, to whom God’s word came in the thirteenth year of the reign of Josiah the son of Amon as king of Judah, in the reign of Josiah’s son Jehoiakim, and through the eleventh year of the reign of Josiah’s son Zedekiah, when Jerusalem was carried away captive.
God’s word came to Jeremiah to say that before God formed him in the womb, God knew him, sanctified him, and appointed him a prophet to the nations. Jeremiah protested that he could not speak, for he was a child, but God told him not to fear, for he would go wherever God would send him, say whatever God would command him to say, and God would be with him to deliver him. Then God touched Jeremiah’s mouth and said that God had put words in his mouth and set him over the nations to root out and to pull down, to destroy and to overthrow, to build and to plant. God asked Jeremiah what he saw, he replied that he saw the rod of an almond tree, and God said that he had seen well, for God watches over God’s word to perform it.
God’s word came to Jeremiah a second time to ask what he saw, he replied that he saw a seething pot tipping from the north, and God said that out of the north evil would break forth upon all Israel. For God would call all the kingdoms of the north to come, and they would set their thrones at Jerusalem’s gate, against its walls, and against the cities of Judah. God would utter God’s judgments against Judah, as its people had forsaken God and worshipped the work of their own hands. God thus directed Jeremiah to gird his loins, arise, and speak to the Judean people all that God commanded, for God had made Jeremiah a fortified city, an iron pillar, and brazen walls against the land of Judah, its rulers, its priests, and its people. They would fight against him, but they would not prevail, for God would be with him to deliver him.
God’s word came to Jeremiah to tell him to go and cry in the ears of Jerusalem that God remembered the affection of her youth, her love as a bride, how she followed God in the wilderness. Israel was God’s hallowed portion and God’s first-fruits, and all that devoured Israel would be held guilty and evil would come upon them.
Connection to the special Sabbath
The first of three readings of admonition leading up to Tisha B'Av, the haftarah admonishes Judah and Israel in Jeremiah 1:13–19. And then in Jeremiah 2:1–3, the haftarah concludes with consolation. The Gemara taught that Jeremiah wrote the book of Lamentations, and as Jews read Lamentations on Tisha B’Av, this probably accounts for why a selection from Jeremiah begins the series of haftarot of admonition.
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The parashah has parallels or is discussed in these sources:
- Genesis 28:20–22 (vow).
- Exodus 20:7 (vows).
- Leviticus 5:1–10 (vows); 19:12 (vows); 27:1–25 (valuation of vows).
- Numbers 6:1–8 (vows); 10:1–10 (trumpets); 13:1–14:45 (the spies); 18:8–31 (sharing with the priests and Levites); 21:2 (vow); 25:16–18 (Midianites).
- Deuteronomy 3:12–20 (Reubenites and Gadites); 23:22–24 (vows).
- Joshua 1:12–18 (Reubenites and Gadites); 13:8–32; 22:1–34 (Reubenites and Gadites).
- Judges 6:1–7:25 (Midianites).
- 1 Samuel 1:11 (vow); 30:21–25 (division of booty).
- Psalms 9:13 (God avenges); 22:26 (paying vows); 37:29 (the righteous shall inherit the land); 49:12 (men call their lands after their own names); 50:14 (paying vows); 51:4 (washing); 66:13–14 (performing vows); 72:14 (value of lives); 94:1 (vengeance belongs to God); 106:28–31 (Peor); 116:15 (value of lives).
- Ecclesiastes 5:3–6 (vows).
- Josephus, Antiquities of the Jews 4:7:1, 3. Circa 93–94. Reprinted in, e.g., The Works of Josephus: Complete and Unabridged, New Updated Edition. Translated by William Whiston, pages 113–14. Peabody, Massachusetts: Hendrickson Publishers, 1987. ISBN 0-913573-86-8.
- Matthew 5:33–37 (vows).
- Qur'an: 2:224–226; 5:89; 9:12–13; 16:91–92, 94; 66:2 (vows).
