Maureillas-las-Illas

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Maureillas-las-Illas
Maureillas.JPG
Maureillas-las-Illas is located in France
Maureillas-las-Illas
Maureillas-las-Illas
Coordinates: 42°29′29″N 2°48′39″E / 42.4914°N 2.8108°E / 42.4914; 2.8108Coordinates: 42°29′29″N 2°48′39″E / 42.4914°N 2.8108°E / 42.4914; 2.8108
Country France
Region Languedoc-Roussillon
Department Pyrénées-Orientales
Arrondissement Céret
Canton Céret
Intercommunality Vallespir
Government
 • Mayor (2014–2020) André Bordaneil
Area
 • Land1 42.10 km2 (16.25 sq mi)
Population (2011)
 • Population2 2,672
 • Population2 density 63/km2 (160/sq mi)
INSEE/Postal code 66106 / 66480
Elevation 78–1,320 m (256–4,331 ft)
(avg. 154 m or 505 ft)

1 French Land Register data, which excludes lakes, ponds, glaciers > 1 km² (0.386 sq mi or 247 acres) and river estuaries.

2 Population without double counting: residents of multiple communes (e.g., students and military personnel) only counted once.

Maureillas-las-Illas (Catalan: Morellàs i les Illes) is a rural commune in the Vallespir, Pyrénées-Orientales in the south of France. The commune belongs to the Communauté de communes of Vallespir uniting Maureillas-las-Illas with nine other communes.

Geography[edit]

Localisation[edit]

Maureillas-las-Illas lies east of Céret and north of the spanish border.

Maureillas-las-Illas and its surrounding communes

Surrounding communes[edit]

Land relief[edit]

Hydrography[edit]

Toponymy[edit]

Names

The first mention of the village under the name Maurelianum was in 1011. The name is then written as Maurelanis in the 12th century, Maurellans and Maurellas in the 15th century and finally Maurallas or Maurellas since the 17th century.[1]

Maurellas is the Catalan spelling, Maureillas is its French transcription.[1]

Etymology

Maureillas is probably issued from the name of a Roman landowner, Maurelius, followed by the -anos suffix (plural of -anum). It has nothing to do with the Moors.[1]

History of Maureillas[edit]

Until recently, the dolmen of Siuréda[2] was still hidden by a thick vegetation but its discovery shows that the prehistoric man of Chalcolithic, roughly 3500 to 1700 BC, lived in the hills above Maureillas.

The history of Maureillas as a settlement goes back to antiquity. Founded by the Romans as a small settlement, the village remained small until the Charlemagne conquest Saracens in 811.

In the Middle Ages the village grew around the church of Saint Etienne, built in the 10th century. In 1400, residents built a new chapel outside the walls of the village. It was dedicated to Saint John of Mauranells.

Maureillas was a place of residence for the powerful Oms family, but there are no remains left of the possessions of this family. However, the village of Les Cluses belonged to them from the 7th century.

The commune of Saint-Martin de Fenollar was merged with Maureillas in 1823. In 1972, the villages of Las Illas and Riunoguès were also incorporated into the commune.[3]

Las Illas

Las Illas is in the deep confines of a valley leading to the Col of Panissars, on the border with Spain, and the Trophy of Pompey. This is the second most southerly town in mainland France after Lamanère. In the 9th century, the passage was so important that the clergy of Arles-sur-Tech built a church dedicated to Notre Dame du Remède there. In the 11th century, it was bequeathed to the monastery of Ripoll which built a priory.

Las-Illas was notorious in the 19th century for the groups of outlaws who took refuge in the surrounding caves, the famous Trabucayres.

The Trabucayres[edit]

The Trabucayres are famous mountain outlaws, bands of individuals who, on behalf of social banditry, political or foul, robbed, kidnapped, and ransomed coaches, landowners and farmers from 1837 to 1846. The name comes from the Catalan word "trabuc", a short-barreled shotgun used at that time.

Despite their cruelty, the Trabucayres were treated as avengers of social injustice. This feeling was strengthened because their crimes were addressed to the "bourgeoisie". In addition, Trabucayres preceded their acts with religious rituals to absolve them from all sin, thus reinforcing their popularity among common people. The legend is still alive and a source of pride among border populations.[4]

Government and politics[edit]

Mayors[edit]

Mayor Term start Term end
Jean-Daniel Amiot 1989 2008
André Bordaneil 2008

Population[edit]

Evolution of the Population (See database)
1793 1800 1806 1821 1831 1841 1846 1851 1856
360 427 594 750 903 943 1,019 1,047 1,115
1861 1866 1872 1876 1881 1886 1891 1896 1901
1,199 1,239 1,407 1,487 1,502 1,348 1,375 1,386 1,333
1906 1911 1921 1926 1931 1936 1946 1954 1962
1,308 1,324 1,239 1,177 1,216 1,120 1,081 1,068 1,093
1968 1975 1982 1990 1999 2006 2011 - -
1,108 1,370 1,706 2,037 2,281 2,546 2,672 - -

Sources : Ldh/EHESS/Cassini until 1962, INSEE database from 1968 (population without double counting and municipal population from 2006) · [5]


Histogram on demographic change

   
 
 
 
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1800
 
1820
 
1840
 
1860
 
1880
 
1900
 
1920
 
1940
 
1960
 
1980
 
2000
 
Sources - database Cassini of EHESS and Insee See database


Economy[edit]

Cultivation of cork oak[edit]

Until the 1950s, still half of the population of Maureillas worked in the cork oak industry, now almost extinct. The Museum of Cork Oak of Maureillas has been created to tell the history of this past activity.

Sites of interest[edit]

  • Saint-Martin-de-Fenollar chapel

Notable people[edit]

Gallery[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

External links[edit]