Mazanderani people

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Mazanderani people
Stamp-Mazandaran.JPG

Mazanderani traditional attire

Rezashah.jpg Nima Yushij - Original.jpg Imam-Ali Habibi.png Msc 2009-Friday, 16.00 - 19.00 Uhr-Dett 007 Larijani.jpg Delkesh.jpg Parviz-Natel-Khanlari.jpg

Reza ShahNima YooshijEmam-Ali Habibi

Ali LarijaniDelkashParviz Natel-Khanlari
Total population
3[1] to 4 million[2] (2006)
Regions with significant populations
province of Mazandaran and parts of the provinces of Alborz, Golestan, Tehran and Semnan in Iran
Languages
Mazanderani and Persian
Religion
Mostly Shi'a Muslim
Related ethnic groups
other peoples of Iran, Peoples of the Caucasus

The Mazanderani people are Iranian people[3][4][5] whose homeland is the Mazandaran Province in Northern Iran. Along with the closely related Gilakis the Mazanderani comprise one of the Caspian people, inhabiting the southern coastal region of the Caspian Sea. The Elburz mountains marks the southern limit of the Mazanderani peoples.[6][7]

People[edit]

Major Ethnic Groups of Iran

The population of Mazanderani people is between three[1] to four million (2006 estimation).[2] The dominant religion among Mazanderani people is Shiite Islam.[8]

They are mainly living in south east of the Caspian Sea coasts. Many of them live as farmers and fishermen.[1] The Mazanderani and neighboring Gilakis are both closely related to particular other peoples of Iran, and Caucasus peoples, especially the Georgians, Armenians, and Azerbaijani.[1][9][10]

Language[edit]

Main article: Mazanderani language

The Mazanderani language, which belongs to Northwestern Iranian languages, is spoken among these people and most Mazanderani people are fluent in both Mazanderani dialect and Persian.[6][8] The Gilaki and Mazanderani languages (but not other Iranian languages) share certain typological features with Caucasian languages, of wich Tat is one of them.[4][11] However, with the growth of education and press, the differentiation between Mazanderani and other Iranian dialects are likely to disappear.[6][8] Mazanderani is closely related to Gilaki and the two dialects have similar vocabularies.[6] These two languages retain more than Persian does of the noun declension system that was characteristic of older-Iranian languages.[6]

Borjan states that Mazanderani has different sub-dialects and there exists a high mutual intelligibility among various Mazanderani sub-dialects.[8] Raymond Gordon in Ethnologue lists them as Gorgani, Palani, etc. However, he calls them dialects.[7]

Genetics[edit]

The Mazanderani and their closely related Gilaki's occupy the South Caspian region of Iran and speak languages belonging to the North-Western branch of Iranian languages. It has been suggested that their ancestors came from the Caucasus region, perhaps displacing an earlier group in the South Caspian.[12] Linguistic evidence supports this scenario, in that the Gilaki and Mazanderani languages (but not other Iranian languages) share certain typological features with Caucasian languages.[12] There have been patterns analyzed of mtDNA and Y chromosome variation in the Gilaki and Mazanderani.

Based on mtDNA HV1 sequences, the Gilaki and Mazanderani most closely resemble their geographic and linguistic neighbors, namely other Iranian groups. However, their Y chromosome types most closely resemble those found in groups from the South Caucasus.[12] A scenario that explains these differences is a south Caucasian origin for the ancestors of the Gilaki and Mazanderani, followed by introgression of women (but not men) from local Iranian groups, possibly because of patrilocality.[12] Given that both mtDNA and language are maternally transmitted, the incorporation of local Iranian women would have resulted in the concomitant replacement of the ancestral Caucasian language and mtDNA types of the Gilaki and Mazanderani with their current Iranian language and mtDNA types. Concomitant replacement of language and mtDNA may be a more general phenomenon than previously recognized.