- Mishnah: Shabbat 24:5; Chagigah 1:8; Nedarim 1:1–11:11; Gittin 4:7; Kiddushin 3:4; Shevuot 1:1–8:6; Avot 3:13. Land of Israel, circa 200 C.E. Reprinted in, e.g., The Mishnah: A New Translation. Translated by Jacob Neusner, pages 330, 406–30, 492–93, 620–39, 680. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1988. ISBN 0-300-05022-4.
- Tosefta: Peah 4:15; Terumot 5:8; Nedarim 1:1–7:8; Sotah 7:17; Shevuot 1:1–6:7; Keritot 4:15. Land of Israel, circa 300 C.E. Reprinted in, e.g., The Tosefta: Translated from the Hebrew, with a New Introduction. Translated by Jacob Neusner, volume 1, pages 73, 161, 208, 785–805, 864; volume 2, pages 1219–44, 1571. Peabody, Massachusetts: Hendrickson Publishers, 2002. ISBN 1-56563-642-2.
- Jerusalem Talmud: Terumot 35b; Bikkurim 6a; Shabbat 45a; Pesachim 74b; Nedarim 1a–; Shevuot 1a–. Land of Israel, circa 400 CE. Reprinted in, e.g., Talmud Yerushalmi. Edited by Chaim Malinowitz, Yisroel Simcha Schorr, and Mordechai Marcus, volumes 7, 12, 14, 19. Brooklyn: Mesorah Publications, 2008–2013.
- Genesis Rabbah 1:15; 48:10; 55:3; 85:14. Land of Israel, 5th century. Reprinted in, e.g., Midrash Rabbah: Genesis. Translated by H. Freedman and Maurice Simon, volume 1, pages 13–14, 411–12, 483–84; volume 2, page 799. London: Soncino Press, 1939. ISBN 0-900689-38-2.
- Babylonian Talmud: Berakhot 8b, 24a, 32a; Shabbat 16b, 58b, 60a, 63b–64a, 157a; Eruvin 63a; Pesachim 13a, 66b; Yoma 38a, 63b; Moed Katan 9a, 16a; Chagigah 10a; Yevamot 29b, 53a, 87a–b, 93a, 108a; Ketubot 40b, 46b–47a, 49a, 52a, 57b, 59a–b, 60b–61a, 70a, 71a–b, 74a, 101a, 102b; Nedarim 2a–91b; Nazir 4b, 12b, 20b, 21b, 23a, 37b, 38b, 61a, 62b; Sotah 3a, 13b, 43a; Gittin 35b, 75a, 85a; Kiddushin 3b, 61a, 78a, 81b; Bava Kamma 25b, 61a; Bava Metzia 94a, 96a; Bava Batra 2b, 120b; Sanhedrin 39a, 90a, 106a; Makkot 11a, 16a; Shevuot 20a–21a, 26a; Avodah Zarah 67b, 75b; Zevachim 97a, 113b; Menachot 77b; Chullin 25b; Arakhin 20b; Temurah 6b, 13a; Keritot 6b; Niddah 46a–b. Babylonia, 6th Century. Reprinted in, e.g., Talmud Bavli. Edited by Yisroel Simcha Schorr, Chaim Malinowitz, and Mordechai Marcus, 72 volumes. Brooklyn: Mesorah Pubs., 2006.
- Rashi. Commentary. Numbers 30–32. Troyes, France, late 11th Century. Reprinted in, e.g., Rashi. The Torah: With Rashi’s Commentary Translated, Annotated, and Elucidated. Translated and annotated by Yisrael Isser Zvi Herczeg, volume 4, pages 369–401. Brooklyn: Mesorah Publications, 1997. ISBN 0-89906-029-3.
- Rashbam. Commentary on the Torah. Troyes, early 12th century. Reprinted in, e.g., Rashbam’s Commentary on Leviticus and Numbers: An Annotated Translation. Edited and translated by Martin I. Lockshin, pages 285–92. Providence: Brown Judaic Studies, 2001. ISBN 1-930675-07-0.
- Numbers Rabbah 22:1–9. 12th Century. Reprinted in, e.g., Midrash Rabbah: Numbers. Translated by Judah J. Slotki. London: Soncino Press, 1939. ISBN 0-900689-38-2.
