|Born||27 October 1761|
|Died||23 September 1823|
|Institutions||Royal College of Physicians|
|Alma mater||University of Glasgow
University of Oxford
He was born the son of Rev James Baillie and the brother of poetess Joanna Baillie. He was a pupil of his uncle, the anatomist John Hunter and his father-in-law, Dr. Thomas Denman, a pre-eminent obstetrician in London at the turn of the nineteenth century, whose textbook on childbirth had been first published in 1788. Baillie was educated at the Old Grammar School of Hamilton (renamed the Hamilton Academy in 1848), the University of Glasgow, and obtained his MD from the University of Oxford in 1789, having been named Snell Exhibitioner in 1779. His uncle William Hunter bequeathed him in 1783 £5,000, his house in Great Windmill Street, and use of his museum for 30 years.
He then taught anatomy and was appointed Physician at St George's Hospital in 1789, but gave up both posts to establish his own medical practice in Grosvenor Square, becoming Physician Extraordinary to George III. He became Fellow of the Royal College of Physicians in 1790, specialising in morbid anatomy.
His 1793 book, The Morbid Anatomy of Some of the Most Important Parts of the Human Body, is considered the first systematic study of pathology, and the first publication in English on pathology as a separate subject. He is credited with first identifying transposition of the great vessels (TGV) and situs inversus.
- The Morbid Anatomy of Some of the Most Important Parts of the Human Body (1793)
- Anatomy of the Gravid Uterus, by William Hunter published by Baillie (1794)
- A Series of Engravings, tending to illustrate the Morbid Anatomy of some of the most Important Parts of the Human Body (1799, 1802, 1812)
- Lectures and Observations on Medicine by the late Matthew Baillie (1825)
- An Account of a Particular Change of Structure in the Human Ovarium (Philosophical Transacations, London, 1789,Vol.79, pp. 71–78)
- Prichard, R (December 1979). "Selected items from the history of pathology. Transposition of the great vessels". Am. J. Pathol. 97 (3): 562. PMC 2042426. PMID 389066.
- Prichard, R (December 1979). "Selected items from the history of pathology. Angina pectoris". Am. J. Pathol. 97 (3): 530. PMC 2042409. PMID 389065.
- Prichard, R (December 1979). "Selected items from the history of pathology. Gastric leiomyoma". Am. J. Pathol. 97 (3): 504. PMC 2042425. PMID 389064.
- Prichard, R (December 1979). "Selected items from the history of pathology. Intestinal cancer". Am. J. Pathol. 97 (3): 548. PMC 2042413. PMID 228558.
- Prichard, R (July 1979). "Selected items from the history of pathology: Matthew Baillie (1761–1823)". Am. J. Pathol. 96 (1): 278. PMC 2042357. PMID 380356.
- Longo, L D (December 1975). "Classic pages in obstetrics and gynecology: an account of a particular change of structure in the human ovarium. Matthew Baillie, 1789". Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 123 (7): 770. PMID 1106198.
- Tubbs, R Shane; Loukas Marios, Shoja Mohammadali M, Oakes W Jerry (October 2007). "Matthew Baillie (1761–1823) and his early detailed descriptions of childhood hydrocephalus in the Morbid Anatomy". J. Neurosurg. 107 (4 Suppl): 338–41. doi:10.3171/PED-07/10/338. PMID 17941502.
- "Classics in oncology. Matthew Baillie (1761–1823)". CA: a cancer journal for clinicians 24 (1): 47–56. . 1974. doi:10.3322/canjclin.24.1.47. PMID 4204679.
- Carr, I (. 1992). ""Not on the outward appearance .... but on the heart." Matthew Baillie and cardiology". The Canadian journal of cardiology 8 (1): 78–82. PMID 1617515.
- Attwood, H D (August 1979). "Matthew Baillie—a possible early description of amniotic fluid embolism". The Australian & New Zealand journal of obstetrics & gynaecology 19 (3): 176–7. doi:10.1111/j.1479-828X.1979.tb02749.x. PMID 391211.
- AIM25: Royal College of Physicians: BAILLIE, Matthew (1761–1823) Royal College of Physicians.
- Balliol College, Oxford, archives List of Snell Exhibitioners from the University of Glasgow. Retrieved 2011-01-20
- Bullough, Vern (1970). "Baillie, Matthew". Dictionary of Scientific Biography 1. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons. pp. 398–399. ISBN 0-684-10114-9.