Matrakçı Nasuh

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Matrakçı Nasuh
Born 1480
Visoko, Sanjak of Bosnia, Ottoman Bosnia and Herzegovina, Ottoman Empire
Died c. 1564
Known for Matrak, Ottoman miniature

Nasuh bin Karagöz bin Abdullah el-Visokavi el-Bosnavî, or Nasuh el-Matrakči ibn Karađoz ibn Abdulah el-Visokavi el-Bosnevi, commonly known as Matrakçı Nasuh (Turkish pronunciation: [matrakˈtʃɯ naˈsuh]; Bosnian: Matrakčija Nasuh Visočak) for his competence in the game of Matrak, invented by himself, (also known as Nasuh el-Silâhî, Nasuh the Swordsman, because of his talent with weapons; 1480 – c. 1564) was a 16th-century Ottoman statesman, polymath, mathematician, teacher, historian, geographer, cartographer, swordmaster, navigator, inventor, painter, farmer, and miniaturist. He was brought to Istanbul after being recruited by the Ottoman scouts in Rumelia, educated, served several Ottoman sultans, and became a teacher at Enderun School.[1][2][3][4][5]

Life[edit]

Matrakçı Nasuh (bin Abdullah; son of Abdullah), born in the Bosnian town of Visoko, entered Ottoman service through the devşirme system. Although born to Bosnian Muslim parentage,[citation needed] Nasuh was drafted into the devşirme system, otherwise reserved for the Christian populace of the empire. Exceptionally, however, in Bosnia, the devşirme was also extended to local Muslim families. He become a Janissary and a soldier in the Ottoman Infantry. He was a gifted swordsman, and sharpshooter well known for his intellect; he spoke five languages and was recruited into the Ottoman Navy.

After a long period of studies on mathematics and geometry, he wrote his works Cemâlü'l-Küttâb and Kemalü'l- Hisâb and submitted them to the Ottoman sultan Selim I. He wrote also the two books named Mecmaü't-Tevârih and Süleymannâme. They deal with the history of the period of 1520–43. He also wrote a historical piece on the Persian campaign of Suleiman I titled Fetihname-i Karabuğdan. A recent study of his book Umdet-ul Hisab revealed an unknown fact that Matrakçı had invented some genuine multiplication methods. One of the significant results displayed in this book was that the lattice method had been widely used in the Enderun School nearly 50 years before John Napier reintroduced it to Europe.[6]

Besides his works on mathematics and history, he is famous because of his miniatures. He created a naturalist style which focuses on panoramic views of landscapes and cities painted with the greatest detail (his most famous work, the Istanbul landscape picture, shows almost every street and building of the city). In Ottoman miniature art, this was later known as the "Matrakçı style". The most important of his four historic volumes of miniatures is the one dealing with Suleiman I’s first Iran-Iraq campaign in 1534–35, upon which he had written his historical work Fetihname-i Karabuğdan. Besides illustrating the march of the Ottoman army from Istanbul to Baghdad and then Tabriz and its return via Halab and Eskisehir, Nasuh also includes all the cities met by the army along the way. The Library of Istanbul University hosts the only copy of this work.

Nasuh was also a soldier and a master bladesmith. He worked as a weapons teacher at Enderun School. He and his students demonstrated their skills in a show which was part of the circumcision celebrations of Suleiman I's sons. Because of his success in this demonstration, Nasuh received the honorary title of Ustad ("master") and Reis ("chief") from the Sultan. He also wrote a book about usage of various weapons and techniques of cavalry and infantry fight, called Tuhfet-ül Guzât.[7][8][9][10][11][12][13][14]

Works[edit]

Mathematics[edit]

  • Cemâlü'l-Küttâb
  • Kemalü'l- Hisâb
  • Umdetü'l-Hisâb

History[edit]

Martial Arts[edit]

  • Tuhfet-ul Guzat (Gift of Warriors)

Gallery[edit]

Honors and legacy[edit]

In his hometown Visoko, in Bosnia, annual conferences are held in honors of most important people from Visoko, and Matrakčija is considered as one of the most important. For illustration, he is regarded as Bosnian Leonardo da Vinci.[17] Also a street near Hometown Heritage Museum Visoko (Zavičajni Muzej Visoko) is located is named after him Matrakčijina (English: Matrakci's Street).[18]

