|Townships||Mattoon, Lafayette, Paradise|
|Elevation||732 ft (223 m)|
|Area||10.34 sq mi (27 km2)|
|- land||10.34 sq mi (27 km2)|
|- water||0.00 sq mi (0 km2)|
|Density||1,964.8 / sq mi (759 / km2)|
|- summer (DST)||CDT (UTC-5)|
|Wikimedia Commons: Mattoon, Illinois|
Mattoon was the site of the "Mad Gasser" attacks of the 1940s.
Early History to 1850
One of the main factors determining the settlement of Mattoon and Coles County in general was the topography. Coles County straddled a timberline in the southern half and prairie in the north. The forested areas were primarily fed by two major rivers: the Embarras River in the east and the Kaskaskia in the west. The prairie, known as the “Grand Prairie,” was generally wet and swampy. An early historian described the geography:
“Away from the timber to the north, the face of the country is generally quite level, broken only by long undulations. It is almost entirely prairie land in this part, and was allowed to remain uncultivated until after the opening of the railroads. It was largely used for pasturage during this period, and often presented signs of great animation as the herds of cattle, under the care of their drovers, moved about over its grassy, slightly undulating surface.”
Groves could be found scattered throughout the area. Early settlers to the area started homesteads in the timberline, which provided building materials and fuel. Since the vast majority of early settlers came from wooded areas of Indiana, Kentucky, and Tennessee (by way of the Ohio and Wabash River valleys), the forests also provided a sense of familiarity.
In 1826, Kentucky émigré Charles Sawyer became the first white man known to settle in the Mattoon area, just north of the timberline (known as the Wabash Point Timber) along the Little Wabash River. Levi Doty build Sawyer’s cabin while the latter returned to Kentucky to retrieve the rest of his family. Within a year, a few families very quickly settled around Sawyer in the area of Paradise Township, including Dr. John Epperson, the county’s first physician. Settlers built log cabins using pegs (no iron or nails). “The luxuries of life were generally not seen the first years of the settlement, but appeared as the residents could obtain them.”
Corn was planted and remained a staple crop. Gardens of potatoes and other vegetables were maintained. Hogs, which ran wild in the woods, provided pork, while “deer, bears, wild turkeys, and prairie chickens provided an abundant supply of wild meat.” Wolves proved troublesome to domesticated animals.
The first school was established in 1827-28 in the Paradise Township, taking place in a makeshift cabin and taught by James Waddill. The costs were $2.50-3.00 per student. School was maintained in this location until 1844-45, when the first real schoolhouse was built in what would become Mattoon. That year, the Illinois State Legislature passed its first school laws, making Mattoon a forerunner for early education in the state.
As the population grew, demand for a local government increased. On Christmas Day, 1830, Coles County was established. The county was named after Edward Coles, the second governor in Illinois who served in 1822. Settlers in the Mattoon area remained poor and humble, but their community remained close knit.
In 1836, "Old State Road," which runs along the southern end of town, became one of the first trails to be established in the Mattoon area. Another trail, the Kaskaskia Pass, traveled past what was known as “The Lone Elm Tree,” a natural landmark that helped guide visitors and newcomers. The tree was cut down on August 1, 1950, due to disease. A plaque at the corner of 32nd Street and Western Avenue marks the location of this important landmark.
1850 - 1900
The growth and subsequent history of Mattoon is tied to that of local railroads. In 1854, railroad surveyors from the Illinois Central Railroad and Terre Haute and Alton Railroad found their railroads would cross in the Mattoon area, and a burst of investment and land speculation began. The two railroads raced to the meeting point, on the understanding that the first to arrive would not have to pay to maintain the crossing. The community that had grown in the area of swamp grass and prairie came to be known as "Pegtown," which referred to the pegs (stakes) used to demarcate lots to be sold at public auction. Among the speculators were Elisha Linder, Ebenezer Noyes, James T. Cunningham, Stephen D. Dole, John L. Allison, and John Cunningham. Land was purchased for $2.50 per acre. On December 12, 1854, County Surveyor John Meadows laid out the town.
