A Jasper mine was located in Mauer during the Neolithic. The first official mention of the village dates to 1210. Wine production began during the Middle Ages, and still continues today. The Society of Jesus controlled the village from 1609 to 1773. In Biedermeier times Mauer was a favorite summer relaxation location of the Viennese. The first mayor took office in 1850, and the village was promoted to market town in 1902. After Hitler annexed Austria, Vienna was expanded greatly, and Mauer became a part of Vienna in 1938.
Mauer's main access to public transportation is the 60 tram line, which runs from the metro stop Hietzing to Rodaun. Additionally, several bus lines serve the area. Between approximately 1 am and 5 am, when regular public transportation does not run, the nightbus line N60 connects Maurer Hauptplatz with central Vienna at half-hour intervals. Mauer also shares a S-Bahn stop with neighboring Atzgersdorf at its eastern border, called Atzgersdorf.
- John (Johann) Banner (1910–1973), later American Jewish actor
- Han(n)s Hörbiger (1860, Atzgersdorf - 1931)
- La Jana (1905–1940), Austrian-German dancer and actress
- Gisbert Kapp (1852–1922), Austrian-English electrical engineer
- Karl Mayreder (1856–1935), architect
- Joseph von Scheda (1815, Padova - 1888), German-Austran military man, cartographer (de)
- Friedrich Schreyvogl (1899–1976), writer, publicist, dramaturgist (de)
- Marija Sklad-Sauer (born 1935, Budapest), Hungarian (Polish father)-Vojvodinan, later Austrian female singer, song educator (de)
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