Documentary film about Matrakci was produced by Turkish Radio-television in 1978.[19]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Salim Ayduz. "Nasuh Al-Matrakî, A Noteworthy Ottoman Artist-Mathematician of the Sixteenth Century". muslimheritage.com (in Eng.). Muslim Heritage. Retrieved 3 March 2015. 
  2. ^ Jonathan M. Bloom, Sheila Blair. "The Grove encyclopedia of Islamic art and architecture, Vol. 2". Oxford University Press (2009), p. 49; Nasuh Matrakci [Nasuh al-Silahi al-Matraqi; Nasuh ibn Qaragoz ibn 'Abdallah al-Busnawi] (b. Visoko, Bosnia... 
  3. ^ Corlu, M. Sencer; Burlbaw, Lynn, M.; Capraro, Robert M; Corlu, M. Ali & Han, Sunyoung. "The Ottoman Palace School Enderun and the Man with Multiple Talents, Matrakçı Nasuh, p. 23". Journal of the Korea Society of Mathematical Education Series D: Research in Mathematical Education Vol. 14, No. 1, March 2010, 19–31. Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas 77843, USA. Retrieved 5 January 2013. 
  4. ^ "International Journal of Turkish Studies, vol. 10, issue 1-2". University of Wisconsin (2004), p. 57; The famous Bosnian writer Nasuh Matrakci (d. 1564 in all likelihood) is represented by two manuscripts:... 
  5. ^ Halil İnalcık, Cemal Kafadar. "Süleymân The Second [i.e. the First] and his time". Isis Press (1993), p. 270; Matrakci Nasuh was a devfirme boy from Bosnia trained in the palace school. 
  6. ^ Corlu, M. Sencer; Burlbaw, Lynn, M.; Capraro, Robert M; Corlu, M. Ali & Han, Sunyoung. "The Ottoman Palace School Enderun and the Man with Multiple Talents, Matrakçı Nasuh, p. 23". Journal of the Korea Society of Mathematical Education Series D: Research in Mathematical Education Vol. 14, No. 1, March 2010, 19–31. Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas 77843, USA. Retrieved 5 January 2013. 
  7. ^ The Ottoman Empire: The Classical Age 1300-1600, Halil Inalcik, (1973), p. 78.
  8. ^ The Balkans since 1453, L.S. Stavrianos, (New York, 1958), p. 84.
  9. ^ Perry Anderson. Lineages of the Absolutist State (Verso, 1974), p. 366. 
  10. ^ Salim Ayduz. "Nasuh Al-Matrakî, A Noteworthy Ottoman Artist-Mathematician of the Sixteenth Century". muslimheritage.com (in Eng.). Muslim Heritage. Retrieved 3 March 2015. 
  11. ^ Jonathan M. Bloom, Sheila Blair. "The Grove encyclopedia of Islamic art and architecture, Vol. 2". Oxford University Press (2009), p. 49; Nasuh Matrakci [Nasuh al-Silahi al-Matraqi; Nasuh ibn Qaragoz ibn 'Abdallah al-Busnawi] (b. Visoko, Bosnia... 
  12. ^ Corlu, M. Sencer; Burlbaw, Lynn, M.; Capraro, Robert M; Corlu, M. Ali & Han, Sunyoung. "The Ottoman Palace School Enderun and the Man with Multiple Talents, Matrakçı Nasuh, p. 23". Journal of the Korea Society of Mathematical Education Series D: Research in Mathematical Education Vol. 14, No. 1, March 2010, 19–31. Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas 77843, USA. Retrieved 5 January 2013. 
  13. ^ "International Journal of Turkish Studies, vol. 10, issue 1-2". University of Wisconsin (2004), p. 57; The famous Bosnian writer Nasuh Matrakci (d. 1564 in all likelihood) is represented by two manuscripts:... 
  14. ^ Halil İnalcık, Cemal Kafadar. "Süleymân The Second [i.e. the First] and his time". Isis Press (1993), p. 270; Matrakci Nasuh was a devfirme boy from Bosnia trained in the palace school. 
  15. ^ Matrakčija. "Fortresses of Matrakci Plan". Muslim Heritage uploads. Muslim Heritage. 
  16. ^ Matrakčija. "City of Diyarbakir illumination". Muslim Heritage uploads. Muslim Heritage. 
  17. ^ Naida Kovačević; Pan Bošnjak (15. December 2014). "(VIDEO) Naučni skup – "Naučnik, književnik i minijaturist Nasuh Matrakči Visočanin"". zavicajnimuzej.com (in Bosnian). Hometown Museum/Zavičajni Muzej Visoko. Retrieved 3 March 2015.  Check date values in: |date= (help)
  18. ^ "Ulica u Visokom – Nasuh Matrakči bio najslavniji Bošnjak Osmanskog carstva (PHOTO)". haber.ba (in Bosnian). Avaz. 18.November 2012. Retrieved 3 March 2015.  Check date values in: |date= (help)
  19. ^ Naida Kovačević; Pan Bošnjak (15. December 2014). "(VIDEO) Naučni skup – "Naučnik, književnik i minijaturist Nasuh Matrakči Visočanin"". zavicajnimuzej.com (in Bosnian). Hometown Museum/Zavičajni Muzej Visoko. Retrieved 3 March 2015.  Check date values in: |date= (help)

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