From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The following events occurred in May, 1959.
- 1 May 1, 1959 (Friday)
- 2 May 2, 1959 (Saturday)
- 3 May 3, 1959 (Sunday)
- 4 May 4, 1959 (Monday)
- 5 May 5, 1959 (Tuesday)
- 6 May 6, 1959 (Wednesday)
- 7 May 7, 1959 (Thursday)
- 8 May 8, 1959 (Friday)
- 9 May 9, 1959 (Saturday)
- 10 May 10, 1959 (Sunday)
- 11 May 11, 1959 (Monday)
- 12 May 12, 1959 (Tuesday)
- 13 May 13, 1959 (Wednesday)
- 14 May 14, 1959 (Thursday)
- 15 May 15, 1959 (Friday)
- 16 May 16, 1959 (Saturday)
- 17 May 17, 1959 (Sunday)
- 18 May 18, 1959 (Monday)
- 19 May 19, 1959 (Tuesday)
- 20 May 20, 1959 (Wednesday)
- 21 May 21, 1959 (Thursday)
- 22 May 22, 1959 (Friday)
- 23 May 23, 1959 (Saturday)
- 24 May 24, 1959 (Sunday)
- 25 May 25, 1959 (Monday)
- 26 May 26, 1959 (Tuesday)
- 27 May 27, 1959 (Wednesday)
- 28 May 28, 1959 (Thursday)
- 29 May 29, 1959 (Friday)
- 30 May 30, 1959 (Saturday)
- 31 May 31, 1959 (Sunday)
- 32 References
May 1, 1959 (Friday)
- A patent application (No. 3,064,167) for the planar process was filed by Jean Hoerni under the name "method of protecting exposed p-n junctions at the surface of silicon transistors by oxide masking technique". The process, which protected the transistor from contamination, made mass production of the transistors feasible, and has been called "after the invention of the junction transistor, the most important invention of microelectronics".
- Ghana's President Kwame Nkrumah and Guinea's President Sekou Toure announced the merger of their two nations into the Union of African States, which later grew to include Mali in 1961. The Union was dissolved in 1963 after the creation of the Organization of African Unity.
- W. E. B. Du Bois was awarded the Lenin Peace Prize during his visit to Moscow.
- The NASA spaceflight center in Greenbelt, Maryland, was named for Robert H. Goddard.
May 2, 1959 (Saturday)
- Jerry Unser, Jr. was fatally injured while practicing for the Indianapolis 500. Unser's car struck a retaining wall at 133 mph and burst into flame, and he died 15 days later from his burns. As a result, Indy racing officials required all drivers to wear fire-resistant suits in practice and in competition.
- Four white men in Tallahassee, Florida, kidnapped and raped a black woman near the campus of Florida A & M University, beginning a case that attracted nationwide attention. Ultimately, an all-white jury convicted the four men, and on June 22, the Judge W. May Walker sentenced them to life in prison.
May 3, 1959 (Sunday)
- A body was found in the shallow waters of a slough (wetland) of the Columbia River near Camas, Washington, and soon confirmed to be that of 10-year old Susan Martin, one of five members of a Portland, Oregon, family that had vanished almost five months earlier. On December 7, 1958, Ken and Barbara Martin, and their three daughters, had left home to buy a Christmas tree, and never returned. The mystery garnered national attention. The next day, the body of 12 year old Virginia Martin was found at the Bonneville Dam. No trace of the other three victims was ever located, nor was their car, a red and white station wagon. More than fifty years later, the mystery remained unsolved.
May 4, 1959 (Monday)
- The first Grammy Awards were bestowed by the National Academy of Recording Arts and Sciences, in a ceremony held at the Beverly Hilton Hotel in Beverly Hills. The Music from Peter Gunn, by Henry Mancini, was album of the year, and Doenico Modugno's Volare was song of the year. The Champs' Tequila won the award for best rhythm & blues performance. "Grammy" is an abbreviation for the Gramophone Award.
