Mayflower Compact signatories

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Signing the Mayflower Compact 1620, a painting by Jean Leon Gerome Ferris 1899
Main article: Mayflower Compact

The Mayflower Compact was the iconic document in the earliest history of America. It was ratified by forty-one men on board the Pilgrim ship Mayflower on November 11, 1620 while anchored at Cape Cod - now Provincetown Harbor in Massachusetts. The Compact was originally drafted as an instrument to maintain unity and discipline in this new land they would call Plymouth Colony but over time has become one of the most historic documents in American History.

When it was later published in London in Mourt's Relation in 1622, the authors had added a preamble that clarified its meaning: "it was thought good there should be an association and agreement, that we should combine together in one body, and to submit to such government and governors as we should by common consent agree to make and choose."

On November 11, it was intention of the Pilgrim leadership that before anyone set foot on land, each man healthy enough to write his name, or, if he could not write, mark with an X, must sign the Compact.

The passengers probably assembled in the ship’s great cabin – about thirteen by seventeen feet, with two windows on the stern and one window on either side. Beginning with Governor John Carver and ending with Edward Lester, forty-one men signed the Compact. Nine adult males on board did not sign the document – some had been hired as seamen only for one year and others were probably too ill to write. In accordance with cultural and legal custom of the times, no women signed the document.[1][2]

The wording of the Mayflower Compact comes from William Bradford’s manuscript, apparently copied from the original document. Per author Caleb Johnson, the original of the Mayflower Compact has long been lost, possibly during Revolutionary War looting. The text was first published in 1622 and then in Bradford’s journal from about 1630. But Bradford did not have a list, or even gave a suggestion of the names of the signers. Per author Eugene Stratton, the secretary for Plymouth Colony, Nathaniel Morton, in his 1669 New Englands Memoriall, provides both the Compact and a list of signers, and many persons have thought that this list was an actual transcript of the names of all the signers and in the sequence of their signing.

The list of signers was published at least twice in the 18th century but each time based apparently on Morton’s 1669 list and not the original. So for many years there has been confusion about the actual list of signers with some writing “If we suppose this compact to have been signed by all the adult male passengers, it would seem that other names besides those which Morton has given should have been included.” And “Morton apparently copied from Bradford and not from the original sheet on which the compact had been written and signed.”

The Morton signer list from 1669 is what most Mayflower scholars have used when compiling a list of those who signed the Mayflower Compact. It is that list that basically appears to be in use in the Stratton book on page 413 and that is what is used here. There are some variations in the spelling of names between Stratton’s list and Morton’s 1669 list and those 13 instances are also noted here.[3][4]

Signatories[edit]

John Carver - An early associate of Bradford and Brewster who became a prominent member of the English Separatist church in Leiden, Holland where he was church deacon. With Robert Cushman, he was an agent for the Leideners in organizing in 1620 for the Mayflower voyage. A prosperous man, he invested a large portion of his personal wealth in the voyage. He came on the Mayflower with his wife and five servants, one of whom, Roger Wilder, died early along with a 7-year boy in his care, Jasper More, one of the earliest to die, and one of the four More children on board. He was the first governor of Plymouth Colony and died suddenly at age 56, in April or May 1621 with his wife dying shortly thereafter. His legacy was overshadowed by his failure to provide a return to Mayflower’s London investors, much to their vexation against him. The Fortune in November 1621 carried angry Merchant Adventurer letters addressed to him but by then he was already long deceased.[5][6][7]

William Bradford - An early convert to the Separatist Church in Nottinghamshire England who came to Leiden, Holland about 1608 and became prominent in the church there. He came on the Mayflower with his wife, leaving a young son in Leiden. His first wife Dorothy drowned while the ship was at anchor in Cape Cod Harbor. He became colony Governor after the death of John Carver, and was prominent in the Plymouth Church. His writings of early Plymouth Colony are important historic documents.[8][9]

Edward Winslow - A gentleman from a well-off family who was prominent in the Separatist church in Leiden and involved with Brewster in printing anti-English church religious tracts. He boarded the Mayflower with his wife and two servants, one of whom, Elias Story, died early along with an 8-year old girl in his care, Ellen More. His wife died in March 1621. In May 1621 he married the widow of William White as the first wedding in Plymouth Colony. He was quite prominent in colony governmental, religious and Indian affairs. In 1646 he returned to England to join the anti-royalist government of Oliver Cromwell and died of fever in 1654 while on a military expedition in the Caribbean.[10][11][12]