- Abraham ibn Ezra. Commentary on the Torah. Mid-12th century. Reprinted in, e.g., Ibn Ezra's Commentary on the Pentateuch: Numbers (Ba-Midbar). Translated and annotated by H. Norman Strickman and Arthur M. Silver, pages 238–55. New York: Menorah Publishing Company, 1999. ISBN 0-932232-09-4.
- Maimonides. Mishneh Torah: Hilchot Sh’vuot (The Laws of Oaths) and Hilchot Nedarim (The Laws of Vows). Egypt, circa 1170–1180. Reprinted in, e.g., Mishneh Torah: Sefer Hafla’ah: The Book of Utterances. Translated by Eliyahu Touger, pages 12–237. New York: Moznaim Publishing, 2003. ISBN 1-885220-41-3.
- Maimonides. The Guide for the Perplexed, part 1, chapter 36; part 3, chapters 39, 40. Cairo, Egypt, 1190. Reprinted in, e.g., Moses Maimonides. The Guide for the Perplexed. Translated by Michael Friedländer, pages 51, 340, 344. New York: Dover Publications, 1956. ISBN 0-486-20351-4.
- Hezekiah ben Manoah. Hizkuni. France, circa 1240. Reprinted in, e.g., Chizkiyahu ben Manoach. Chizkuni: Torah Commentary. Translated and annotated by Eliyahu Munk, volume 4, pages 1021–35. Jerusalem: Ktav Publishers, 2013. ISBN 1602-802-612.
- Nachmanides. Commentary on the Torah. Jerusalem, circa 1270. Reprinted in, e.g., Ramban (Nachmanides): Commentary on the Torah: Numbers. Translated by Charles B. Chavel, volume 4, pages 344–81. New York: Shilo Publishing House, 1975. ISBN 0-88328-009-4.
- Zohar part 3, page 241b. Spain, late 13th Century. Reprinted in, e.g., The Zohar. Translated by Harry Sperling and Maurice Simon. 5 volumes. London: Soncino Press, 1934.
- Jacob ben Asher (Baal Ha-Turim). Rimze Ba'al ha-Turim. Early 14th century. Reprinted in, e.g., Baal Haturim Chumash: Bamidbar/Numbers. Translated by Eliyahu Touger; edited and annotated by Avie Gold, volume 4, pages 1711–43. Brooklyn: Mesorah Publications, 2003. ISBN 1-57819-131-9.
- Jacob ben Asher. Perush Al ha-Torah. Early 14th century. Reprinted in, e.g., Yaakov ben Asher. Tur on the Torah. Translated and annotated by Eliyahu Munk, volume 3, pages 1202–15. Jerusalem: Lambda Publishers, 2005. ISBN 978-9657108765.
- Isaac ben Moses Arama. Akedat Yizhak (The Binding of Isaac). Late 15th century. Reprinted in, e.g., Yitzchak Arama. Akeydat Yitzchak: Commentary of Rabbi Yitzchak Arama on the Torah. Translated and condensed by Eliyahu Munk, volume 2, pages 791–95. New York, Lambda Publishers, 2001. ISBN 965-7108-30-6.
- Obadiah ben Jacob Sforno. Commentary on the Torah. Venice, 1567. Reprinted in, e.g., Sforno: Commentary on the Torah. Translation and explanatory notes by Raphael Pelcovitz, pages 802–13. Brooklyn: Mesorah Publications, 1997. ISBN 0-89906-268-7.
- Moshe Alshich. Commentary on the Torah. Safed, circa 1593. Reprinted in, e.g., Moshe Alshich. Midrash of Rabbi Moshe Alshich on the Torah. Translated and annotated by Eliyahu Munk, volume 3, pages 926–40. New York, Lambda Publishers, 2000. ISBN 965-7108-13-6.
- Shabbethai Bass. Sifsei Chachamim. Amsterdam, 1680. Reprinted in, e.g., Sefer Bamidbar: From the Five Books of the Torah: Chumash: Targum Okelos: Rashi: Sifsei Chachamim: Yalkut: Haftaros, translated by Avrohom Y. Davis, pages 534–89. Lakewood Township, New Jersey: Metsudah Publications, 2013.
