|Matsumoto, Nagano Prefecture, Japan|
|Type||Hirashiro (flatland castle)|
|Condition||Original keep (tenshu) and inner walls survive, several gates have been rebuilt since 1960|
|In use||1504 to 1868|
|Built by||Shimadachi Sadanaga|
|Materials||Earth, stone, and wood|
Matsumoto Castle (松本城 Matsumoto-jō?) is one of Japan's premier historic castles. The building is also known as the "Crow Castle" (烏城 Karasu-jo?) due to its black exterior. It was the seat of the Matsumoto domain. It is located in the city of Matsumoto, in Nagano Prefecture and is within easy reach of Tokyo by road or rail.
Matsumoto Castle is a flatland castle (hirajiro) because it is not built on a hilltop or amid rivers, but on a plain. Its complete defences would have included an extensive system of inter-connecting walls, moats, and gatehouses.
The castle's origins go back to the Sengoku period. At that time Shimadachi Sadanaga of the Ogasawara clan built a fort on this site in 1504, which originally was called Fukashi Castle. In 1550 it came under the rule of the Takeda clan and then Tokugawa Ieyasu.
When Toyotomi Hideyoshi transferred Ieyasu to the Kantō region, he placed Ishikawa Norimasa in charge of Matsumoto. Norimasa and his son Yasunaga built the tower and other parts of the castle, including the three towers: the keep and the small tower in the northwest, both begun in 1590, and the Watari Tower; the residence; the drum gate; the black gate, the Tsukimi Yagura, the moat, the innermost bailey, the second bailey, the third bailey, and the sub-floors in the castle, much as they are today. They also were instrumental in laying out the castle town and its infrastructure. It is believed much of the castle was completed by 1593–94.
For the next 280 years until the abolition of the feudal system in the Meiji Restoration, the castle was ruled by the 23 lords of Matsumoto representing six different daimyo families. In this period the stronghold was also known as Crow Castle (烏城 Karasu-jo?) because its black walls and roofs looked like spreading wings.
In 1872, following the Meiji Restoration, the site, along with many former daimyos' castles, was sold at auction for redevelopment. When news broke that the keep was going to be demolished, however, an influential figure from Matsumoto, Ichikawa Ryōzō, along with residents from Matsumoto, started a campaign to save the building. Their efforts were rewarded when the tower was acquired by the city government.
In the late Meiji period the keep started to lean to one side. An old picture (shown below) clearly shows how the keep looked then. It was because of neglect coupled with a structural defect, but many people believed the tower leaned due to the curse of Tada Kasuke, who was killed at the castle for attempting to appeal unfair tax laws.
A local high school principal, Kobayashi Unari, decided to renovate the castle and appealed for funds. The castle underwent "the great Meiji renovation" between 1903-1913. It underwent another renovation "the great Shōwa renovation" during the period 1950-1955.
In 1952 the keep, Inui-ko-tenshu (small northern tower), Watari-yagura (roofed passage), Tatsumi-tsuke-yagura (southern wing), and Tsukimi-yagura (moon-viewing room) were designated as national treasures.
In 1990, the Kuromon-Ninomon (second gate of the Black Gate) and sodebei (side wall) were reconstructed. The square drum gate was reconstructed in 2002.
Matsumoto Castle was damaged in a 5.4 magnitude earthquake on June 30, 2011. The quake caused approximately ten cracks in the inner wall of the main tower.
There is a plan for restoring the soto-bori (outer moat), which was reclaimed for a residential zone.
The second floor of the main keep features a gun museum, Teppo Gura, with a collection of guns, armor, and other weapons.
Window for firing bows
- Mitchelhill, Jennifer (2013). Castles of the Samurai:Power & Beauty. USA: Kodansha. ISBN 978-1568365121.
- Schmorleitz, Morton S. (1974). Castles in Japan. Tokyo: Charles E. Tuttle Co. ISBN 0-8048-1102-4.
- Motoo, Hinago (1986). Japanese Castles. Tokyo: Kodansha. pp. 200 pages. ISBN 0-87011-766-1.
- Nakagawa, Haruo (2005). Zusetsu Kokuhō Matsumoto-Jō (National Treasure, Matsumoto Castle Illustrated).Issōsha Publishing
- "The Three Famous Castles of Japan". Kobayashi Travel Service. Retrieved 2010-07-04.
- Matsumoto City Official Website https://www.city.matsumoto.nagano.jp/english/history/castle/castle4/index.html
- "Side Stories of the Uprising". Retrieved 2009-12-11.
- "M5.4 quake jolts Nagano Pref., injuring 8". Retrieved 2011-06-30.
- Proposal presented by Matsumoto City (in Japanese)https://www.city.matsumoto.nagano.jp/kanko/siro/sekaiisan/kobetuhozon/index.html
- http://www.yamasa.org/japan/english/destinations/nagano/matsumotojou.html Matsumoto Castle - Yamasa Institute, Japan Travel Guide
Media related to Matsumoto Castle at Wikimedia Commons
- Matsumoto Castle Welcome Guide
- Matsumoto Castle English Guide
- Nagano Official Tourism Website - Matsumoto Castle
- - Interactive 3-D Matsumoto Castle by Professor Jon Amakawa of the Art Institute of Pittsburgh.
-  Photography of Matsumoto Castle from Heso magazine