William Brewster - In the 1580s he was an assistant to William Davison, secretary to Queen Elizabeth when Davison was a party to the 1587 execution of Mary Queen of Scots. About twenty years later Brewster was among those prominent in the early English Separatist church, emigrating to Holland in 1608 where he became Ruling Elder of the Leiden church. While in Leiden he was hunted by English authorities in England and Holland for printing seditious tracts against the English church forcing him to go into hiding until the Mayflower departure. He boarded the Mayflower with his wife, two sons and two of the four More children on the ship – Mary, age 4, who died early, and Richard, age 6, who survived. In Plymouth Colony Brewster was Ruling Elder of the Plymouth Church until his death in 1644 at age 80.[13][14][15]

Isaac Allerton - A Leiden Separatist and Merchant Adventurers originally from London, he boarded the Mayflower with his wife and three children. During his life he was a ship owner involved in New England and trans-Atlantic trading. In Plymouth Colony he was second in authority only to Governor Bradford in the colony’s early years. Later Bradford felt that Allerton had abused the colonists trust over many years and was forced to leave the colony in the 1630s.[16][17][18]

Myles Standish - (Name per Morton, 1669: Miles Standish) - Possibly from London, Standish had been a soldier of fortune, serving in the Low Countries in Europe prior to joining the Leiden contingent. There is evidence that he was not a member of the Leiden church but was associated with it. He came on the Mayflower with a wife named Rose who died early. He was the colony’s chief military officer and served the colony well in that capacity until his death in 1656.[19][20][21]

John Alden - He may have been from Harwich in county Essex, the hometown of Capt. Jones of the Mayflower to whom he was believed related by marriage. He was hired as a cooper. He married fellow Mayflower passenger Priscilla Mullins forming the basis of the famous Longfellow romantic poem. From the estate of Priscilla’s father William, the Aldens became quite prosperous with he becoming a prominent and influential colonist involved in many governmental activities over his long life.[22][23]

Samuel Fuller - He was prominent among the English Separatists living in Leiden Holland and later in the activities of Plymouth Colony. He left his family in Leiden and came on the Mayflower with only a young servant, William Butten, who died at sea a few days before reaching Cape Cod. He was the largely self-taught physician and surgeon of the colony and died in 1633 of an infectious fever that felled many that year.[24][25][26]

Christopher Martin - He was a prosperous leader of those non-religious persons known as “Strangers” on the Mayflower as well as being a representative of the Merchant Adventurer investment group. He came on the ship with his wife and two servants, one of whom was his step-son Solomon Prower, and John Langmore, both of whom died early deaths. He was chosen as “governor” of the Speedwell, and when it was forced to remain in England, of the Mayflower. He had acrimonious issues with the passengers on the Speedwell and later on the Mayflower as well as issues regarding the purchase of voyage supplies which necessitated his removal by those in authority while at sea. In Plymouth, Solomon Prower died on December 24, 1620 with Martin dying in January 1621. His wife also died in the first winter.[27][28][29]

William Mullins - He was a merchant shareholder in the Merchant Adventurers investment group. Bradford called him one of the more prosperous of the Mayflower passengers, traveling with his wife, son and daughter. Also servant Robert Carter, who died early in 1621. He had left two children in England, William Jr., who emigrated in 1636, and eldest daughter Sarah, the administrator of his estate. Mullins died in February 1621 with his wife and son dying sometime after, but before November 1621. Only his daughter Priscilla survived to marry John Alden with her Mullins inheritance making them a prosperous colonial family.[30][31][32]

William White - Apparently a prosperous London merchant who came to the Mayflower with a family and two servants, one of whom, Edward Thompson, was one of the earliest to die on December 4, 1620 and William Holbeck, who died in early 1621. Sometime in late November, while the ship was anchored in Cape Cod Harbor, his wife gave birth to a son named Peregrine historically known as the first white child born in New England. White died in February 1621 about the same day as William Mullins. His widow Susanna married Edward Winslow in May 1621 as the first marriage in the colony. Their son Joshua Winslow was a historic long-term colony governor with an English wife descended from royalty.[33][34]

Richard Warren - He was a London merchant whose family became one of the more prosperous in Plymouth Colony. He was prominent in colony affairs until his early death about 1628. His widow Elizabeth had come over on the Anne in 1623 with their five daughters and was able to legally assume some of his government duties after his death, unusual for a woman in that era.[35][36][37]

