Max von Laue

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Max von Laue
Bundesarchiv Bild 183-U0205-502, Max von Laue.jpg
Laue in 1929
Born Max Theodor Felix Laue
(1879-10-09)9 October 1879
Pfaffendorf, Kingdom of Prussia, German Empire
Died 24 April 1960(1960-04-24) (aged 80)
West Berlin
Nationality German
Fields Physics
Institutions University of Zürich
University of Frankfurt
University of Berlin
Max Planck Institute
Alma mater University of Strasbourg
University of Göttingen
University of Munich
University of Berlin
Doctoral advisor Max Planck
Doctoral students Leó Szilárd
Friedrich Beck
Max Kohler
Erna Weber
Other notable students Fritz London
Known for Diffraction of X-rays
Notable awards Nobel Prize for Physics (1914)
Max Planck Medal (1932)

Max Theodor Felix von Laue (9 October 1879 – 24 April 1960) was a German physicist who won the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1914 for his discovery of the diffraction of X-rays by crystals. In addition to his scientific endeavors with contributions in optics, crystallography, quantum theory, superconductivity, and the theory of relativity, he had a number of administrative positions which advanced and guided German scientific research and development during four decades. A strong objector to National Socialism, he was instrumental in re-establishing and organizing German science after World War II.

Biography[edit]

Early years[edit]

Laue was born in Pfaffendorf, now part of Koblenz, to Julius Laue and Minna Zerrenner. In 1898, after passing his Abitur in Strassburg, he entered his compulsory year of military service, after which he began his studies in mathematics, physics, and chemistry, in 1899, at the University of Strassburg, the University of Göttingen, and the Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich (LMU). At Göttingen, he was greatly influenced by the physicists Woldemar Voigt and Max Abraham and the mathematician David Hilbert. After only one semester at Munich, he went to the Friedrich-Wilhelms-University of Berlin in 1902. There, he studied under Max Planck, who gave birth to the quantum theory revolution on 14 December 1900, when he delivered his famous paper before the Deutsche Physikalische Gesellschaft.[1][2] At Berlin, Laue attended lectures by Otto Lummer on heat radiation and interference spectroscopy, the influence of which can be seen in Laue’s dissertation on interference phenomena in plane-parallel plates, for which he received his doctorate in 1903.[3] Thereafter, Laue spent 1903 to 1905 at Göttingen. Laue completed his Habilitation[4] in 1906 under Arnold Sommerfeld at LMU.[5][6][7][8][9]

Career[edit]

In 1906, Laue became a Privatdozent in Berlin and an assistant to Planck. He also met Albert Einstein for the first time; they became friends and Laue went on to contribute to the acceptance and development of Einstein’s theory of relativity. Laue continued as assistant to Planck until 1909. In Berlin, he worked on the application of entropy to radiation fields and on the thermodynamic significance of the coherence of light waves.[7][9]

From 1909 to 1912, Laue was a Privatdozent at the Institute for Theoretical Physics, under Arnold Sommerfeld, at LMU. During the 1911 Christmas recess and in January 1912, Paul Peter Ewald was finishing the writing of his doctoral thesis under Sommerfeld. It was on a walk through the Englischer Garten in Munich in January, that Ewald told Laue about his thesis topic. The wavelengths of concern to Ewald were in the visible region of the spectrum and hence much larger than the spacing between the resonators in Ewald’s crystal model. Laue seemed distracted and wanted to know what would be the effect if much smaller wavelengths were considered. In June, Sommerfeld reported to the Physikalische Gesellschaft of Göttingen on the successful diffraction of x-rays by Laue, Paul Knipping and Walter Friedrich at LMU, for which Laue would be awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics, in 1914. While at Munich, he wrote the first volume of his book on relativity during the period 1910 to 1911.[8][9][10][11]

In 1912, Laue was called to the University of Zurich as an extraordinarius professor of physics. In 1913, his father was raised to the ranks of hereditary nobility; Laue then became 'Max von Laue'.[9]

