Upon gaining independence from France in 1960, Mauritania applied for membership of the United Nations, but saw its application fail due to the Soviet Union using its veto in the Security Council. Deputy Minister of Foreign Affairs Valerian Zorin accused the United States and its allies of sabotaging the admission of Mongolia into the General Assembly for fourteen years, and based upon Soviet friendship with the Arab states, the admission of Mauritania was halted. In return for a favourable vote on Mongolia's admission to the United Nations, the Soviet Union dropped its objections to Mauritanian entry into the international body, and Mauritania joined the United Nations on 27 October 1961.
On 20 February 1973, the two countries signed an agreement on co-operation in the field of fisheries in Moscow, and a further treaty was signed in Nouakchott on 31 January 1981. The waters off the 754 kilometres (469 mi) long coast of Mauritania are among the richest fishing grounds in the world, and in 1979 Mauritania initiated its New Fisheries Policy and established a 200-nautical-mile Exclusive Economic Zone. The New Fisheries Policy had three objectives: the formation of Mauritanian-controlled joint ventures, the creation of a national fishing fleet, and the establishment of a Mauritanian-controlled fish processing industry at Nouadhibou. The first of these objectives led to the replacement of licensing and royalties agreements with foreign operators by newly formed Mauritanian-controlled joint ventures. In principle, such joint ventures implied a 43 percent government share, an 8 percent local private sector share, and a 49 percent foreign share. In practice, Mauritanian control of these ventures was nominal. The foreign partner provided all the capital and equipment and controlled all operations. Government and private shares were to be purchased out of venture profits over periods as long as twenty years. By 1986 the most important of the joint venture agreements that had been established was the Mauritanian-Soviet Maritime Resources Company (Mauritanienne-Soviétique des Ressources Maritimes—MAUSSOV). Between 1985 and 1987, MAUSSOV accounted for about 55 percent of total export tonnage and 20 to 30 percent of the total value of fish exports.
Russian Federation relations
Russia has an embassy in Nouakchott, and Mauritania has an embassy in Moscow. The current Ambassador of Russia to Mauritania is Vladimir Baybakov, who was appointed by Russian President Dmitry Medvedev on 17 August 2008. The current Ambassador of Mauritania to Russia is Boulah Ould Mogueye, who presented his credentials to Russian President Vladimir Putin on 11 December 2007.
The 2005 coup d'état which saw the ouster of Mauritanian President Maaouya Ould Sid'Ahmed Taya whilst he was outside of the country, and his replacement by the Military Council for Justice and Democracy was condemned by Russia. Russia welcomed the reforms by the military of Mauritania, and the presidential elections in 2007 which saw the installation of Sidi Ould Cheikh Abdallahi. Following the coup d'état on 6 August 2008 in Mauritania, the Russian Ministry of Foreign Affairs condemned the overthrow of Mauritanian President Sidi Ould Cheikh Abdallahi, and took an active part in negotiations conducted in Dakar by the International Contact Group for Mauritania. It welcomed the 4 June 2009 signing of a framework agreement between opposing Mauritanian sides, and the holding of the presidential election on 18 July 2009.
- "Mauritania fails to get U.N. seat : Soviet Uses Veto in "Revenge" Move". New York City: The Age. 5 December 1960. Retrieved 2009-07-20.
- Taya, Colonel Maaouiya Ould Sid Ahmed Ould (June 1988). "Mauritania : Foreign Policy". Library of Congress. Retrieved 2009-07-20.
- Brewer, Sam Pope (26 October 1961). "OUTER MONGOLIA AND MAURITANIA WIN U.N. ENTRY; Council Approves Asian Red State 9-0 -- U.S. Abstains -- Taiwan Forgoes Veto OUTER MONGOLIA WINS U.N. ENTRY". United Nations, New York City: The New York Times. Retrieved 2009-07-20.
- Ginsburgs, George; Slusser, Robert M. (1981). A calendar of Soviet treaties, 1958-1973. BRILL. p. 846. ISBN 90-286-0609-2. Retrieved 2009-07-18.
- "UNION OF SOVIET SOCIALIST REPUBLICS and MAURITANIA Trade Agreement (with annexes). Signed at Moscow, on 17 October 1966" (PDF). Moscow: United Nations. 17 October 1966. Retrieved 2009-07-20.
- "Agreement between the Government of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics and the Government of the Islamic Republic of Mauritania on co-operation in the field of marine fisheries" (PDF). Government of the Soviet Union and Government of Mauritania. 31 January 1981. Retrieved 2009-07-20.[dead link]
- Coats, Peter D. (June 1988). "Mauritania : Fishing". Library of Congress. Retrieved 2009-07-20.
- Посольство в Нуакшоте (in Russian). Russian Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Retrieved 2009-07-20.
- Список руководителей дипломатических и консульских представительств зарубежных государств в России (in Russian). Russian Ministry of Foreign Affairs. 7 July 2009. Retrieved 2009-07-20.
- "УКАЗ Президента РФ от 15.08.2008 N 1227" (in Russian). Presidential Press and Information Office. Retrieved 2008-10-16.
- "Vladimir Putin accepted the credentials of the new ambassadors of several foreign countries.". The Kremlin, Moscow: Presidential Press and Information Office. 11 December 2007. Retrieved 2008-10-07.
- Appakova, Maria (7 August 2008). "Mauritania: coups as a new road to democracy". Moscow: RIA Novosti. Retrieved 2009-07-20.
- "Russia condemns Mauritania coup". Moscow: RIA Novosti. 7 August 2008. Retrieved 2009-07-20.
- О подписании рамочного соглашения между основными политическими силами Мавритании (in Russian). Russian Ministry of Foreign Affairs. 5 June 2009. Retrieved 2009-07-20.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Mauritania–Russia relations.|
- (Russian) Documents on the Mauritania–Russia relationship from the Russian Ministry of Foreign Affairs