John Howland - He had no record of Leiden residence. He came on the Mayflower as a servant to John Carver, and upon Carver’s and his wife’s deaths, could have been the beneficiary of some of his estate which possibly contributed to his rapid rise as a colony leader. During his long life he was involved in numerous governmental and religious activities. He married Elizabeth, daughter of John Tilley, and had a large family with many historic American descendants.[38][39]

Stephen Hopkins - (Name per Morton, 1669: Stevin Hopkins) He was apparently a prosperous person who boarded the Mayflower with his wife, four children (with one son born later at sea), and two servants. He was the only Mayflower passenger with prior New World experience being shipwrecked with others in Bermuda in 1609 for 9 months and who built two small ships for escape to Virginia. In Jamestown he worked for two years under Capt. John Smith and may have come in contact with the legendary Pocahontas, wife of a fellow Bermuda castaway, John Rolfe. His prior experience with Indians in Virginia served him well with Indian relationships in Plymouth Colony.[40][41][42]

Edward Tilley - (Name per Morton, 1669: Edward Tilly) He was from London and associated with Thomas Weston of the Merchant Adventurers before emigration. He and his wife were members of the Leiden contingent and both perished in the first winter, he probably in January 1621 from pneumonia caught from exploration in freezing weather. His brother John and wife also died that winter. In Edward’s care had been relatives Humility Cooper and Henry Samson who did survive and were as orphans in company with their relative Elizabeth Tilley, the sole survivor of the John Tilley family. Elizabeth would later marry John Howland.[43][44][45]

John Tilley - (Name per Morton, 1669: John Tilly) Older brother of Edward Tilley and as with his brother Edward and his wife, John and his wife both died in the first winter. Their daughter Elizabeth survived to marry John Howland and had a large family.[44][46][47]

Francis Cooke - (Name per Morton, 1669: Francis Cook) Early prominent member of the Leiden Separatists who was residing in Leiden well before the arrival of the English Separatists where he married a French Walloon, Hester Mayhieu. He came over in 1620 accompanied by his son John with the rest of his family coming over on the Anne in 1623. Over his long life he was involved in many colony military and governmental activities. He died in 1695.[48][49][50]

Thomas Rogers - He was a merchant in Leiden and a member of the Separatist church. His eldest son Joseph came with him on the Mayflower and survived him when his father died in the first winter.[51][52][53]

Thomas Tinker - He and his unnamed wife and son were all members of the Leiden contingent. All three died in the first winter.[54][55][56]

John Rigsdale - (Name per Morton, 1669: John Ridgdale) John Rigsdale and his wife Alice were from London. They both died in the early weeks of the colony. Banks has his name as “Rigdale.”[57][58][59]

Edward Fuller - He arrived with his wife and son Samuel in company with his brother Samuel Fuller. No record of him in Leiden and may have joined his brother on the ship in Southampton. Both he and his wife died soon after arrival in Plymouth settlement, survived by their son Samuel, who joined the growing group of colony orphans. Another son Matthew came later to the colony.[60][61][62]

John Turner - One of the earliest members of the Leiden church, emigrating to Leiden from England with Bradford and Brewster and was a burgess of Leiden in 1610. He and his two unnamed sons came as members of the Leiden contingent and all died soon after arrival. He had a daughter named Elizabeth or “Lysbet” who came over later and married an unnamed husband in Salem.[63][64][65]

Francis Eaton - He may have been employed by the Merchant Adventurers as a carpenter for the Mayflower. He arrived with his wife Sarah and son Samuel with his wife soon dying. He had two more marriages and died in 1633.[66][67][68]

James Chilton - Author Charles Banks provides that his name was written as “James Chylton” in records of 1583. He was a Leiden Separatist who was about age 64 on the Mayflower making him the oldest passenger. His wife Susanna and daughter Mary came with him with another daughter Isabella coming later. Another daughter Ingle stayed in Leiden. He died on December 8, 1620 while the ship was still anchored in Cape Cod Harbor. His wife also died in the first winter. Mary Chilton married John Winslow.[44][69][70]

John Crackstone/Crackston - (Name per Morton, 1669: John Craxton) A Leiden Separatist who came with his son John. A married daughter Anne stayed in Leiden. He died the first winter in Plymouth with his son John dying shortly after the 1627 cattle division.[71][72][73]