- On a day in which a white man was exonerated from charges of rape of a black woman, and a black man convicted of rape of a white woman, Robert Williams of the NAACP declared in Monroe, North Carolina, "We must meet violence with violence," 
- In a rare appearance before Congress, former U.S. President Harry S. Truman testified in favor of a repeal of the two-terms amendment. "You don't have to be very smart to know that an officeholder who is not eligible for re-election loses a lot of influence." 
May 5, 1959 (Tuesday)
- Potter Stewart was confirmed as a justice on the United States Supreme Court by a vote of 70–17. On the same day, Roland Ritchie was appointed to the Supreme Court of Canada. Both served on their nation's highest courts for more than 20 years. Stewart retired in 1981 and Ritchie in 1984.
- The United States signed an agreement with West Germany, to share classified information about American nuclear weapons and to train German personnel in the operation of those weapons.
- After three of the six members of the school board of Little Rock, Arkansas, walked out, the remaining three, all segregationists, ordered the firing of 44 teachers who had supported integration, and reassigned School Superintendent Terrell E. Powell to a school principal's job.
- Born: Brian Williams, anchorman for NBC Nightly News, in Elmira, New York; and Peter Molyneux, British game programmer, in Guildford, Surrey, England
- Died: Carlos Saavedra Lamas, 80, Argentine politician, 1936 Nobel Peace Prize laureate
May 6, 1959 (Wednesday)
- South Vietnam's President Ngo Dinh Diem promulgated "Law 10/59" to combat opposition by the communist Viet Cong. Under Article I, the death penalty could be invoked for murder and for other crimes, including theft of farm implements, and under Article III, a person found guilty of belonging to "an organization designed to help to prepare or perpetrate" such crimes could be executed. Death was by beheading, and traveling military tribunals brought guillotines along to carry out sentences.
- The Armed Forces Special Weapons Project, which oversaw the American nuclear arsenal, was reorganized as DASA, the Defense Atomic Support Agency. Later renamed the Defense Nuclear Agency (1971) and then the Defense Special Weapons Agency (1996), the former DASA is now part of the Defense Threat Reduction Agency.
May 7, 1959 (Thursday)
- The largest crowd ever to attend a Major League Baseball game up that time —93,103—turned out for an exhibition between the NL Dodgers and the AL Yankees (who won 6–2), at Memorial Coliseum in Los Angeles, for Roy Campanella Night, to honor the Dodgers catcher who had been paralyzed in a car crash the year before. The record stood for nearly half a century, until March 29, 2008, in another exhibition game at the L.A. Coliseum, when 115,300 came out for a charity game between the Dodgers and the Red Sox (who won 7–4). In a game that did count, Stan Musial of the Cardinals hit his 400th home run in a 4–3 win over the visiting Cubs.
- Two burglars broke into the apartment of socialite Mary G. Roebling at the Hotel Hildebrecht in Trenton, New Jersey, loaded nearly one million dollars worth of gems and furs into a cardboard box and rode down the hotel elevator for their getaway—where New York City police were waiting for them. The police had been following the pair and their driver since February 2, after being tipped off.
May 8, 1959 (Friday)
- The first Little Caesars pizza restaurant was opened. Mike Ilitch and Marilyn Ilitch began the chain with a store in Garden City, Michigan.
- The Egyptian tour boat Dandara sank in the Nile River near Qalyub, drowning 150 of the 300 people on board. The overloaded boat, ferrying agricultural engineers and their families to a picnic, was only six yards from shore when a sudden leak caused it to founder in water 50 feet deep, and then capsized. Most of the victims were women and children, trapped below decks. The skipper of the ship was arrested for negligence.
- An F-84 jet fighter crashed into a backyard at Northville, Michigan, injuring two children, after the pilot had ejected.
- The last 30 people were evicted from Chavez Ravine in Los Angeles under court order, and their homes were bulldozed to make way for Dodger Stadium.
- Matvei Zakharov was made a Marshal of the Soviet Union
- Died: Donald A. Quarles (heart attack). Quarles, who had been expected to succeed Neil McElroy later in the year as U.S. Secretary of Defense, was 64.