Max von Laue c. 1914

From 1914 to 1919, Laue was at the University of Frankfurt as ordinarius professor of theoretical physics. From 1916, he was engaged in vacuum tube development, at the University of Würzburg, for use in military telephony and wireless communications.[6][7][8][9]

In 1919, Laue was called to the University of Berlin as ordinarius professor of theoretical physics, a position he held until 1943, when he was declared emeritus, with his consent and one year before the mandatory retirement age. At the university in 1919, other notables were Walther Nernst, Fritz Haber, and James Franck. Laue, as one of the organizers of the weekly Berlin Physics Colloquium, typically sat in the front row with Nernst and Einstein, who would come over from the Kaiser-Wilhelm-Institut für Physik in Berlin-Dahlem, where he was the director. Among Laue’s notable students at the university were Leó Szilárd, Fritz London, Max Kohler, and Erna Weber. In 1921, he published the second volume of his book on relativity.[6][8][12][13]

As a consultant to the Physikalisch-Technische Reichsanstalt (PTR), Laue met Walther Meissner who was working there on superconductivity. Meissner had discovered that a weak magnetic field decays rapidly to zero in the interior of a superconductor, which is known as the Meissner effect. Laue showed in 1932 that the threshold of the applied magnetic field which destroys superconductivity varies with the shape of the body. Laue published a total of 12 papers and a book on superconductivity. One of the papers was co-authored with Fritz London and his brother Heinz.[7][14][15][16] Meissner published a biography on Laue in 1960.[17]

The Kaiser-Wilhelm Gesellschaft zur Förderung der Wissenschaften (Today: Max-Planck Gesellschaft zur Förderung der Wissenschaften) was founded in 1911. Its purpose was to promote the sciences by founding and maintaining research institutes. One such institute was the Kaiser-Wilhelm Institut für Physik (KWIP) founded in Berlin-Dahlem in 1914, with Einstein as director. Laue was a trustee of the institute from 1917, and in 1922 he was appointed deputy director, whereupon Laue took over the administrative duties from Einstein. Einstein was traveling abroad when Adolf Hitler became Chancellor in January 1933, and Einstein did not return to Germany. Laue then became acting director of the KWIP, a position he held until 1946 or 1948, except for the period 1935 to 1939, when Peter Debye was director. In 1943, to avoid casualties to the personnel, the KWIP moved to Hechingen. It was at Hechingen that Laue wrote his book on the history of physics Geschichte der Physik, which was eventually translated into seven other languages.[7][18][19]

Opposition to Nazism[edit]

Laue opposed National Socialism in general and their Deutsche Physik in particular – the former persecuted the Jews, in general, and the latter, among other things, put down Einstein’s theory of relativity as Jewish physics. Laue and his close friend Otto Hahn secretly helped scientific colleagues persecuted by National Socialist policies to emigrate from Germany. Laue also openly opposed the policies. An address on 18 September 1933 at the opening of the physics convention in Würzburg, opposition to Johannes Stark, an obituary note on Fritz Haber in 1934, and attendance at a commemoration for Haber are examples which clearly illustrate Laue’s courageous, open opposition:

  • Laue, as chairman of the Deutsche Physikalische Gesellschaft, gave the opening address at the 1933 physics convention. In it, he compared the persecution of Galileo and the oppression of his scientific views on the Solar theory of Copernicus to the then conflict and persecution over the theory of relativity by the proponents of Deutsche Physik, against the work of Einstein, labeled “Jewish physics.”
  • Johannes Stark, who had received the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1919, wished to become the Führer of German physics and was a proponent of Deutsche Physik. Against the unanimous advice of those consulted, Stark was appointed President of the PTR in May 1933. However, Laue successfully blocked Stark’s regular membership in the Prussian Academy of Sciences.
  • Haber received the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1918. In spite of this and his many other contributions to Germany, he was forced to emigrate from Germany as a result of the Law for the Restoration of the Professional Civil Service, which removed Jews from their jobs. Laue’s obituary note[20] praising Haber and comparing his forced emigration to the expulsion of Themistocles from Athens was a direct affront to the policies of National Socialism.
  • In connection with Haber, Max Planck, Otto Hahn and Laue organized a commemoration event held in Berlin-Dahlem on 29 January 1935, the first anniversary of Haber’s death – attendance at the event by professors in the civil service had been expressly forbidden by the government. While many scientific and technical personnel were represented at the memorial by their wives, Laue and Wolfgang Heubner were the only two professors to attend.[21][22] This was yet another blatant demonstration of Laue’s opposition to National Socialism. The date of the first anniversary of Haber’s death was also one day before the second anniversary of National Socialism seizing power in Germany, thus further increasing the affront given by holding the event.