- Chaim ibn Attar. Ohr ha-Chaim. Venice, 1742. Reprinted in Chayim ben Attar. Or Hachayim: Commentary on the Torah. Translated by Eliyahu Munk, volume 4, pages 1700–39. Brooklyn: Lambda Publishers, 1999. ISBN 965-7108-12-8.
- Samson Raphael Hirsch. Horeb: A Philosophy of Jewish Laws and Observances. Translated by Isidore Grunfeld, pages 276, 314–52. London: Soncino Press, 1962. Reprinted 2002 ISBN 0-900689-40-4. Originally published as Horeb, Versuche über Jissroel’s Pflichten in der Zerstreuung. Germany, 1837.
- Samuel David Luzzatto (Shadal). Commentary on the Torah. Padua, 1871. Reprinted in, e.g., Samuel David Luzzatto. Torah Commentary. Translated and annotated by Eliyahu Munk, volume 4, pages 1113–20. New York: Lambda Publishers, 2012. ISBN 965-524-067-2.
- Yehudah Aryeh Leib Alter. Sefat Emet. Góra Kalwaria (Ger), Poland, before 1906. Excerpted in The Language of Truth: The Torah Commentary of Sefat Emet. Translated and interpreted by Arthur Green, pages 269–74. Philadelphia: Jewish Publication Society, 1998. ISBN 0-8276-0650-8. Reprinted 2012. ISBN 0-8276-0946-9.
- Carol L. Meyers. “The Roots of Restriction: Women in Early Israel.” Biblical Archaeologist, volume 41 (number 3) (September 1978).
- Jacob Milgrom. The JPS Torah Commentary: Numbers: The Traditional Hebrew Text with the New JPS Translation, pages 250–77, 488–96. Philadelphia: Jewish Publication Society, 1990. ISBN 0-8276-0329-0.
- Mary Douglas. In the Wilderness: The Doctrine of Defilement in the Book of Numbers, pages xix, 60, 86, 100, 103, 106, 108–10, 112, 120–21, 123, 126, 135, 141, 147, 160, 170–71, 183, 185–86, 199, 218, 222, 242. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1993. Reprinted 2004. ISBN 0-19-924541-X.
- Judith S. Antonelli. “A Woman’s Vow.” In In the Image of God: A Feminist Commentary on the Torah, pages 383–91. Northvale, New Jersey: Jason Aronson, 1995. ISBN 1-56821-438-3.
- Ellen Frankel. The Five Books of Miriam: A Woman’s Commentary on the Torah, pages 237–41. New York: G. P. Putnam's Sons, 1996. ISBN 0-399-14195-2.
- Sorel Goldberg Loeb and Barbara Binder Kadden. Teaching Torah: A Treasury of Insights and Activities, pages 278–83. Denver: A.R.E. Publishing, 1997. ISBN 0-86705-041-1.
- Baruch A. Levine. Numbers 21–36, volume 4A, pages 423–507. New York: Anchor Bible, 2000. ISBN 0-385-41256-8.
- Stacy K. Offner. “Women Speak Louder Than Words.” In The Women's Torah Commentary: New Insights from Women Rabbis on the 54 Weekly Torah Portions. Edited by Elyse Goldstein, pages 315–20. Woodstock, Vermont: Jewish Lights Publishing, 2000. ISBN 1-58023-076-8.
- Nili S. Fox. “Numbers.” In The Jewish Study Bible. Edited by Adele Berlin and Marc Zvi Brettler, pages 343–49. New York: Oxford University Press, 2004. ISBN 0-19-529751-2.
- W. Gunther Plaut. The Torah: A Modern Commentary: Revised Edition. Revised edition edited by David E.S. Stern, pages 1099–115. New York: Union for Reform Judaism, 2006. ISBN 0-8074-0883-2.
- Suzanne A. Brody. “Gag Rule.” In Dancing in the White Spaces: The Yearly Torah Cycle and More Poems, page 101. Shelbyville, Kentucky: Wasteland Press, 2007. ISBN 1-60047-112-9.
