In mathematics, the mean curvature of a surface is an extrinsic measure of curvature that comes from differential geometry and that locally describes the curvature of an embedded surface in some ambient space such as Euclidean space.
The concept was introduced by Sophie Germain in her work on elasticity theory. It is important in the analysis of minimal surfaces, which have mean curvature zero, and in the analysis of physical interfaces between fluids (such as soap films) which by the Young–Laplace equation have constant mean curvature.
Let be a point on the surface . Each plane through containing the normal line to cuts in a (plane) curve. Fixing a choice of unit normal gives a signed curvature to that curve. As the plane is rotated (always containing the normal line) that curvature can vary, and the maximal curvature and minimal curvature are known as the principal curvatures of .
The mean curvature at is then the average of the principal curvatures (Spivak 1999, Volume 3, Chapter 2), hence the name:
Additionally, the mean curvature may be written in terms of the covariant derivative as
using the Gauss-Weingarten relations, where is a smoothly embedded hypersurface, a unit normal vector, and the metric tensor.
A surface is a minimal surface if and only if the mean curvature is zero. Furthermore, a surface which evolves under the mean curvature of the surface , is said to obey a heat-type equation called the mean curvature flow equation.
The sphere is the only embedded surface of constant positive mean curvature without boundary or singularities. However, the result is not true when the condition "embedded surface" is weakened to "immersed surface".
Surfaces in 3D space
For a surface defined in 3D space, the mean curvature is related to a unit normal of the surface:
where the normal chosen affects the sign of the curvature. The sign of the curvature depends on the choice of normal: the curvature is positive if the surface curves "towards" the normal. The formula above holds for surfaces in 3D space defined in any manner, as long as the divergence of the unit normal may be calculated. Mean Curvature may also be calculated
where I and II denote first and second quadratic form matrices, respectively.
For the special case of a surface defined as a function of two coordinates, e.g. , and using the upward pointing normal the (doubled) mean curvature expression is
In particular at a point where , the mean curvature is half the trace of the Hessian matrix of .
If the surface is additionally known to be axisymmetric with ,
where comes from the derivative of .
Implicit form of mean curvature
The mean curvature of a surface specified by an implicit equation can be calculated by using the gradient and the Hessian matrix
Another form is as the divergence of the unit normal. A unit normal is given by and the mean curvature is
Mean curvature in fluid mechanics
An alternate definition is occasionally used in fluid mechanics to avoid factors of two:
This results in the pressure according to the Young-Laplace equation inside an equilibrium spherical droplet being surface tension times ; the two curvatures are equal to the reciprocal of the droplet's radius
A minimal surface is a surface which has zero mean curvature at all points. Classic examples include the catenoid, helicoid and Enneper surface. Recent discoveries include Costa's minimal surface and the Gyroid.
- Gaussian curvature
- Mean curvature flow
- Inverse mean curvature flow
- First variation of area formula
- Stretched grid method
- Dubreil-Jacotin on Sophie Germain
- Lodder, J. (2003). "Curvature in the Calculus Curriculum". The American Mathematical Monthly 110 (7): 593–605. doi:10.2307/3647744. JSTOR 3647744.
- Goldman, R. (2005). "Curvature formulas for implicit curves and surfaces". Computer Aided Geometric Design 22 (7): 632. doi:10.1016/j.cagd.2005.06.005. CiteSeerX: 10
.1 .1 .413 .3008.
- Spivak, M (1975). A Comprehensive Introduction to Differential Geometry 3. Publish or Perish, Boston.
- Rosenberg, Harold (2002), "Bryant surfaces", The global theory of minimal surfaces in flat spaces (Martina Franca, 1999), Lecture Notes in Math. 1775, Berlin: Springer, pp. 67–111, doi:10.1007/978-3-540-45609-4_3, MR 1901614.
- Spivak, Michael (1999), A comprehensive introduction to differential geometry (Volumes 3-4) (3rd ed.), Publish or Perish Press, ISBN 0-914098-72-1, (Volume 3), (Volume 4).