The speech and the obituary note earned Laue government reprimands. Furthermore, in response to Laue blocking Stark’s regular membership in the Prussian Academy of Sciences, Stark, in December 1933, had Laue sacked from his position as advisor to the PTR, which Laue had held since 1925. Chapters 4 and 5, in Welker’s Nazi Science: Myth, Truth, and the Atomic Bomb, present a more detailed account of the struggle by Laue and Planck against the Nazi takeover of the Prussian Academy of Sciences.[14][23][24][25][26][27]

Hidden Nobel prize[edit]

When Nazi Germany invaded Denmark in World War II, the Hungarian chemist George de Hevesy dissolved the gold Nobel Prizes of von Laue and James Franck in aqua regia to prevent the Nazis from discovering them. At the time, it was illegal to take gold out of the country, and had it been discovered that Laue had done so, he could have faced prosecution in Germany. Hevesy placed the resulting solution on a shelf in his laboratory at the Niels Bohr Institute. After the war, he returned to find the solution undisturbed and precipitated the gold out of the acid. The Nobel Society then re-cast the Nobel Prizes using the original gold.[28]

Post-war[edit]

On 23 April 1945, French troops entered Hechingen, followed the next day by a contingent of Operation Alsos – an operation to investigate the German nuclear energy effort, seize equipment, and prevent German scientists from being captured by the Soviets. The scientific advisor to the Operation was the Dutch-American physicist Samuel Goudsmit, who, adorned with a steel helmet, appeared at Laue’s home. Laue was taken into custody and taken to Huntingdon, England, and interned at Farm Hall, with other scientists thought to be involved in nuclear research and development.[14]

While incarcerated, Laue was a reminder to the other detainees that one could survive the Nazi reign without having “compromised”; this alienated him from others being detained.[29] During his incarceration, Laue wrote a paper on the absorption of x-rays under the interference conditions, and it was later published in Acta Crystallographica.[14] On 2 October 1945, Laue, Otto Hahn, and Werner Heisenberg, were taken to meet with Henry Hallett Dale, president of the Royal Society, and other members of the Society. There, Laue was invited to attend 9 November 1945 Royal Society meeting in memory of the German physicist Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen, who discovered X-rays; permission was, however, not forthcoming from the military authorities detaining von Laue.[14]

Laue was returned to Germany early in 1946. He went back to being acting director of the KWIP, which had been moved to Göttingen. It was also in 1946 that the Kaiser-Wilhelm Gesellschaft was renamed the Max-Planck Gesellschaft, and, likewise, the Kaiser-Wilhelm Institut für Physik became the Max-Planck Institut für Physik. Laue also became an adjunct professor at the University of Göttingen. In addition to his administrative and teaching responsibilities, Laue wrote his book on superconductivity, Theorie der Supraleitung, and revised his books on electron diffraction, Materiewellen und ihre Interferenzen, and the first volume of his two-volume book on relativity.[8][14][30]

In July 1946, Laue went back to England, only four months after having been interned there, to attend an international conference on crystallography. This was a distinct honor, as he was the only German invited to attend. He was extended many courtesies by the British officer who escorted him there and back, and a well-known English crystallographer as his host; Laue was even allowed to wander around London on his own free will.[14]

