Maydolong is a fourth class municipality in the province of Eastern Samar, Philippines. According to the 2010 census, it has a population of 13,614 people. With a size of 399.63 km² it is the third largest municipality of Eastern Samar, and is subdivided into 20 barangays. Maydolong proper consists of seven barangays.
There are two stories about the naming of Maydolong. Officially accepted by the Sangguniang Bayan is the story of a fisherman who used to travel to the village of Matnog. Because they needed to rest from their travel along the east coast of Samar, these fisherman used to say "Matnog it Dolong" which means "the bow must point to Matnog" in the local dialect. This saying got shortened to Maydolong, which eventually became the name of the village.
Maydolong was created from the barrios of Maydolong, Balogo, Maybocog, Omawas, Tagaslian, Kampakirit, Suribao, Mayburak, Kanmanungdong, Malobago, Tabi, Maytigbao, and Kanluterio, May 1, 1951. These barrios used to belong to the provincial capital Borongan, Eastern Samar.