John Billington - He came from London and boarded the Mayflower with a wife and two sons. A non-Separatist family who were quite troublesome for their fellow passengers and even Bradford admitted he knew not how they came to be associated with the Mayflower. After arrival in Plymouth they increasingly caused trouble for those in the colony and for the colony leaders. John Billington Sr. was hanged for murder in 1630, the first execution in the colony.[74][75][76]

Moses Fletcher - A Leiden Separatist who was a smith by occupation and at emigration listed Leiden as his place of residence. He died shortly after arrival in the colony. He left a family in Holland and from that came at least 20 great-grandchildren. Evidence exists of his descendants living today in Holland/Europe.[77][78][79]

John Goodman - A member of the Leiden congregation. He is thought to have died sometime after January 19, 1621 and at least by the cattle division of 1627.[80][81]

Degory Priest - (Name per Morton, 1669: Digery Priest) Aged about 40 in 1619, a Leiden Separatist member who was married to Sarah, sister of Isaac Allerton. He died early in January 1621, leaving a widow and two daughters. His wife returned to Holland, remarried, and came back on the Anne in 1623 with new husband Cuthbert Cuthbertson and her Priest daughters.[82][83][84]

Thomas Williams - He was about age 40 on the Mayflower. Bradford listed him as one of the adult men from Leiden. He and his sister lived in Leiden and were known to have been from Yarmouth in co. Norfolk. He died the first winter.[85][86]

Gilbert Winslow - He arrived with his brother Edward Winslow as part of his brother’s family. Apparently due to his brother’s established position, he was allowed to sign the Mayflower Compact although not yet age 21, being about 20 years then. He appeared in the 1623 land division and after a number of years in the colony, returned to England and died there.[87][88]

Edmund Margesson - (Name per Morton, 1669: Edmond Margeson) Author Charles Banks wrote that his name may have been “Edmund Masterson” who was the father of Richard Masterson of Leiden who came to Plymouth later. Author Caleb Johnson writes of his name being potentially "Margetson". He died soon after arrival.[89][90]

Peter Browne - (Name per Morton, 1669: Peter Brown) He was not a Leiden Separatist and was from the same hometown as William Mullins who also was not a Leidener. He married widow Mary Ford who may have been the only woman on the Fortune in 1621. She died in 1630 and he in 1633.[91][92][93]

Richard Britteridge - (Name per Morton, 1669: Richard Bitteridge) Probably from London, his name may have more likely been, per author Caleb Johnson, “Brightridge.” He was not in Leiden records. He was the first person to die after the Mayflower reached Plymouth settlement dying on December 21, 1620, one of six passengers who died in December.[94][95][96]

George Soule - He arrived from London as a servant to Edward Winslow. In his long life he was involved in many colony public service activities. He died in 1679.[97][98][99]

Richard Clarke - (Name per Morton, 1669: Richard Clark) Probably not a member of the Leiden congregation. No other biographic information about him. He died soon after arrival.[100][101][102]

Richard Gardiner - Per author Caleb Johnson, his name may possibly have been “Gardinar.” Banks wrote that he was a seaman employed by the Company to remain in the colony but instead returned to England. Banks also wrote that he was probably of Harwich in co. Essex, the hometown of Christopher Jones, Mayflower captain, and may have been related to him. He received one share in the colony land division of 1623 and in 1624 was a crew member of the Plymouth-based Little James. Bradford wrote that he became a seaman and may have died in England or at sea, although per Johnson he may been on the Little James when she returned to England in late 1624 as part of the Admiralty investigation into the shipwreck earlier that year.[103][104][105][106]

John Allerton - He was hired to stay in the colony for a year to work and then return to Leiden to assist others who wished to come to America, but died sometime in the early months of 1621. A possible relationship to Isaac Allerton but no documented evidence.[17][107]

Thomas English - He appeared in Leiden records as “Thomas England.” He was a Mayflower seaman hired to be master of the ship’s light sailboat called a shallop, which was to be used for coastal transportation and trading. He died in the first winter sometime before the Mayflower departed on its return to England in April 1621.[108][109][110]

Edward Doty - (Name per Morton, 1669: Edward Doten) He was from London and came as a servant of Stephen Hopkins who also was from that city. Per author Caleb Johnson, his quick temper was the primary cause of numerous civil disturbances recorded against him in the over 30 years he lived in the colony. One of the first recorded was in June 1621 when he was in a sword and dagger fight with fellow Hopkins servant Edward Leister where both were lightly wounded and sentenced to public punishment.[109][110][111]

