Maxime Bôcher

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Maxime Bôcher
Maxime Bôcher.jpg
Born (1867-08-28)August 28, 1867
Boston, Massachusetts
Died September 12, 1918(1918-09-12) (aged 51)
Cambridge, Massachusetts
Nationality American
Fields Mathematics
Institutions Harvard University
Alma mater Harvard University
University of Göttingen
Doctoral advisor Felix Klein
Doctoral students William Brenke
David R. Curtiss
Griffith C. Evans
Lester R. Ford
Walter B. Ford
Charles N. Moore
Joseph L. Walsh
Known for Differential equations, series, and algebra

Maxime Bôcher (August 28, 1867 – September 12, 1918) was an American mathematician who published about 100 papers on differential equations, series, and algebra.[1] He also wrote elementary texts such as Trigonometry and Analytic Geometry.[2] Bôcher's theorem, Bôcher's equation, and the Bôcher Memorial Prize are named after him.

Life[edit]

Bôcher was born in Boston, Massachusetts. His parents were Caroline Little and Ferdinand Bôcher. Maxime's father was professor of modern languages at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology when Maxime was born, and became Professor of French at Harvard in 1872.

Bôcher received an excellent education from his parents and from a number of public and private schools in Massachusetts. He graduated from the Cambridge Latin School in 1883. He received his first degree from Harvard in 1888. At Harvard, he studied a wide range of topics, including mathematics, Latin, chemistry, philosophy, zoology, geography, geology, meteorology, Roman art, and music.

Bôcher was awarded many prestigious prizes, which allowed him to travel to Europe to research. Göttingen was then the leading mathematics university there, and he attended lectures by Klein, Schönflies, Schwarz, Schur and Voigt. He was awarded a doctorate in 1891 for his dissertation Über die Reihenentwicklungen der Potentialtheorie (Development of the Potential Function into Series), he was encouraged to study this topic by Klein. He received a Göttingen university prize for this work.

In Göttingen he met Marie Niemann, and they were married in July 1891. They had three children, Helen, Esther, and Frederick. He returned with his wife to Harvard where he was appointed as an instructor. In 1894 he was promoted to assistant professor, due to his impressive record. He became a full professor of mathematics in 1904. He was president of the American Mathematical Society from 1908 to 1910.[3]

Although he was only 46 years old, there were already signs that his weak health was failing. He died at his Cambridge home after suffering a prolonged illness.

Bôcher's theorem[edit]

Bôcher's theorem states that the finite zeros of the derivative  r'(z) of a nonconstant rational function  r(z) that are not multiple zeros of  r(z) are the positions of equilibrium in the field of force due to particles of positive mass at the zeros of  r(z) and particles of negative mass at the poles of  r(z) , with masses numerically equal to the respective multiplicities, where each particle repels with a force equal to the mass times the inverse distance.

Bôcher's equation[edit]

Bôcher's equation is a second-order ordinary differential equation of the form:

 y''+\frac{1}{2} \left [\frac{m_1}{x-a_1}+ \cdots +\frac{m_{n-1}}{x-a_{n-1}} \right] y' +\frac{1}{4} \left [\frac{A_0+A_1x+ \cdots +A_\ell x^\ell}{(x-a_1)^m_1 (x-a_2)^m_2 \cdots (x-a_{n-1})^m_{n-1}} \right]y=0.

The Bôcher Memorial Prize[edit]

The Bôcher Memorial Prize is awarded by the American Mathematical Society every five years for notable research in analysis that has appeared in a recognized North American journal.

Winners have included James W. Alexander II (1928), Eric Temple Bell (1924), George D. Birkhoff (1923), Paul J. Cohen (1964), Solomon Lefschetz (1924), Marston Morse and Norbert Wiener (1933), and John von Neumann (1938).

Works[edit]

He wrote Introduction to Higher Algebra (1907) and Introduction to the Study of Integral Equations (1909). He was one of the editors of the Annals of Mathematics, of the Transactions of the American Mathematical Society, and collaborator on the Encyclopädie der mathematischen Wissenschaften.[3] His final book was Leçons sur les méthodes de Sturm dans la théorie des équations différentielles linéaires et leurs développements modernes (circa 1917).

References[edit]

  1. ^ Birkhoff, George D. (1919). "The scientific work of Maxime Bôcher". Bull. Amer. Math. Soc. 25 (5): 197–215. doi:10.1090/s0002-9904-1919-03172-3. MR 1560177. 
  2. ^ Osgood, William F. (1919). "The life and services of Maxime Bôcher". Bull. Amer. Math. Soc. 25 (8): 337–350. doi:10.1090/s0002-9904-1919-03198-x. MR 1560199. 
  3. ^ a b Wikisource-logo.svg One or more of the preceding sentences incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainRines, George Edwin, ed. (1920). "Bocher, Maxime". Encyclopedia Americana. 

External links[edit]