May 9, 1959 (Saturday)
- Alfred H. Fuller, President of the Fuller Brush Company and the son of company founder Alfred C. Fuller, was killed, along with his wife, when a blown rear tire crashed their Mercedes-Benz near Hawthorne, Nevada.
- The legislature for Eritrea voted to become part of Ethiopia, with the President being redesignated as "Chief of the Eritrean Administration under Haile Selassie, Emperor of Ethiopia".
May 10, 1959 (Sunday)
- Azef Youssef Atta was enthroned at Alexandria, Egypt, as Pope Cyril VI of the Coptic Orthodox Church. He was the spiritual leader of the Coptic Christians until his death on March 9, 1971.
- Parliamentary elections in Austria.
May 11, 1959 (Monday)
- The foreign ministers of Britain, France, the Soviet Union and the United States met in Geneva for a 17 day conference on the reunification of Germany, without coming to an agreement.
May 12, 1959 (Tuesday)
- At 3:29 p.m., Capital Airlines Flight 983 from Buffalo to Atlanta skidded off the runway while making a stop in Charleston, West Virginia and slid down a 200 foot embankment with 44 people on board, although all but 2 survived. Less than an hour later, Capital Airlines Flight 75, a turboprop flying from New York to Atlanta, disintegrated at an altitude of 5,000 feet after encountering severe turbulence, crashing near Chase, Maryland at 4:16 p.m., killing all 31 people on board. It was believed to be the first time that two planes from the same airline had crashed on the same day.
- Hours after his divorce from Debbie Reynolds became final, Eddie Fisher married Elizabeth Taylor in Las Vegas.
May 13, 1959 (Wednesday)
- The deadline, for Communist Pathet Lao troops to lay down their weapons or join the ranks of the Royal Army of Laos, expired at noon. One battalion at Xieng Ngeun surrendered peacefully, while the other escaped and continued to fight. Pathet Lao leader Prince Souphanouvong was placed under house arrest two days later, but would become the President of Laos in 1975 after the Communists triumphed over the royal government.
May 14, 1959 (Thursday)
- For the first time, radio signals were bounced off the Moon from one station to another. The Jodrell Bank Observatory in Britain transmitted a signal from Britain to the Cambridge Research Center in the United States.
- Groundbreaking for the Lincoln Center in New York was attended by President Eisenhower and witnessed by a crowd of 12,000.
- Died: Sidney Bechet, 62, American jazz saxophonist
May 15, 1959 (Friday)
- Generals Richard G. Stilwell and Edward G. Lansdale delivered what was later described as "one of the most influential military documents of the past half century" to President Eisenhower. The report "Training Under the Mutual Security Program (With Emphasis on Development of Leaders)" proposed using the American military to further "political stability, economic growth, and social change" in developing nations.
- The Caravelle inaugurated passenger jet service for Air France and for the Scandinavian airline SAS.
- Fidel Castro announced an end to war crimes trials that had been conducted since his takeover of Cuba in January. An unofficial count was that 621 people had been executed for war crimes.
May 16, 1959 (Saturday)
- Seven high school students on their way home from the prom at Shelbyville, Illinois, were killed when the car in which they were riding was struck by a passenger train.
- Died: Elisha Scott, 64, Northern Irish footballer
May 17, 1959 (Sunday)
- Cristo-Rei was dedicated on an overlook over Lisbon, Portugal. It was inspired by the Christ the Redeemer statue in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, and inaugurated on May 17, 1959. The base of the monument, by architect António Lino, is in the form of a gate, standing 75 m (246 ft) tall. At the top is a statue of Christ the Redeemer, designed by sculptor Francisco Franco de Sousa, 28 m (92 ft)-tall.
- Cuba's Agrarian Reform Law took effect, seizing all foreign owned land and redistributing it to Cuban families.
- Plácido Domingo made his operatic debut, as the character Matteo Borsa in a production of Rigoletto.
- Born: Jim Nantz, American sportscaster (CBS Sports), in Charlotte, North Carolina; and Marcelo Loffreda, Argentine rugby player and British coach, in Buenos Aires
May 18, 1959 (Monday)
- The first Arabic-language commercial television station began broadcasting, as CLT (Compagnie Libanaise de Television) went on the air in Beirut, Lebanon. Broadcasting on Channel 9, the network is now part of Télé Liban.