The 1850s saw a flurry of activity for the emerging town. In 1855, the first houses were built. Benjamin Turney used 16 yoke of oxen to drag his home from a farm three miles away, while R. H. McFadden built his home near the area of present day First Street and Prairie Avenue. In May that year, "Pegtown" lots were auctioned. On June 9, 1855, the first train arrived on the Terre Haute Alton Railroad. In July, the Pennsylvania House became the first hotel in town, operating at the present-day 1600 block of Broadway Avenue. That month the first post office was established, with James M. True serving as postmaster. In September, Rev. Isaac Hart performed the town's first wedding, marrying Sarah Norvell and R. H. McFadden.
The next year, 1856, saw the creation of the first newspaper. The weekly "Independent Gazette" published four page, seven-column editions. In that same year, the first public school was established (at 1307 Champaign Ave.). In 1856, the first two babies were born in Mattoon, Charles Cartmell in July and Mollie Puff in September. By now, the rapidly growing town had more than 100 buildings. Between 1856-57, the first Baptist, Catholic, Methodist, Christian, and Presbyterian churches were formed.
In May 1857, residents voted to incorporate the town, with 65 votes for and 25 votes against. Also in 1857, ordinances passed forbidding drunkenness, working on Sunday, disturbing public or religious meetings, gaming, leaving carcasses on the streets, littering, obstructing sidewalks, and driving fast horses. In 1858, the first public park was created with a land deed from John Allison and James and John Cunningham. The park remains and is today called Allison–Cunningham Park.
On the night before the fourth Lincoln-Douglas debate of September 18, 1858, at the Coles County Fairgrounds, both Abraham Lincoln and Stephen A. Douglas slept in nearby Mattoon,. Lincoln slept in the Essex House hotel, a popular hotel in those times. He addressed a small crowd from his hotel room. The Essex House, the third brick building in town, opened on the southwest corner of the railroad intersection with Union Station located on the lower story. The Essex House served as hotel, restaurant, and ticket office for both railroads. Later, Ulysses S. Grant would also use the hotel. Today, the mural "Civility" (2009), located in Progress Square, commemorates the arrival of the railroad and depicts the Essex House and both Lincoln and Douglas. "The Lone Elm Tree" occupies the center of the mural.
In 1861, the town was officially named after William B. Mattoon, the chief construction engineer working for the Terre Haute and Alton Railroad and partner of the Massachusetts firm "Phelps, Mattoon, and Barnes." The reason for the honor is unclear; some say he won the naming rights because his rail crew arrived first. Others say he beat other claimants in a card game, or that Pegtown residents hoped the wealthy Mattoon would invest in the town if they named it after him. With its combination of excellent transportation and remarkably fertile prairie soils, Mattoon expanded rapidly. By the dawn of the 20th century, Mattoon's growing population and rail access brought manufacturing and industry.
On June 17, 1861, General Ulysses S. Grant took his first post of the American Civil War when he assumed command of the 21st Illinois Infantry in Mattoon. The flagpole from General Grant's camp was preserved and is on display at the Mattoon Public Library.
In the 1890s, Mattoon led the successful campaign to have a proposed college in eastern Illinois located in Coles County. The citizens were chagrined when neighboring Charleston was chosen as the home of the future Eastern Illinois University instead.
The Twentieth Century
On May 26, 1917, the town was devastated by a tornado which killed 101 people.
In 1932 the Kuehne Manufacturing Co. began producing dinette sets at their new plant on the south side of Mattoon. They stayed in business for 33 years, closing in 1965. Its early sets were wooden, but by the 1950s Kuehne was making the chromed metal breakfast-room sets so popular during that decade. Today, surviving Kuehne dinette sets are highly sought after by collectors of Mid-Century modern furniture.
In 1940, the discovery of petroleum reserves in the countryside immediately surrounding Mattoon led to a small "oil boom" in the 1940s and 1950s, bringing with it economic benefits and increased civic pride. Oil extraction continues to be an important economic activity.
The Burger King (Mattoon, Illinois) is a restaurant in Mattoon whose owners claim it is the "original" Burger King, and is not related to the fast food chain Burger King. The 1968 court case between this restaurant and the larger Burger King is a well-known case in United States trademark law. The federal 7th Circuit Court of Appeals, ruled that, because of the federal trademark registration, and because the federal law indicated priority over state law, Florida's Burger King had rights to the name almost everywhere in the United States, including in Illinois, except in the Mattoon area, which by law has a 20 mile radius centering the original Burger King, and cannot allow a Burger King chain location within the radius, the closest being 25 miles away in Tuscola, Illinois.