After the war, there was much to be done in re-establishing and organizing German scientific endeavors. Laue participated in some key roles. In 1946, he initiated the founding of the Deutsche Physikalische Gesellschaft in only the British Occupation Zone, as the Allied Control Council would not initially allow organizations across occupation zone boundaries. During the war, the PTR had been dispersed; von Laue, from 1946 to 1948, worked on its re-unification across three zones and its location at new facilities in Braunschweig. Additionally, it took on a new name as the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, but administration was not taken over by Germany until after the formation of West Germany on 23 May 1949. Circa 1948, the President of the American Physical Society asked Laue to report on the status of physics in Germany; his report was published in 1949 in the American Journal of Physics.[31] In 1950, Laue participated in the creation of the Verband Deutscher Physikalischer Gesellschaften, formerly affiliated under the Nordwestdeutsche Physikalische Gesellschaft.[8][14][30]

In April 1951, Laue became director of the Max-Planck Institut für physikalische Chemie und Elektrochemie, a position he held until 1959. In 1953, at the request of Laue, the Institute was renamed the Fritz Haber Institut für physikalische Chemie und Elektrochemie der Max-Planck Gesellschaft.[14][32]

Personal life[edit]

It was in 1913 that Laue’s father, Julius Laue, a civil servant in the military administration, was raised into the ranks of hereditary nobility. Thus Max Laue became Max von Laue.[9] Laue married Magdalene Degen, while he was a Privatdozent at LMU. They had two children.[9]

Among Laue’s chief recreational activities were mountaineering, motoring in his automobile, motor-biking, sailing, and skiing. While not a mountain climber, he did enjoy hiking on the Alpine glaciers with his friends.[7]

On 8 April 1960, while driving to his laboratory, Laue’s car was struck in Berlin by a motor cyclist, who had received his license only two days earlier. The cyclist was killed and Laue’s car was overturned. He died from his injuries sixteen days later on 24 April.[7] Being a profound believer, he asked that his epitaph read that he died trusting firmly in God's mercy.[33][34][35]

Organizations[edit]

Honours and awards[edit]

See also[edit]

Selected literature[edit]