- Hours after his divorce from Elaine Davis became final, Mickey Rooney married his fifth wife, Barbara Ann Thomson. The New York Daily News headline read "Half-Pint Takes a Fifth".
- Died: Apsley Cherry-Garrard, 73, Antarctic explorer; Enrique Guaita, 48, Argentinian footballer
May 19, 1959 (Tuesday)
- What would become known as the Ho Chi Minh Trail began as North Vietnam implemented plans to invade South Vietnam. Vo Bam was assigned the task of overseeing a program of facilitating transportation of soldiers, weapons and equipment, and General Vo Nguyen Giap created Group 559 to construct roads and tunnels. In 1975, the South was, depending on perspective, conquered or liberated and incorporated into the unified Socialist Republic of Viet Nam.
- Atlanta desegregated its public libraries, later than most other cities in South.
- Born: Nicole Brown Simpson, American ex-wife of O.J. Simpson, in Frankfurt, Germany (murdered 1994)
May 20, 1959 (Wednesday)
- A group of 4,978 Japanese-Americans who had renounced their U.S. citizenship during World War II were restored to citizenship by the U.S. Justice Department.
- Born: Bronson Pinchot, American actor (as Bronson Poncharavsky), in New York
May 21, 1959 (Thursday)
- Gypsy opened at The Broadway Theatre in New York to begin a run of 702 performances. The musical, directed by Jerome Robbins, and starring Ethel Merman as Gypsy Rose Lee, featured music by Jule Styne and lyrics by Stephen Sondheim, including the hit song Everything's Coming up Roses.
- In the largest effort to that time against organized crime, narcotics agents in nine American states arrested 27 persons who had participated in the November 14, 1957, Apalachin Meeting, following their indictment on federal charges of obstruction of justice. Twenty of the persons rounded up were later convicted.
- The bathyscaphe Trieste made its first test dive, submerging for 21⁄2 hours at 700 feet below the surface, with Jacques Piccard and Dr. Andreas Rechnitzer on board.
- Died: Dr. Dudley Allen Buck, 32, inventor of the cryotron and member of the National Security Agency Scientific Advisory Board; from pneumonia.; and Dr. Louis N. Ridenour, 47, nuclear physicist, vice president Lockheed Missile Systems and chairman of the National Security Agency Scientific Advisory Board, of a brain hemorrhage.
May 22, 1959 (Friday)
- Brig. Gen. Benjamin O. Davis, Jr., Deputy Chief of Staff for Operations, Headquarters U.S. Air Forces in Europe, Wiesbaden, Germany, was nominated for a temporary promotion to Major General, making him the first African-American to be so nominated. His promotion to two-star rank became effective on June 30 and lasted until May 16, 1960, making him the highest ranking Negro officer in the United States military. A permanent promotion followed in 1962, and Davis attained lieutenant general rank in 1965, retiring in 1998 as the first African-American 4-star general. Davis's father, Benjamin O. Davis, Sr., had been the first African-American General, attaining the rank of brigadier general in 1940.
May 23, 1959 (Saturday)
- A 2½ year old boy in Hazelwood, Missouri, was attacked and killed by a pack of at least five dogs. Six weeks later, in Novinger, Missouri, on July 3, another two-year-old boy was killed by dogs.
May 24, 1959 (Sunday)
- The Anglo-Soviet Long Term Trade Agreement was signed, marking the first significant agreement between the U.S.S.R. and a Western nation since World War II, was signed. The five-year trade pact was renewed in 1964 and 1969.
- Born: Pelle Lindbergh, Swedish-born NHL goaltender, in Stockholm (killed in auto crash, 1985)
- Died: John Foster Dulles, who had recently resigned as U.S. Secretary of State (serving 1953–1959) of cancer in Washington. He was eulogized by President Eisenhower as "one of the truly great men of our time".