- The Torah: A Women's Commentary. Edited by Tamara Cohn Eskenazi and Andrea L. Weiss, pages 989–1012. New York: URJ Press, 2008. ISBN 0-8074-1081-0.
- Shmuel Herzfeld. “Women and Tallit.” In Fifty-Four Pick Up: Fifteen-Minute Inspirational Torah Lessons, pages 238–45. Jerusalem: Gefen Publishing House, 2012. ISBN 978-965-229-558-3.
- Francis Nataf. “The Great Educator: Moses understood that the way to correct mistakes lay in tireless and forward-thinking educational efforts.” The Jerusalem Report, volume 24 (number 7) (July 15, 2013): page 47.
- "Torah Stats — Bemidbar". Akhlah Inc. Retrieved July 7, 2013.
- See, e.g., The Schottenstein Edition Interlinear Chumash: Bamidbar/Numbers. Edited by Menachem Davis, pages 206–26. Brooklyn: Mesorah Publications, 2007. ISBN 1-4226-0208-7.
- Numbers 30:2.
- Numbers 30:3.
- Numbers 30:4–5.
- Numbers 30:6.
- Numbers 30:7–8.
- Numbers 30:9.
- Numbers 30:10.
- Numbers 30:11–12.
- Numbers 30:13.
- Numbers 30:16.
- Numbers 31:1–2.
- Numbers 31:3–8.
- Numbers 31:9–12.
- Numbers 31:14–16.
- Numbers 31:17–18.
- Numbers 31:19–20.
- Numbers 31:21–23.
- Numbers 31:24.
- Numbers 31:25–27.
- Numbers 31:28–30.
- Numbers 31:31–41.
- Numbers 31:42–47.
- Numbers 31:48–50.
- Numbers 31:51–54.
- Numbers 32:1–5.
- Numbers 32:6–7.
- Numbers 32:8–12.
- Numbers 32:16–19.
- Numbers 32:20–22.
- Numbers 32:20–22.
- Numbers 32:28–30.
- Numbers 32:33.
- Numbers 32:34–42.
- See, e.g., "A Complete Triennial Cycle for Reading the Torah". The Jewish Theological Seminary. Retrieved June 16, 2014.
- Mishnah Nedarim 1:1–11:11. Land of Israel, circa 200 CE. Reprinted in, e.g., The Mishnah: A New Translation. Translated by Jacob Neusner, pages 406–30. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1988. ISBN 0-300-05022-4. Tosefta Nedarim 1:1–7:8. Land of Israel, circa 300 CE. Reprinted in, e.g., The Tosefta: Translated from the Hebrew, with a New Introduction. Translated by Jacob Neusner, volume 1, pages 785–805. Peabody, Massachusetts: Hendrickson Publishers, 2002. ISBN 1-56563-642-2. Jerusalem Talmud Nedarim 1a–. Babylonian Talmud Nedarim 2a–91b. Babylonia, 6th century. Reprinted in, e.g., Talmud Bavli. Edited by Yisroel Simcha Schorr and Chaim Malinowitz, volumes 29–30. Brooklyn: Mesorah Publications, 2000. Mishnah Shevuot 1:1–8:6. Reprinted in, e.g., The Mishnah: A New Translation. Translated by Jacob Neusner, pages 620–39. Tosefta Shevuot 1:1–6:7. Reprinted in, e.g., The Tosefta: Translated from the Hebrew, with a New Introduction. Translated by Jacob Neusner, volume 2, pages 1219–44. Jerusalem Talmud Shevuot 1a–. Babylonian Talmud Shevuot 2a–49b. Reprinted in, e.g., Talmud Bavli. Elucidated by Michoel Weiner and Mordechai Kuber; edited by Yisroel Simcha Schorr, volume 51. Brooklyn: Mesorah Publications, 1994. ISBN 1-57819-607-8.
- Sifre to Numbers 22:1.
- Mishnah Avot 3:13. Reprinted in, e.g., The Mishnah: A New Translation. Translated by Jacob Neusner, page 680.