The Mazanderani and Gilaki groups fall inside a major cluster consisting of populations from the Caucasus and West Asia and are particularly close to the South Caucasus groups—Georgians, Armenians, and Azerbaijani's. Iranians from Tehran and Isfahan are situated more distantly from these groups.[12]

Haplogroups[edit]

Analysis of their NRY patrilines has revealed haplogroup J2, associated with the neolithic diffusion of agriculturalists from the Near East, to be the predominant Y-DNA lineage among the Mazanderani (subclades J2a3h-M530, J2a3b-M67 and J2a-M410, more specifically.).[13] The next most frequently occurring lineage, R1a1a, believed to have been associated with early Iranian expansion into Central/Southern Eurasia and currently ubiquitous in that area, is found in almost 1/4th, and this haplogroup, together with the aforementioned J2, accounts for over 1/2 of the entire sample.[13][14] Haplogroup G2a3b, attaining significant frequency together with G2a and G1, is the most commonly carried marker in the G group among Mazanderani men. The lineages E1b1b1a1a-M34 and C5-M356 comprise the remainder, of less than 10% sampled.[13]

Notable figures[edit]

Main article: List of Mazanderanis

Historic[edit]

Contemporary[edit]

Assimilated groups into the Mazanderani people[edit]

In the Safavid, Afsharid, and Qajar era Mazandaran was settled by large amounts of Georgians, Circassians, Armenians and other Peoples of the Caucasus, whose descendants still live across Mazandaran.[15][16][17] Still many towns, villages and neighbourhoods in Mazandaran bear the name "Gorji" (i.e. Georgian) in them, although most of the Georgians are already assimilated into the mainstream Mazanderanis. The history of Georgian settlement is described by Eskandar Beyg Monshi, the author of the 17th century Tarikh-e Alam-Ara-ye Abbasi, in addition many foreigners e.g. Chardin, and Della Valle, have written about their encounters with the Georgian, Circassian and Armenian Mazanderanis.[17]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d Middle East Patterns: Places, Peoples, and Politics By Colbert C. Held, John Cummings, Mildred McDonald Held,2005, page 119.
  2. ^ a b Iran Provinces
  3. ^ Area handbook for Iran By Harvey Henry Smith, American University (Washington, D.C.). Foreign Area Studies, American University (Washington, D.C.). Foreign Areas Studies, page 89
  4. ^ a b Academic American Encyclopedia By Grolier Incorporated, page 294
  5. ^ The World Book Encyclopedia By World Book, Inc, 2000, page 401
  6. ^ a b c d e Dalb, Andrew (1998). Dictionary of Languages: The Definitive Reference to More Than 400 Languages. Columbia University Press. p. 226. ISBN 0-231-11568-7. 
  7. ^ a b Ethnologue report for language code:mzn
  8. ^ a b c d Bilingualism in Mazandaran: Peaceful Coexistence With Persian by Maryam Borjian, Columbia University, Page 66. Online Access: [1]
  9. ^ "The Mazanderani and Gilaki groups fall inside a major cluster consisting of populations from the Caucasus and West Asia and are particularly close to the South Caucasus groups—Georgians, Armenians, and Azerbaijanians". Retrieved 4 April 2014. 
  10. ^ Iran, Encarta Encyclopedia Iran. Archived 2009-10-31.
  11. ^ The Tati language group in the sociolinguistic context of Northwestern Iran and Transcaucasia By D.Stilo, pages 137-185
  12. ^ a b c d e "Concomitant Replacement of Language and mtDNA in South Caspian Populations of Iran". Retrieved 4 April 2014. 
  13. ^ a b c Grugni, V; Battaglia, V; Hooshiar Kashani, B; Parolo, S; Al-Zahery, N et al. (2012). "Ancient Migratory Events in the Middle East: New Clues from the Y-Chromosome Variation of Modern Iranians". PLoS ONE 7 (7): e41252. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0041252. PMC 3399854. PMID 22815981. 
  14. ^ R. Spencer Wells et al., "The Eurasian Heartland: A continental perspective on Y-chromosome diversity," Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (August 28, 2001)
  15. ^ "Georgian communities in Persia". Retrieved 17 April 2014. 
  16. ^ ^ Muliani, S. (2001) Jaygah-e Gorjiha dar Tarikh va Farhang va Tammadon-e Iran. Esfahan: Yekta [The Georgians’ position in the Iranian history and civilization]
  17. ^ a b "PIETRO DELLA VALLE’S LATIN GEOGRAPHY OFSAFAVID IRAN (1624-1628)". Retrieved 17 April 2014. 

External links[edit]