Edward Lester - (Name per Morton, 1669: Edward Liester) Banks credited him with various names such as Lester, Litster, Lister, and Lyster. Bradford gave his name as “Leister” (“Liester” in the 1669 version) which seems to be more correct per authors Caleb Johnson and Eugene Stratton. He came from London as a servant of Stephen Hopkins, completed his apprenticeship and then moved to Virginia Colony.[112][113][114]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Nathaniel Philbrick, Mayflower: A story of Courage, Community and War (New York:Viking, 2006), p. 43
  2. ^ Nick Bunker, Making Haste from Babylon: The Mayflower Pilgrims and their New World a History (New York: Knopf 2010), p. 281
  3. ^ Eugene Aubrey Stratton, Plymouth Colony: Its History and People, 1620-1691 (Salt Lake City:Ancestry Publishing 1986) pp. 411-413
  4. ^ Caleb Johnson, Mayflower Compact
  5. ^ Charles Edward Banks, The English Ancestry and Homes of the Pilgrim Fathers: who came to Plymouth on the Mayflower in 1620, the Fortune in 1621, and the Anne and the Little James in 1623 (Baltimore, MD.:Genealogical Publishing Co., 2006) p. 44
  6. ^ Eugene Aubrey Stratton, Plymouth Colony: Its History and People, 1620-1691 (Salt Lake City:Ancestry Publishing 1986) p. 259
  7. ^ Caleb H. Johnson, The Mayflower and her passengers (Indiana:Xlibris Corp., Caleb Johnson, 2006) pp. 107-114
  8. ^ Eugene Aubrey Stratton, Plymouth Colony: Its History and People, 1620-1691 (Salt Lake City:Ancestry Publishing 1986) p. 249
  9. ^ Caleb H. Johnson, The Mayflower and her passengers (Indiana:Xlibris Corp., Caleb Johnson, 2006) pp. 79-100
  10. ^ Charles Edward Banks, The English Ancestry and Homes of the Pilgrim Fathers: who came to Plymouth on the Mayflower in 1620, the Fortune in 1621, and the Anne and the Little James in 1623 (Baltimore, MD.:Genealogical Publishing Co., 2006) pp. 98-99
  11. ^ Eugene Aubrey Stratton, Plymouth Colony: Its History and People, 1620-1691 (Salt Lake City:Ancestry Publishing 1986) p. 373
  12. ^ Caleb H. Johnson, The Mayflower and her passengers (Indiana:Xlibris Corp., Caleb Johnson, 2006) pp. 251-160
  13. ^ Charles Edward Banks, The English Ancestry and Homes of the Pilgrim Fathers: who came to Plymouth on the Mayflower in 1620, the 'Fortune in 1621, and the Anne and the Little James' in 1623 (Baltimore, MD.:Genealogical Publishing Co., 2006) pp. 35-39
  14. ^ Eugene Aubrey Stratton, Plymouth Colony: Its History and People, 1620-1691 (Salt Lake City:Ancestry Publishing 1986) pp. 251-252
  15. ^ Caleb H. Johnson, The Mayflower and her passengers (Indiana:Xlibris Corp., Caleb Johnson, 2006) pp. 91-100
  16. ^ Charles Edward Banks, The English Ancestry and Homes of the Pilgrim Fathers: who came to Plymouth on the Mayflower in 1620, the Fortune in 1621, and the Anne and the Little James in 1623 (Baltimore, MD.:Genealogical Publishing Co., 2006) pp. 28-30
  17. ^ a b Eugene Aubrey Stratton, Plymouth Colony: Its History and People, 1620-1691 (Salt Lake City:Ancestry Publishing 1986) p. 234
  18. ^ Caleb H. Johnson, The Mayflower and her passengers (Indiana:Xlibris Corp., Caleb Johnson, 2006) pp. 59-70
  19. ^ Charles Edward Banks, The English Ancestry and Homes of the Pilgrim Fathers: who came to Plymouth on the Mayflower in 1620, the Fortune in 1621, and the Anne and the Little James in 1623 (Baltimore, MD.:Genealogical Publishing Co., 2006) pp. 82-83
  20. ^ Eugene Aubrey Stratton, Plymouth Colony: Its History and People, 1620-1691 (Salt Lake City:Ancestry Publishing 1986) p. 356