Mattoon was home to several minor-league teams in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. The last stadium, with a capacity of approximately 2,000 seats, was torn down in the late 1950s, but the city maintains a strong Baseball tradition. Mattoon still has a thriving junior league and hosted many junior league regionals and World Series.
Recent history and current issues
Traditionally a bastion of manufacturing, Mattoon has been challenged by the loss of several major plants in the last two decades. On December 18, 2007, Mattoon was chosen to be the site of the U.S. Department of Energy's FutureGen power plant, which is a clean-coal gasification project that will build a near zero-emissions coal-fueled power plant with the intention of producing hydrogen and electricity while using carbon capture and storage. However, in 2010, citing unacceptable changes to the original planning, which included retrofitting an existing power plant in Meredosia rather than building a new one in Mattoon, the city ultimately rejected FutureGen's proposal.
Mattoon is the hometown of Clyde D. Hood, a former electrician who was the main person involved in the Omega Trust scandal back in 1994. At the time, it was one of the largest scams in the history of the United States. By 1995, Hood had already embezzled $10 Million from many citizens around the United States who believed the scam would make them millionaires. He and other people who were involved with the scam began purchasing businesses in the Mattoon area including businesses such as the Blue Bird Diner, which, was a family favorite in the small town. In 2000, he and 18 others involved in the scam were indicted for the majority of the crimes. He is currently serving in the U.S. Bureau of Prisons. To this day, many of the people who fell for the scam, still wait for their packages via FedEx and UPS.
In 2009, the America’s Power Factuality Tour stopped at Mattoon, Ill., to report on its role in generating electricity in the United States.
After the arrival of the Lender's Bagels factory in 1986, Mattoon became the self-declared "Bagel Capital of the World." The town is also home to the world's largest bagel and an annual summer event called "Lenders Bagelfest."
Bagelfest is a week long local family festival held every end of July. The main event is a 3 day weekend festival held in Peterson Park, which is located right near the downtown area. The festival includes many food vendors, craft vendors, and other local organizations that set up tents throughout the event. Each night of the festival includes many various rides throughout the park, including rides such as the Ferris wheel and the Tilt-A-Whirl. There are also community events that take place for local citizens each morning such as The Big Bagel Breakfast and Bagel Bingo. The event also has a beauty pageant for many different ages ranging from babies to adults each year. The winners get to ride in the parade held on the Saturday morning of the event while wearing their crowns and waving to the crowds. Usually, the last 3 nights of the festival include special appearances by many local and national musicians and artists. In 2009, Zac Brown Band was the main headlining band for the festival. Other headlining artists over the past years include Night Ranger, 38 Special, Jason Aldean, The Marshall Tucker Band, Travis Tritt, and Ronnie Milsap. There is also a Christian night where contemporary Christian artists take the stage. Previous acts include Building 429 and Remedy Drive.
Mattoon is served by Mattoon Community Unit School District 2, one of three school districts located in the county of Coles. The district itself is composed of four schools and the "Neil Armstrong Program at Hawthorne School," of which serves to educate the Developmentally Disabled Children
Transportation is still a vital part of local economic life. Much of the major commercial development in recent years has occurred along Interstate 57, which crosses the eastern edge of Mattoon.
Amtrak, the national passenger rail system, provides service to Mattoon. Amtrak Train 59, the southbound City of New Orleans, is scheduled to depart Mattoon at 11:13pm daily with service to Effingham, Centralia, Carbondale, Fulton, Newbern-Dyersburg, Memphis, Greenwood, Yazoo City, Jackson, Hazlehurst, Brookhaven, McComb, Hammond, and New Orleans. Amtrak Train 58, the northbound City of New Orleans, is scheduled to depart Mattoon at 5:23am daily with service to Champaign-Urbana, Kankakee, Homewood, and Chicago. Mattoon is also served by Amtrak Train 390/391, the Saluki, daily in the morning, and Amtrak Train 392/393, the Illini, daily in the afternoon/evening. Both the Saluki and the Illini operate between Chicago and Carbondale.
The Illinois Central Station in the heart of downtown Mattoon has recently been totally renovated. It is handicap accessible with an elevator to the lower level train platform. 2.5 million dollars were obtained for it via the 2005 Transportation Bill. Today the station is unmanned; passengers boarding at the Mattoon station must order their tickets by telephone or online.