Deutsche Post (der DDR) Briefmarke (postage stamp), 1979
  • Max von Laue Die Relativitätstheorie. Band 1: Die spezielle Relativitätstheorie (Friedr. Vieweg & Sohn, Braunschweig, 1911, and 1919)
  • Max von Laue Das Relativitätstheorie. Erster Band. Das Relativitätsprinzip der Lorentz-transformation. Vierte vermehrte Auflage. (Friedr. Vieweg & Sohn, 1921)
  • Max von Laue Die Relativitätstheorie. Zweiter Band : Die Allgemeine Relativitätstheorie Und Einsteins Lehre Von Der Schwerkraft (Friedr. Vieweg & Sohn, Braunschweig, 1921 and 1923)
  • Max von Laue Korpuskular- und Wellentheorie (Leipzig, 1933)
  • Max von Laue Die Interferenzen von Röntgen- und Elektronenstrahlen. Fünf Vorträge. (Springer, 1935)
  • Max von Laue Eine Ausgestaltung der Londonschen Theorie der Supraleitung (Barth, 1942)
  • Max von Laue Materiewellen und ihre Interferenzen (Akadem. Verl.-Ges. Becker & Erler, 1944) (Geest und Portig, 1948)
  • Max von Laue Theorie der Supraleitung (Springer, 1947 and 1949)
    • Max von Laue, translated by Lothar Meyer and William Band Theory of Superconductivity (N.Y., 1952)
  • Max von Laue Geschichte der Physik (Univ.-Verl., 1946 and 1947), (Athenäum-Verl., 1950) and (Ullstein Taschenbücher-Verl., 1959, 1966 and 1982) [This book was translated into seven other languages.[7]]
    • Max von Laue, translated by Ralph E. Oesper History of Physics (Academic Press, 1950)
    • Max von Laue Historie De La Physique (Lamarre, 1953)
    • Max von Laue Geschiedenis der natuurkunde (‘s Gravenhage, Stols, 1950 and 1954)
  • Max Planck and Max von Laue Wissenschaftliche Selbstbiographie (Barth, 1948)
  • Max von Laue Röntgenstrahlinterferenzen (Akadem. Verl.-Ges., 1948)
  • Max von Laue Die Relativitätstheorie. Bd. 2. Die allgemeine Relativitätstheorie (Vieweg, 1953)
  • Max Planck and Max von Laue Vorlesungen über Thermodynamik (de Gruyter (Gebundene, 1954)
  • Walter Friedrich, Paul Knipping, and Max von Laue Interferenzerscheinungen bei Röntgenstrahlen (J. A. Barth, 1955)
  • Max von Laue Die Relativitätstheorie. Bd. 1. Die spezielle Relativitätstheorie (Vieweg, 1955)
  • Max von Laue Die Relativitätstheorie. Bd. 2. Die allgemeine Relativitätstheorie (Vieweg, 1956)
  • Max von Laue Max von Laue
  • Max von Laue Röntgenwellenfelder in Kristallen (Akademie-Verl., 1959)
  • Max von Laue Von Laue-Festschrift. 1 (Akadem. Verl.-Ges., 1959)
  • Max von Laue Von Laue-Festschrift. 2 (Akadem. Verl.-Ges., 1960)
  • Max von Laue and Ernst Heinz Wagner Röntgenstrahl-Interferenzen (Akadem. Verl.-Ges., 1960)
  • Max von Laue and Friedrich Beck Die Relativitätstheorie. Bd. 1. Die spezielle Relativitätstheorie (Vieweg, 1961 and 1965)
  • Max von Laue Gesammelte Schriften und Vorträge. Bd. 1 (Vieweg, 1961)
  • Max von Laue Gesammelte Schriften und Vorträge. Bd. 2 (Vieweg, 1961)
  • Max von Laue Gesammelte Schriften und Vorträge. Bd. 3 (Vieweg, 1961)
  • Max von Laue Aufsätze und Vorträge (Vieweg, 1961 and 1962)
  • Max von Laue and Friedrich Beck Die Relativitätstheorie. Bd. 2. Die allgemeine Relativitätstheorie (Vieweg, 1965)
  • Max von Laue Die Relativitätstheorie II. Die allgemeine Relativitätstheorie (Vieweg Friedr. und Sohn Ver, 1982)

Publications[edit]

  • Laue, Max von (1913). "Kritische Bemerkungen zu den Deutungen der Photogramme von Friedrich und Knipping". Physikalische Zeitschrift 14 (10): 421–423.  Received 1 April 1913, published in issue No. 10 of 15 May 1913. As cited in Mehra, Volume 5, Part 2, 2001, p. 922.
  • Laue, Max von (1913). "Zur Optik der Raumgitter". Physikalische Zeitschrift 14 (21): 1040–1041.  Received 1 October 1913, published in issue No. 21 of 1 November 1913. As cited in Mehra, Volume 5, Part 2, 2001, p. 922.
  • Laue, Max von (1913). "Röntgenstrahlinterferenzen". Physikalische Zeitschrift 14 (22/23): 1075–1079.  Presented on 24 September 1913 at the 85th Naturforscherversammlung, Vienna, published in issue No. 22/23 of 15 November 1913. As cited in Mehra, Volume 5, Part 2, 2001, p. 922.
  • Laue, Max von (1913). "Zur Optik der Raumgitter". Physikalische Zeitschrift 14 (25): 1286–1287.  Received 21 November 1913, published in issue No. 25 of 15 December 1913. As cited in Mehra, Volume 5, Part 2, 2001, p. 922.