May 25, 1959 (Monday)
- Mass murderer Charles Starkweather was granted a temporary reprieve 98 minutes before his 6:00 a.m. scheduled execution. Federal judge Richard Robinson of Omaha had been woken up at 1:45 to hear the motion, and signed the stay at 4:23 so that Starkweather, who had killed 11 people the year before, could have more time to perfect an appeal. The 20-year old killer lived for one more month before going to the electric chair at 12:02 a.m. on June 25, 1959.
May 26, 1959 (Tuesday)
- Harvey Haddix of the Pittsburgh Pirates did what no other baseball player had ever accomplished by pitching a perfect game – no hits, no runs, no errors—for 12 innings in Milwaukee, but Milwaukee Braves pitcher Lew Burdette was also hurling a shutout, and the score remained 0–0 going into the 13th inning. Felix Mantilla reached first base and the Braves went on to win 1–0. Haddix, who almost sat out the game because he was recovering from the flu, said later that he knew he had been pitching a no-hitter, but did not realize he had had a perfect game going until later.
- The 1964 Summer Olympic Games were awarded to Tokyo, receiving 34 of the 58 votes cast at the IOC meeting in Munich. Runner up was Detroit with 10 votes, followed by Vienna and Brussels.
- Sally Brown, Charlie Brown's little sister, was born in the comic strip Peanuts.
May 27, 1959 (Wednesday)
- Nikita Khrushchev's ultimatum for action on Berlin expired. The Soviet premier had notified the Western powers on November 27, 1958, that if occupying armies were not withdrawn from West Berlin within six months, access through East Germany to the city would be closed off. The Geneva talks that began on May 11 halted action on the ultimatum. The late U.S. Secretary of State John Foster Dulles, who had said in 1958, "We are not afraid of May 27, 1959", was buried on that date, and the participants in the Geneva talks, including Soviet Foreign Minister Andrei Gromyko, attended the ceremonies at Arlington.
- National Semiconductor was formed by eight former engineers of Sperry Rand Corporation for the purpose of producing transistors for electronic products.
May 28, 1959 (Thursday)
- Two female monkeys became the first animals launched by NASA into outer space and returned safely to Earth. Able, a 7 pound rhesus, and Baker, a 1 pound spider monkey, were placed in the nose cone of a Jupiter rocket and sent 300 miles aloft from Cape Canaveral, and recovered, unharmed, in the Caribbean Sea 1,100 miles away.
- A passenger train in Indonesia derailed and fell into a ravine, killing 85 people and injuring 47. Sabotage was suspected in the crash in the Tasikmalaja area of West Java.
May 29, 1959 (Friday)
- In what an AP report described as "history's first international conference in the clouds", Christian Herter (U.S.), Andrei Gromyko (U.S.S.R.), Selwyn Lloyd (U.K.) and Maurice Couve de Murville (France) continued their negotiations concerning Berlin while flying over the Atlantic Ocean. The four foreign ministers were returning to Geneva following the funeral of John Foster Dulles.
- Born: Adrian Paul, British actor (Highlander: The Series), in London
May 30, 1959 (Saturday)
- The first trial of a hovercraft took place at Cowes in Britain.
- In elections in Singapore, the Peoples Action Party, led by Lee Kuan Yew, won in a landslide, capturing 43 of the 51 seats in Parliament.
- The Auckland Harbour Bridge, 1020 meters (3,348 feet) long, was opened in New Zealand.
- Louisiana Governor Earl K. Long voluntarily entered a mental hospital in Texas, and spent the next four weeks fighting efforts to have him committed.
- An invasion of Nicaragua was made when two planes with rebel soldiers, under the direction of Nicaraguan-exile Enrique Lacayo Farfan, landed and fought with government troops. The rebellion was put down by June 12.
- After the calling off of the 1955 Anglo-Iraqi Agreement, the last British troops in Iraq left peacefully.