- Jerusalem Talmud Nedarim 9:1.
- Babylonian Talmud Nedarim 22a, 59a.
- Numbers Rabbah 22:1.
- Mishnah Chagigah 1:8. Reprinted in, e.g., The Mishnah: A New Translation. Translated by Jacob Neusner, page 330. Babylonian Talmud Chagigah 10a.
- Babylonian Talmud Chagigah 10a.
- Babylonian Talmud Ketubot 74b.
- Babylonian Talmud Bava Batra 74a.
- Babylonian Talmud Berakhot 32a.
- Exodus Rabbah 43:4.
- Leviticus Rabbah 37:2.
- Mishnah Nedarim 11:1. Reprinted in, e.g., The Mishnah: A New Translation. Translated by Jacob Neusner, pages 427–28. Babylonian Talmud Nedarim 79a–b. Reprinted in, e.g., Talmud Bavli. Elucidated by Eliezer Herzka, Asher Dicker, Nasanel Kasnett, Reuvein Dowek, Mendy Wachsman, and Feivel Wahl; edited by Yisroel Simcha Schorr and Chaim Malinowitz, volume 30, pages 79a3–b1.
- Mishnah Nedarim 11:2. Reprinted in, e.g., The Mishnah: A New Translation. Translated by Jacob Neusner, page 428. Babylonian Talmud Nedarim 79b. Reprinted in, e.g., Talmud Bavli. Elucidated by Eliezer Herzka, Asher Dicker, Nasanel Kasnett, Reuvein Dowek, Mendy Wachsman, and Feivel Wahl; edited by Yisroel Simcha Schorr and Chaim Malinowitz, volume 30, page 79b1.
- Babylonian Talmud Nedarim 79b.
- Midrash Tanhuma Matos 1.
- Mishnah Nedarim 10:1. Reprinted in, e.g., The Mishnah: A New Translation. Translated by Jacob Neusner, page 426. Babylonian Talmud Nedarim 66b–67a.
- Mishnah Shabbat 24:5. Reprinted in, e.g., The Mishnah: A New Translation. Translated by Jacob Neusner, page 208. Babylonian Talmud Shabbat 157a.
- Numbers Rabbah 22:8.
- Numbers Rabbah 22:6.
- Numbers Rabbah 22:4. Reprinted in, e.g., Midrash Rabbah: Numbers. Translated by Judah J. Slotki, volume 6, pages 855–56.
- Numbers Rabbah 22:7.
- Numbers Rabbah 22:9.
- Mishnah Kiddushin 3:4. Reprinted in, e.g., The Mishnah: A New Translation. Translated by Jacob Neusner, pages 492–93. Babylonian Talmud Kiddushin 61a.
- Babylonian Talmud Yoma 38a.
- Maimonides. Mishneh Torah, Negative Commandment 157. Cairo, Egypt, 1170–1180. Reprinted in Maimonides. The Commandments: Sefer Ha-Mitzvoth of Maimonides. Translated by Charles B. Chavel, volume 2, pages 148–49. London: Soncino Press, 1967. ISBN 0-900689-71-4.
- Numbers 30:3.
- Sefer HaHinnuch: The Book of [Mitzvah] Education. Translated by Charles Wengrov, volume 4, pages 203–15. Jerusalem: Feldheim Publishers, 1988. ISBN 0-87306-457-7.
- Numbers 30:3.
- Numbers 30:3.
- Jeremiah 1:1–3.
- Jeremiah 1:4–5.
- Jeremiah 1:6–8.
- Jeremiah 1:9–10.
- Jeremiah 1:11–12.
- Jeremiah 1:13–14.
- Jeremiah 1:15.
- Jeremiah 1:16.
- Jeremiah 1:17–18.
- Jeremiah 1:19.
- Jeremiah 2:1–2.
- Jeremiah 2:3.
- Babylonian Talmud Bava Batra 15a.
- Michael Fishbane. The JPS Bible Commentary: Haftarot, page 262. Philadelphia: Jewish Publication Society, 2002. ISBN 0-8276-0691-5.