Matthias Joseph Anker (May 6, 1771 – April 3, 1843) was an Austrian mineralogist and geologist born in Graz. Some sources place his birth date as May 1, 1772.
He received his education in Vienna, afterwards working as a surgeon in the town of Stainz. In 1807, he was called to Graz as a district surgeon, and subsequently, intensified his studies in mineralogy. Four years later, he joined the staff of mineralogistFriedrich Mohs at the Johanneum in Graz, where he eventually became a professor of mineralogy as well as curator of the mineral cabinet. In 1839, he resigned from his teaching position, but stayed on as director of collections.
In 1828/29, he supervised the creation of a catalog involving the mineral cabinet at the Johanneum, where in 1833 he reorganized the collection according to the Mohs system. Also, he is credited for providing the first geological map of Styria (1835).