- Died: Raúl Scalabrini Ortiz, 61, Argentinian journalist
May 31, 1959 (Sunday)
- Memorial Day Weekend closed at midnight, and was counted as a two-day holiday weekend for the last time, with May 30 falling on a Saturday. The accidental death toll broke the record for a 54-hour weekend. The 310 traffic fatalities recorded by the National Safety Council from 6 pm Friday to Midnight Sunday far exceeded the 1953 record of 241. There were 150 more accidental deaths, including 101 drownings, for a total of 460 dead in 54 hours. When May 30 fell on a Saturday again in 1964, Memorial Day weekend was counted as a three-day period starting on Thursday evening.
- Bo Lojek, History of Semiconductor Engineering (Springer, 2007), pp122–125
- Yuri Smertin, Kwame Nkrumah (International Publishers Co, 1987), pp86–88
- Africana: Civil Rights: An A-to-Z Reference of the Movement that Changed America (Running Press, 2005), p150
- Howard B. Rockman, Intellectual Property Law for Engineers and Scientists (Wiley-IEEE, 2004), p303
- Richard Melzer, Buried Treasures (Sunstone Press, 2008), p151
- Glenda Alice Rabby, The Pain and the Promise: The Struggle for Civil Rights in Tallahassee, Florida (University of Georgia Press, 1999), pp77–80
- "Body Is Linked To Family", Bridgeport Telegram, May 4, 1959, p1
- "Oregon", Collier's Encyclopedia 1960 Yearbook, p460; "Family of 5 Disappears In Tree Hunt", Charleston Daily Mail December 10, 1958, p26; "Candy Lane's Santa Disappears With His Family", Syracuse Herald-American, December 21, 1959, p4
- "Family Gone Year Today", Tri-City Herald (Pasco, Washington), December 7, 1959, p1; "3 In Family Feared Lost In Columbia", Tri-City Herald, December 17, 1967, p1
- William Ruhlmann, Breaking records: 100 years of Hits (Routledge, 2004), p123
- James Forman, The Making of Black Revolutionaries (University of Washington Press, 1997), pp175–176
- "Truman Hits U.S. Ban on Third Term" Oakland Tribune, May 2, 1959, p1
- Charles M. Lamb and Stephen C. Halpern, The Burger Court: Political and Judicial Profiles (University of Illinois Press, 1991), p379
- Peter McCormick, Supreme At Last: The Evolution of the Supreme Court of Canada (James Lorimer & Company, 2000), p39
- Nuclear Shadowboxing: Cold War Redux (DeVolpi, Inc., 2004), pI-13
- The World Almanac 1959, pp106–107
- Robert S. McNamara, Argument Without End: In Search of Answers to the Vietnam Tragedy (PublicAffairs, 1999) p179
- Stephen I. Schwartz, Atomic Audit: The Costs and Consequences of U.S. Nuclear Weapons Since 1940 (Brookings Institution Press, 1998) p61
- Mark Langill, Los Angeles Dodgers (Arcadia Publishing, 2004), p34
- "A Squeeze Play For L.A.", Los Angeles Times, March 30, 2008
- Baseball Digest (April 2004), p17
- "Gem Gang Seized With Million Loot", Oakland Tribune, May 2, 1959, p1
- Little Caesars Website
- The World Almanac 1959, p107
- "Skipper Held In Nile River Ship Tragedy", Oakland Tribune, May 10, 1959, p28
- "Jet Hits Home, 2 Children Hurt", Oakland Tribune, May 9, 1959, p1
- Neil J. Sullivan, The Dodgers Move West (Oxford University Press US, 1989), p179
- "Deputy Secy. Of Defense Quarles Dies", Oakland Tribune, May 8, 1959, p1
- "Crash Kills Fuller Brush Scion, Wife", Oakland Tribune, May 10, 1959, p1
- The Long Struggle of Eritrea for Independence and Constructive Peace (The Red Sea Press, 1988), p28
- John H. Watson, Among the Copts (Sussex Academic Press, 2002), p56
- The World Almanac 1959, p105
- http://www.planecrashinfo.com Capital 983 Capital 75.
