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|Side view. Maxilla visible at bottom left, in green.|
|Front view. Maxilla visible at center, in yellow.|
|Gray's||subject #38 157|
|Precursor||1st branchial arch|
The maxillae (plural: maxillae //) consist of upper pallate of mouth or maxilla (//); or two halves that are fused at the intermaxillary suture to form the upper jaw. This is similar to the mandible (lower jaw), which is also a fusion of two halves at the mandibular symphysis.
Each maxilla assists in forming the boundaries of three cavities:
Each half of the fused maxillae consists of:
- The body of the maxilla
- Four processes
- Infraorbital foramen
- The maxillary sinus
Each maxilla articulates with nine bones:
- two of the cranium: the frontal and ethmoid
- seven of the face: the nasal, zygomatic, lacrimal, inferior nasal concha, palatine, vomer, and the adjacent fused maxilla.
In other animals
Sometimes (e.g. in bony fish), the maxilla is called "upper maxilla," with the mandible being the "lower maxilla." Conversely, in birds the upper jaw is often called "upper mandible."
In most vertebrates, the foremost part of the upper jaw, to which the incisors are attached in mammals consists of a separate pair of bones, the premaxillae. These fuse with the maxilla proper to form the bone found in humans, and some other mammals. In bony fish, amphibians, and reptiles, both maxilla and premaxilla are relatively plate-like bones, forming only the sides of the upper jaw, and part of the face, with the premaxilla also forming the lower boundary of the nostrils. However, in mammals, the bones have curved inward, creating the palatine process and thereby also forming part of the roof of the mouth.
Skull from below. Maxilla shown in green. (Mandible is not shown.)
- Bone terminology
- Terms for anatomical location
- Ossification of maxilla
- Maxillofacial surgery
- hednk-023 — Embryo Images at University of North Carolina
- OED 2nd edition, 1989.
- OED 2nd edition, 1989
- Entry "maxilla" in Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary.
- Illustrated Anatomy of the Head and Neck, Fehrenbach and Herring, Elsevier, 2012, page 55
- Romer, Alfred Sherwood; Parsons, Thomas S. (1977). The Vertebrate Body. Philadelphia, PA: Holt-Saunders International. pp. 217–243. ISBN 0-03-910284-X.
- Harry Sicher and E. Lloyd Du Brul, Oral Anatomy
- Gray's Anatomy
- Peter Warthington, Controversies in Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
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