  21. ^ Caleb H. Johnson, The Mayflower and her passengers (Indiana:Xlibris Corp., Caleb Johnson, 2006) pp. 210-231
  22. ^ Eugene Aubrey Stratton, Plymouth Colony: Its History and People, 1620-1691 (Salt Lake City:Ancestry Publishing 1986) pp. 232-233
  23. ^ Caleb H. Johnson, The Mayflower and her passengers (Indiana:Xlibris Corp., Caleb Johnson, 2006) pp. 46-58
  24. ^ Charles Edward Banks, The English Ancestry and Homes of the Pilgrim Fathers: who came to Plymouth on the Mayflower in 1620, the Fortune in 1621, and the Anne and the Little James in 1623 (Baltimore, MD.:Genealogical Publishing Co., 2006) p. 56
  25. ^ Eugene Aubrey Stratton, Plymouth Colony: Its History and People, 1620-1691 (Salt Lake City:Ancestry Publishing 1986) p. 295
  26. ^ Caleb H. Johnson, The Mayflower and her passengers (Indiana:Xlibris Corp., Caleb Johnson, 2006) pp. 146-151
  27. ^ Charles Edward Banks, The English Ancestry and Homes of the Pilgrim Fathers: who came to Plymouth on the Mayflower in 1620, the Fortune in 1621, and the Anne and the Little James in 1623 (Baltimore, MD.:Genealogical Publishing Co., 2006) p. 70
  28. ^ Eugene Aubrey Stratton, Plymouth Colony: Its History and People, 1620-1691 (Salt Lake City:Ancestry Publishing 1986) p. 323
  29. ^ Caleb H. Johnson, The Mayflower and her passengers (Indiana:Xlibris Corp., Caleb Johnson, 2006) pp. 183-186
  30. ^ Charles Edward Banks, The English Ancestry and Homes of the Pilgrim Fathers: who came to Plymouth on the Mayflower in 1620, the Fortune in 1621, and the Anneand the Little James in 1623 (Baltimore, MD.:Genealogical Publishing Co., 2006) pp. 73-74
  31. ^ Eugene Aubrey Stratton, Plymouth Colony: Its History and People, 1620-1691 (Salt Lake City:Ancestry Publishing 1986) pp. 331-332
  32. ^ Caleb H. Johnson, The Mayflower and her passengers (Indiana:Xlibris Corp., Caleb Johnson, 2006) pp. 193-195
  33. ^ Eugene Aubrey Stratton, Plymouth Colony: Its History and People, 1620-1691 (Salt Lake City:Ancestry Publishing 1986) p. 371
  34. ^ Caleb H. Johnson, The Mayflower and her passengers (Indiana:Xlibris Corp., Caleb Johnson, 2006) pp. 246-248
  35. ^ Charles Edward Banks, The English Ancestry and Homes of the Pilgrim Fathers: who came to Plymouth on the Mayflower in 1620, the Fortune in 1621, and the Anne and the Little James in 1623 (Baltimore, MD.:Genealogical Publishing Co., 2006) pp. 92-93
  36. ^ Eugene Aubrey Stratton, Plymouth Colony: Its History and People, 1620-1691 (Salt Lake City:Ancestry Publishing 1986) pp. 367-368
  37. ^ Caleb H. Johnson, The Mayflower and her passengers (Indiana:Xlibris Corp., Caleb Johnson, 2006) pp. 244-245
  38. ^ Eugene Aubrey Stratton, Plymouth Colony: Its History and People, 1620-1691 (Salt Lake City:Ancestry Publishing 1986) pp. 311-312
  39. ^ Caleb H. Johnson, The Mayflower and her passengers (Indiana:Xlibris Corp., Caleb Johnson, 2006) pp. 169-175
  40. ^ Charles Edward Banks, The English Ancestry and Homes of the Pilgrim Fathers: who came to Plymouth on the Mayflower in 1620, the Fortune in 1621, and the Anne and the Little James in 1623 (Baltimore, MD.:Genealogical Publishing Co., 2006) pp. 61-64
  41. ^ Eugene Aubrey Stratton, Plymouth Colony: Its History and People, 1620-1691 (Salt Lake City:Ancestry Publishing 1986) pp. 308, 310
  42. ^ Caleb H. Johnson, The Mayflower and her passengers (Indiana:Xlibris Corp., Caleb Johnson, 2006) pp. 160-168
  43. ^ Charles Edward Banks, The English Ancestry and Homes of the Pilgrim Fathers: who came to Plymouth on the Mayflower in 1620, the Fortune in 1621, and the Anne and the Little James in 1623 (Baltimore, MD.:Genealogical Publishing Co., 2006) pp. 49, 86