References[edit]

  1. ^ van der Waerden, B. L. (ed.) (1968) Sources of Quantum Mechanics. Dover. ISBN 048645892X. p. 1.
  2. ^ Planck, Max (1900). "Zur Theorie des Gesetzes der Energieverteilung im Normalspektrum". Verhandlungen der Deutschen Physikalische Gesellschaft 2: 237–245.  Cited in Hans Kango, editor, and translated by D. ter Haar and Stephen G. Bush Planck’s Original Papers in Quantum Physics: German and English Edition (Taylor and Francis, 1972) p. 60.
  3. ^ Max von Laue – Mathematics Genealogy Project. Max von Laue, Ph.D., Universität Berlin, 1903, Dissertation title: Über die Interferenzerscheinungen an planparallelen Platten.
  4. ^ Habilitation title: "Über die Entropie von interferierenden Strahlenbündeln"
  5. ^ Walker, p. 73
  6. ^ a b c Max von Laue – American Philosophical Society Author Catalog
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Max von Laue – Nobel Prize Biography
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Hentschel, 1996, Appendix F, see entry for Max von Laue.
  9. ^ a b c d e f g h i Max von Laue Biography – Deutsches Historisches Museum Berlin
  10. ^ Ewald, P. P. (ed.) 50 Years of X-Ray Diffraction (Reprinted in pdf format for the IUCr XVIII Congress, Glasgow, Scotland, International Union of Crystallography). Ch. 4, pp. 37–42.
  11. ^ Jungnickel, Christa; Russell McCormmach (1990). Intellectual Mastery of Nature. Theoretical Physics from Ohm to Einstein, Volume 2: The Now Mighty Theoretical Physics, 1870 to 1925. University of Chicago Press. pp. 284–285. ISBN 0-226-41585-6. 
  12. ^ Max von Laue – Mathematics Genealogy Project
  13. ^ Lanouette, William; Bela Silard (1992). Genius in the Shadows: A Biography of Leó Szilárd the Man Behind the Bomb. New York: Scribners. pp. 56–58. ISBN 0-684-19011-7. 
  14. ^ a b c d e f g h i Max von Laue. "My Development as a Physicist" (PDF). pp. 298–307. Retrieved 30 December 2008. 
  15. ^ Max von Laue Biography – University of Frankfurt on Main
  16. ^ Fritz London PublicationsDuke University
  17. ^ Meissner, Walter (1960). Max von Laue als Wissenschaftler und Mensch. Verl. d. Bayer. Akademie d. Wissenschaften.  and C. H. Beck Verlag (1986)
  18. ^ Hentschel, 1966, Appendix F, see entries for von Laue and Debye.
  19. ^ Hentschel, 1966, Appendix A, see entries for KWG and KWIP.
  20. ^ Laue, M. (1934). "Fritz Haber". Die Naturwissenschaften 22 (7): 97. doi:10.1007/BF01495380.  edit
  21. ^ Hentschel, 1996, Document #29, pp. 76–78: See Footnote #3.
  22. ^ Hentschel, 1996, Document #120, pp. 400–402: A letter from Lise Meitner to Otto Hahn.
  23. ^ Walker, pp. 65–122
  24. ^ Hentschel, 1966, Appendix F, see entries for Max von Laue, Johannes Stark, and Fritz Haber.
  25. ^ Hentschel, 1966, Appendix A, see entry for the DFG.
  26. ^ Heilbron, J. L. (2000). The dilemmas of an upright man: Max Planck and the Fortunes of German Science. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. pp. 159–162, 167–168. ISBN 0-674-00439-6. 
  27. ^ Beyerchen, Alan D. (1977). Scientists under Hitler: politics and the physics community in the Third Reich. New Haven, Conn: Yale University Press. pp. 64–69, 208–209. ISBN 0-300-01830-4. 
  28. ^ Adventures in radioisotope research – the collected papers of George Hevesy, 1962, Pergamon Press, New York
  29. ^ Bernstein, Jeremy (2001). Hitler's uranium club: the secret recordings at Farm Hall. New York: Copernicus. pp. 333–334. ISBN 0-387-95089-3. 
  30. ^ a b Hentschel, 1996, Appendix A, see entries on KWG and KWIP.
  31. ^ Laue, Max von (1949). "A Report on the State of Physics in Germany". American Journal of Physics 17 (3): 137–141. Bibcode:1949AmJPh..17..137V. doi:10.1119/1.1989526. 
  32. ^ Hentschel, 1996, Appendix A, see entry on KWIPC.
  33. ^ Max von Laue: Biographical The Nobel Prize in Physics 1914. Nobel Foundation.
  34. ^ Ewald, P. P. (1960). "Max von Laue. 1879-1960". Biographical Memoirs of Fellows of the Royal Society 6: 134. doi:10.1098/rsbm.1960.0028.  edit
  35. ^ Magill, Frank Northen (1989) The Nobel Prize Winners, Salem Press. ISBN 0893565598. p. 198
  36. ^ Hentschel, 1966, Appendix A, see entry for NG.
  37. ^ "Membership list". Austrian Academy of Sciences. Retrieved 2 November 2011. 
  38. ^ "Max von Laue". Notable Names Database. Retrieved 2 November 2011. 