- "Two Airliner Crashes Kill 33", The Post-Standard (Syracuse), May 13, 1959, p1
- Robert Rodriguez, The 1950s' Most Wanted (Brassey's, 2006), pp272–273
- Martin E. Goldstein, American Policy Toward Laos (Fairleigh Dickinson University Press, 1973), p150
- Gerhard Wisnewski, One Small Step?: The Great Moon Hoax and the Race to Dominate Earth from Space (translated by Johanna Collis), pp224–225
- Faith Stewart-Gordon, The Russian Tea Room: A Love Story (Simon & Schuster, 1999), pp71–72
- L. Fletcher Prouty, JFK: The CIA, Vietnam, and the Plot to Assassinate John F. Kennedy (Citadel Press, 1996), pp182–183
- Rémi Kauffer, Disinformation: American Multinationals At War Against Europe (Algora Publishing, 2001), p129
- The World Almanac 1959, p104
- "High School Prom Ends in Tragedy", Nevada State Journal (Reno), May 17, 1959, p1; "Eight Went On A Date ... And Then There Was One" by Saul Pett, AP report, from Oakland Tribune, June 28, 1959, p1
- Plácido Domingo and Helena Matheopoulos, Plácido Domingo: My Operatic Roles (Baskerville Publishers, Inc., 2000) p14
- William A. Rugh, Arab Mass Media: Newspapers, Radio, and Television in Arab Politics (Greenwood Publishing Group, 2004), pp195–196
- Alvin H. Marill, Mickey Rooney: His Films, Television Appearances, Radio Work, Stage Shows, and Recordings (McFarland, 2004) p43
- Cheng Guan Ang, Vietnamese Communists' Relations with China and the Second Indochina Conflict, 1956–1962 (McFarland, 1997) p116
- Harold H. Martin, Atlanta and Environs: A Chronicle of Its People and Events (University of Georgia Press, 1987) p299
- The Encyclopedia of American Facts and Dates p611
- Gypsy Rose Lee (with Erik L. Preminger), Gypsy: Memoirs of America's Most Celebrated Stripper (Frog Books, 1999), p348
- Lee Bernstein, The Greatest Menace: Organized Crime in Cold War America (University of Massachusetts Press, 2002) pp 4–5
- "Navy Bathyscape Makes First Dive", Oakland Tribune, May 21, 1959, p1
- "Negro Named Major General", San Antonio Light, May 23, 1959, p1
- USAF Website
- "Boy, 2, Killed by Savage Dog Pack", Oakland Tribune, May 23, 1959, p1
- "Dog Pack Kills Another Boy, 2", Oakland Tribune, July 5, 1959, p2
- Gary K. Bertsch, Controlling East–West Trade and Technology Transfer: Power, Politics, and Policies (Duke University Press, 1988), p207
- The World Almanac 1959, p106
- "Stay Is Granted Mass Killer To Permit Appeal", Bridgeport Telegram, May 26, 1958, p1
- "Starkweather Dies In Chair", Lincoln Evening Journal, June 25, 1959, p1
- John McCollister, Tales from the Pirates Dugout (Sports Publishing LLC, 2003), pp71–74
- John E. Findling and Kimberly D. Pelle, Encyclopedia of the Modern Olympic Movement (Greenwood Publishing Group, 2004), p166
- Derek Leebaert, The Fifty-Year Wound: The True Price of America's Cold War Victory (Back Bay, 2002), p 235
- Edwin D. Reilly, Milestones in Computer Science and Information Technology (Greenwood Publishing Group, 2003) p 181
- "185 Believed Dead in Java Train Wreck", Oakland Tribune, May 29, 1959, p1
- "Big Four Open Secret Parleys", Bridgeport Telegram, May 30, 1959, p1
- A.H. Hashmi, Transport (Pustak Mahal, 1994), p18
- Edwin Lee, Singapore: The Unexpected Nation (Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, 2008), p423
- Peter Hinze, New Zealand (Hunter Publishing, Inc, 1998), p34
- Aryeh Yodfat and Mordechai Abir, In the Direction of the Gulf: The Soviet Union and the Persian Gulf (Routledge, 1977), p42
- "Holiday Road Toll Rises To Record 310", Fresno Bee, June 1, 1959, p1