  44. ^ a b c Eugene Aubrey Stratton, Plymouth Colony: Its History and People, 1620-1691 (Salt Lake City:Ancestry Publishing 1986) p. 362
  45. ^ Caleb H. Johnson, The Mayflower and her passengers (Indiana:Xlibris Corp., Caleb Johnson, 2006) pp. 234-236
  46. ^ Charles Edward Banks, The English Ancestry and Homes of the Pilgrim Fathers: who came to Plymouth on the Mayflower in 1620, the Fortune in 1621, and the Anne and the Little James in 1623 (Baltimore, MD.:Genealogical Publishing Co., 2006) pp. 87-88
  47. ^ Caleb H. Johnson, The Mayflower and her passengers (Indiana:Xlibris Corp., Caleb Johnson, 2006) pp. 237, 238
  48. ^ Charles Edward Banks, The English Ancestry and Homes of the Pilgrim Fathers: who came to Plymouth on the Mayflower in 1620, the Fortune in 1621, and the Anne and the Little James in 1623 (Baltimore, MD.:Genealogical Publishing Co., 2006) pp. 47-48
  49. ^ Eugene Aubrey Stratton, Plymouth Colony: Its History and People, 1620-1691 (Salt Lake City:Ancestry Publishing 1986) p. 270
  50. ^ Caleb H. Johnson, The Mayflower and her passengers (Indiana:Xlibris Corp., Caleb Johnson, 2006) pp. 121-128
  51. ^ Charles Edward Banks, The English Ancestry and Homes of the Pilgrim Fathers: who came to Plymouth on the Mayflower in 1620, the Fortune in 1621, and the Anne and the Little James in 1623 (Baltimore, MD.:Genealogical Publishing Co., 2006) p. 78
  52. ^ Eugene Aubrey Stratton, Plymouth Colony: Its History and People, 1620-1691 (Salt Lake City:Ancestry Publishing 1986) pp. 345, 346
  53. ^ Caleb H. Johnson, The Mayflower and her passengers (Indiana:Xlibris Corp., Caleb Johnson, 2006) pp. 201-202
  54. ^ Charles Edward Banks, The English Ancestry and Homes of the Pilgrim Fathers: who came to Plymouth on the Mayflower in 1620, the Fortune in 1621, and the Anne and the Little James in 1623 (Baltimore, MD.:Genealogical Publishing Co., 2006) p. 89
  55. ^ Eugene Aubrey Stratton, Plymouth Colony: Its History and People, 1620-1691 (Salt Lake City:Ancestry Publishing 1986) pp. 362-363
  56. ^ Caleb H. Johnson, The Mayflower and her passengers (Indiana:Xlibris Corp., Caleb Johnson, 2006) p. 239
  57. ^ Charles Edward Banks, The English Ancestry and Homes of the Pilgrim Fathers: who came to Plymouth on the Mayflower in 1620, the Fortune' in 1621, and the Anne and the Little James in 1623 (Baltimore, MD.:Genealogical Publishing Co., 2006) p. 77
  58. ^ Eugene Aubrey Stratton, Plymouth Colony: Its History and People, 1620-1691 (Salt Lake City:Ancestry Publishing 1986) p. 344
  59. ^ Caleb H. Johnson, The Mayflower and her passengers (Indiana:Xlibris Corp., Caleb Johnson, 2006) p. 200
  60. ^ Charles Edward , The English Ancestry and Homes of the Pilgrim Fathers: who came to Plymouth on the Mayflower in 1620, the Fortune in 1621, and the Anne and the Little James in 1623 (Baltimore, MD.:Genealogical Publishing Co., 2006) p. 55
  61. ^ Eugene Aubrey Stratton, Plymouth Colony: Its History and People, 1620-1691 (Salt Lake City:Ancestry Publishing 1986) pp. 294-295
  62. ^ Caleb H. Johnson, The Mayflower and her passengers (Indiana:Xlibris Corp., Caleb Johnson, 2006) p. 144
  63. ^ Charles Edward Banks, The English Ancestry and Homes of the Pilgrim Fathers: who came to Plymouth on the Mayflower in 1620, the Fortune in 1621, and the Anne and the Little James in 1623 (Baltimore, MD.:Genealogical Publishing Co., 2006) p. 91
  64. ^ Eugene Aubrey Stratton, Plymouth Colony: Its History and People, 1620-1691 (Salt Lake City:Ancestry Publishing 1986) p. 365