Bibliography[edit]

  • Hentschel, Klaus, editor; and Ann M. Hentschel; editorial assistant and Translator (1996). Physics and National Socialism: An Anthology of Primary Sources. Basel: Birkhäuser Verlag. ISBN 0-8176-5312-0. 
  • Walker, Mark H. (1995). Nazi science: myth, truth, and the German atomic bomb. New York: Plenum Press. ISBN 0-306-44941-2. 

Further reading[edit]

  • Greenspan, Nancy Thorndike (2005). The End of the Certain World: The Life and Science of Max Born. New York: Basic Books. ISBN 0-7382-0693-8. 
  • Herneck, Friedrich (1979). Max von Laue. Leipzig: Teubner. 
  • Jammer, Max (1966). The Conceptual Development of Quantum Mechanics. New York: McGraw–Hill. 
  • Medawar, Jean: Pyke, David (2012). Hitler's Gift: The True Story of the Scientists Expelled by the Nazi Regime (Paperback). New York: Arcade Publishing. ISBN 978-1-61145-709-4. 
  • Mehra, Jagdish; Helmut Rechenberg (2001). The Historical Development of Quantum Theory. Volume 1 Part 1 The Quantum Theory of Planck, Einstein, Bohr and Sommerfeld 1900–1925: Its Foundation and the Rise of Its Difficulties. Springer. ISBN 0-387-95174-1. 
  • Mehra, Jagdish; Helmut Rechenberg (2001). The Historical Development of Quantum Theory. Volume 1 Part 2 The Quantum Theory of Planck, Einstein, Bohr and Sommerfeld 1900–1925: Its Foundation and the Rise of Its Difficulties. Springer. ISBN 0-387-95175-X. 
  • Mehra, Jagdish; Helmut Rechenberg (2001). The Historical Development of Quantum Theory. Volume 5 Erwin Schrödinger and the Rise of Wave Mechanics. Part 1 Schrödinger in Vienna and Zurich 1887–1925. Springer. ISBN 0-387-95179-2. 
  • Mehra, Jagdish; Helmut Rechenberg (2001). The Historical Development of Quantum Theory. Volume 5 Erwin Schrödinger and the Rise of Wave Mechanics. Part 2 Schrödinger in Vienna and Zurich 1887–1925. Springer. ISBN 0-387-95180-6. 
  • Rosenthal-Schneider, Ilse (1988). Begegnungen mit Einstein, von Laue und Planck. Realität und wissenschaftliche Wahrheit. Braunschweig: Vieweg. ISBN 3-528-08970-9. 
  • Rosenthal-Schneider, Ilse (1980). Reality and Scientific Truth: Discussions with Einstein, von Laue, and Planck. Wayne State University. ISBN 0-8143-1650-6. 
  • Walker, Mark H. (1993). German National Socialism and the Quest for Nuclear Power, 1939–1949. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-43804-7. 
  • Zeitz, Katharina (2006). Max von Laue (1879–1960) Seine Bedeutung für den Wiederaufbau der deutschen Wissenschaft nach dem Zweiten Weltkrieg. Steiner Franz Verlag. ISBN 3-515-08814-8. 

External links[edit]