Measurement invariance

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Measurement invariance or measurement equivalence is a statistical property of measurement that indicates that the same construct is being measured across some specified groups. For example, measurement invariance can be used to study whether a given measure is interpreted in a conceptually similar manner by respondents representing different genders or cultural backgrounds. Violations of measurement invariance may preclude meaningful interpretation of measurement data. Tests of measurement invariance are increasingly used in fields such as psychology to supplement evaluation of measurement quality rooted in classical test theory.[1]

Measurement invariance is often tested in the framework of multiple-group confirmatory factor analysis (CFA).[2] In the context of structural equation models, including CFA, measurement invariance is often termed factorial invariance.[3]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Vandenberg, Robert J. & Lance, Charles E. (2000). A Review and Synthesis of the Measurement Invariance Literature: Suggestions, Practices, and Recommendations for Organizational Research. Organizational Research Methods, 3, 4–70
  2. ^ Chen, Fang Fang, Sousa, Karen H., and West, Stephen G. (2005). Testing Measurement Invariance of Second-Order Factor Models. Structural Equation Modeling, 12, 471–492
  3. ^ Widaman K. F., Ferrer E., & Conger R. D. (2010). Factorial Invariance within Longitudinal Structural Equation Models: Measuring the Same Construct across Time. Child Dev Perspect., 4, 10–18.