In Islam, a Maturidi (Arabic: ماتريدي) is one who follows Abu Mansur Al Maturidi's systematic theology, which is close to the Ash'ari theology (Aqidah). The term also denominates the School of Kalaam, or systematic theology, of those who follow Al-Maturidi's theology. In this article, the term "Maturidis" will refer to the adherents of this School. The Maturidis and Ash'aris are the two principal schools of Kalaam that are recognized by Sunni Islam.
Points about which the Maturidis differ from the Ash'aris are, among others, the nature of belief and the place of human reason. The Maturidis state that iman (belief) does not increase nor decrease, but remains static; it is rather taqwa (piety) which increases and decreases. The Ash'aris (as well as the Atharis) say that belief does in fact increase and decrease.
Regarding the increased emphasis placed on the role of human reason, the Maturidis say that the unaided human mind is able to find out that the more major sins such as alcohol or murder are immoral and evil without the aid of revelation. The Ash'aris rather disagree and conclude that the unaided human mind is unable to determine if something is good or evil, lawful or unlawful, moral or immoral, without the direct aid of divine revelation. Another point where Ash'aris and Maturidis differ regarding the role of human reason is divine amnesty for certain non-Muslims in the afterlife. The Ash'ari view of Imam al-Ghazali says that a non-Muslim who was unreached by the message of Islam or was reached by it in a distorted fashion, is not responsible for this in the afterlife. The Maturidi rather state that the existence of God is so evident and rationally discernible, that every human being who has intellect and time to think (not mentally disabled, etc.) and was unreached by the message of Islam and does not believe in God will end up in hellfire, and divine amnesty is only available to those non-Muslims who believed in God and were unreached by the message.
Both the Ash'aris and Maturidis follow occasionalism, a philosophy which refutes the basis for causality, as David Hume did in Europe many centuries later, but also proves the existence and nature of the Islamic belief of the Oneness of God (Tawheed) through formal logic.
This theology is popular where the Hanafi school of law is followed, particularly the lands of the former Ottoman and Mughal empires, viz. in Turkey, Afghanistan, Central Asia, Pakistan, Bangladesh, and India.
See also 
- Early Islamic philosophy
- Islamic philosophy
- Islamization of knowledge
- Islamic schools and branches
- Article "Kalam" in The Encyclopedia of Islam, 1st edition.