According to the 2010 census, the city has a total area of 10.34 square miles (26.8 km2), all land. Nearby rivers have been dammed to form Lake Paradise and Lake Mattoon south of the city.
The terminal moraine of the Wisconsin Glacier is located just to the south of Mattoon. Heading south on I-57 there is an impressive vista from the top of the moraine at the south Mattoon exit. While the moraine is of Wisconsinan age (about 10,000 years before present), the land to the south is of Illinoian age (about 100,000 years before present). The small oil field to the south of the moraine is also attributed to glacial activity: The weight of the glacier to the north created cracks in the underlying bedrock. Oil collected adjacent to these cracks.
Per the 2010 United States Census, Mattoon had 18,555 people. Among non-Hispanics this includes 17,342 White (93.5%), 433 Black (2.3%), 124 Asian (0.7%), 32 Native American, 1 Pacific Islander, 10 from some other race, & 282 from two or more races. The Hispanic or Latino population included 331 people (1.8%).
There were 8,161 households out of which 28.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 38.2% were married couples living together, 8.5% had a female householder with children & no husband present, and 43.7% were non-families. 35.8% of all households were made up of individuals and 28.3% had someone who was 65 years of age or older.
The population was spread out with 77.7% over the age of 18 and 17.5% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38.5 years. The gender ratio was 47.8% male & 52.2% female. Among 8,161 occupied households, 59.0% were owner-occupied & 41.0% were renter-occupied.
As of the census of 2000, there were 18,291 people, 8,105 households, and 4,676 families residing in the city. The population density was 1,964.8 people per square mile (758.6/km²). There were 8,830 housing units at an average density of 948.5 per square mile (366.2/km²). The racial makeup of the city was 96.64% White, 1.42% African American, 0.18% Native American, 0.41% Asian, 0.01% Pacific Islander, 0.41% from other races, and 0.93% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.27% of the population.
There were 8,105 households out of which 26.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 43.6% were married couples living together, 10.5% had a female householder with no husband present, and 42.3% were non-families. 35.6% of all households were made up of individuals and 14.9% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.21 and the average family size was 2.87.
In the city the population was spread out with 22.3% under the age of 18, 11.3% from 18 to 24, 27.5% from 25 to 44, 20.9% from 45 to 64, and 18.1% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females there were 89.9 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 85.8 males.
The median income for a household in the city was $31,800, and the median income for a family was $43,780. Males had a median income of $32,339 versus $21,949 for females. The per capita income for the city was $18,186. About 7.6% of families and 13.4% of the population were below the poverty line, including 15.5% of those under age 18 and 10.0% of those age 65 or over.
Eric Watkins is the mayor of Mattoon.
- Thomas Chrowder Chamberlin, geologist
- Kim Chizevsky, professional female bodybuilder and Ms. Olympia champion
- William Cook, founder, medical products manufacturer The Cook Group
- Patricia Roberts Harris, noted African American female politician; held several federal offices and ambassadorships
- Steven Hatfill, physician, virologist, and bio-weapons expert
- Kyle Hudson, outfielder for the Baltimore Orioles and football player for the Fighting Illini; born in Mattoon
- Joseph Knollenberg, US congressman (1993-2009)
- Will Leitch, writer
- Edward Mills Purcell, physicist, Nobel Laureate, educated in Mattoon's public schools.
- Hope Summers, actress, known for recurring role as Clara Edwards on The Andy Griffith Show
- Bill Tate, former head coach of the Wake Forest college football program, Mattoon High School graduate
- Charlie Whitehouse, pitcher for the Indianapolis Hoosiers, Newark Peppers and Washington Senators; born in Mattoon
- Arland D. Williams Jr., hero of Air Florida Flight 90, born in Mattoon, a local elementary is named for him
- Larry Smith, Anchor/Correspondent, CNN 1993-2009, born in Mattoon
- http://www.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~ilcoletp/history/history_of/mattoon_township.htm The History of Coles County, Illinois (WM. Le Baron, Jr., & Co, Chicago, 1879)
- Coles County, IL official website
- Mattoon History Page Accessed January 12, 2013
- Official Coles County, IL website
- "America's Power Factuality Tour 2009". Retrieved 2009-08-27.
- "2010 Census U.S. Gazetteer Files for Places – Illinois". United States Census. Retrieved 2012-10-13.
- "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2008-01-31.