  65. ^ Caleb H. Johnson, The Mayflower and her passengers (Indiana:Xlibris Corp., Caleb Johnson, 2006) p. 243
  66. ^ Charles Edward Banks, The English Ancestry and Homes of the Pilgrim Fathers: who came to Plymouth on the Mayflower in 1620, the Fortune in 1621, and the Anne and the Little James in 1623 (Baltimore, MD.:Genealogical Publishing Co., 2006) p. 53
  67. ^ Eugene Aubrey Stratton, Plymouth Colony: Its History and People, 1620-1691 (Salt Lake City:Ancestry Publishing 1986) p. 286
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  97. ^ Charles Edward Banks, The English Ancestry and Homes of the Pilgrim Fathers: who came to Plymouth on the Mayflowerin 1620, the Fortune in 1621, and the Anne and the Little James in 1623 (Baltimore, MD.:Genealogical Publishing Co., 2006) pp. 80-81
  98. ^ Eugene Aubrey Stratton, Plymouth Colony: Its History and People, 1620-1691 (Salt Lake City:Ancestry Publishing 1986) p. 355
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  100. ^ Charles Edward Banks, The English Ancestry and Homes of the Pilgrim Fathers: who came to Plymouth on the Mayflower in 1620, the Fortunein 1621, and the Anne and the Little James in 1623 (Baltimore, MD.:Genealogical Publishing Co., 2006) p. 46
  101. ^ Eugene Aubrey Stratton, Plymouth Colony: Its History and People, 1620-1691 (Salt Lake City:Ancestry Publishing 1986) p. 265
  102. ^ Caleb H. Johnson, The Mayflower and her passengers (Indiana:Xlibris Corp., Caleb Johnson, 2006) p. 120
  103. ^ Eugene Aubrey Stratton, Plymouth Colony: Its History and People, 1620-1691 (Salt Lake City:Ancestry Publishing 1986) pp. 34-35 and 395-296
  104. ^ Caleb H. Johnson, The Mayflower and her passengers (Indiana:Xlibris Corp., Caleb Johnson, 2006) pp. 152-153
  105. ^ Nick Bunker, Making Haste from Babylon: The Mayflower Pilgrims and their New World a History (New York: Knopf 2010), pp. 336, 337
  106. ^ Charles Edward Banks, The English Ancestry and Homes of the Pilgrim Fathers: who came to Plymouth on the Mayflower in 1620, the Fortune in 1621, and the Anne and the Little James in 1623 (Baltimore, MD.:Genealogical Publishing Co., 2006) p. 57
  107. ^ Caleb H. Johnson, The Mayflower and her passengers (Indiana:Xlibris Corp., Caleb Johnson, 2006) pp. 71-72
  108. ^ Charles Edward Banks, The English Ancestry and Homes of the Pilgrim Fathers: who came to Plymouth on the Mayflower in 1620, the Fortune' in 1621, and the Anne and the Little James in 1623 (Baltimore, MD.:Genealogical Publishing Co., 2006) p. 53
  109. ^ a b Eugene Aubrey Stratton, Plymouth Colony: Its History and People, 1620-1691 (Salt Lake City:Ancestry Publishing 1986) p. 289
  110. ^ a b Caleb H. Johnson, The Mayflower and her passengers (Indiana:Xlibris Corp., Caleb Johnson, 2006) pp. 132-137
  111. ^ Charles Edward Banks, The English Ancestry and Homes of the Pilgrim Fathers: who came to Plymouth on the Mayflower in 1620, the Fortune in 1621, and the Anne and the Little James in 1623 (Baltimore, MD.:Genealogical Publishing Co., 2006) p. 51
  112. ^ Charles Edward Banks, The English Ancestry and Homes of the Pilgrim Fathers: who came to Plymouth on the Mayflower in 1620, the Fortune in 1621, and the Anne and the Little James in 1623 (Baltimore, MD.:Genealogical Publishing Co., 2006) p. 68
  113. ^ Eugene Aubrey Stratton, Plymouth Colony: Its History and People, 1620-1691 (Salt Lake City:Ancestry Publishing 1986) p. 317
  114. ^ Caleb H. Johnson, The Mayflower and her passengers (Indiana:Xlibris Corp., Caleb Johnson, 2006) pp. 180-181
  115. ^ Photograph of the document