Mechanography

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Mechanography (also referred to as jumping mechanography) is a medical diagnostic measurement method for motion analysis by means of physical parameters. The variation of the ground reaction forces over the time of a motion like typical every day movements (e.g. chair rise or jumps) are measured and centre of gravity related physical parameters like relative maximum forces, velocity, power output, kinetic energy, potential energy, height of jump or whole body stiffness[1] are calculated. If the ground reaction forces are measured separately for left and right leg in addition body imbalances during the motions can be analysed. This enables for example to document the results of therapy.[2] The same methodology can also be used for gait analysis[3][4] or for analysis of stair climbing.

Fields of Application[edit]

Typical fields of applications of Mechanography are in the field of geriatrics[5][6][7][8][9] as well as in pediatrics.[10][11][12][13][14][15][16][17] In opposite to many other established measurements methods like Chair Rising Test, Stand-up and Go test and others[18][19] the maximum power output relative to body weight during a jump of maximum height measured by Mechanography is a much better reproducible and does not have a training effect even when repeated more frequently.[20]

Based on this test (maximum relative power output of a jump as high as possible) Runge et al. and Schönau et al. defined reference values of a fit population in order to match the individual power output in relation to bodyweight, age and gender[5][14] Tsubaki[21][22] showed when using identical selection criteria as Runge that the relative Power of the Japanese population is identical with western European population which delimits the need for localized reference data. Runge et al. also showed the interrelation between the measured individual power output and the neuromuscular caused fall risk.[23]

Due to this objective and highly reproducible quantification of typical every day movements by means of physical parameters the Mechanography is well suited to document the physical state of a person[5][24][25] as well as the effects of training or therapy.[2][7][17][26][27][28] Because of this it is also one of the standard measurements in recent and current Bed Rest Studies of the European Space Agency (ESA).[26][29]

Mechanography has also been used to explore the relation between muscle and bone. According to the Mechanostat theorem muscle function influences bone growth. By combining functional measurement methods like Mechanography and quantitative computer tomographic measurements analysing bone density, geometry and strength this relationship can be assessed.[13][30][30][31]

Resources[edit]

  1. ^ Farley CT, Houdijk HH, Van Strien C, Louie M: Mechanism of leg stiffness adjustment for hopping on surfaces of different stiffnesses, Mechanism of leg stiffness adjustment for hopping on surfaces of different stiffnesses, PMID 9729582
  2. ^ a b Fricke O, Witzel C, Schickendantz S, Sreeram N, Brockmeier K, Schoenau E: Mechanographic characteristics of adolescents and young adults with congenital heart disease, Eur J Pediatr. 2007 May 22, PMID 17516086
  3. ^ Veilleux LN, Robert M, Ballaz L, Lemay M, Rauch F: Gait analysis using a force-measuring gangway: Intrasession repeatability in healthy adults, J Musculoskelet Neuronal Interact., 11(1):27-33, 2011; PMID 21364272
  4. ^ Veilleux LN, Cheung M, Ben Amor M, Rauch F: Abnormalities in Muscle Density and Muscle Function in Hypophosphatemic Rickets., J Clin Endocrinol Metab, ():, 2012; PMID 22639288
  5. ^ a b c Runge M, Rittweger J, Russo CR, Schiessl H, Felsenberg D: Is muscle power output a key factor in the age-related decline in physical performance? A comparison of muscle cross section, chair-rising test and jumping power, Clin Physiol Funct Imaging. 2004 Nov;24(6):335-40, PMID 15522042
  6. ^ Buehring B, Krueger D, Binkley N: Jumping Mechanography: A Potential Tool for Sarcopenia Evaluation in Older Individuals, J Clin Densitom., 2010; PMID 20554231
  7. ^ a b Buehring B, Valentine S, Woods A, Checovich M, Krueger D, Binkley N: Jumping Mechanography Safely Evaluates Muscle Performance in Older Adults, ASBMR 2008, :, 2008
  8. ^ Dionyssiotis Y, Galanos A, Michas G, Trovas G, Lyritis GP: Assessment of musculoskeletal system in women with jumping mechanography, International Journal of Women’s Health, 1:113–118, 2009
  9. ^ Buehring B, Fidler E, Libber J, Krueger D, Binkley N: Muscle Function, but Not Muscle Mass, is Related to Balance Confidence in Older Adults, ISCD, :, 2012
  10. ^ Fricke O, Stabrey A, Tutlewski B, Schoenau E: Mechanographic analyses in pediatrics: allometric scaling of 'peak jump force' and its relationship to 'maximal isometric grip force' in childhood and adolescence, Klin Padiatr., 221(7):436-9, 2009; PMID 20013567
  11. ^ Richter A, Lang D, Strutzenberger G, Schwameder H: EFFECT OF SPORT ACTIVITY ON COUNTER MOVEMENT JUMP PARAMETERS IN JUVENILE STUDENTS, ISBS, Conference Proceedings Archive, 27 International Conference on Biomechanics in Sports (2009), :, 2009
  12. ^ Fricke O, Schoenau E: Examining the developing skeletal muscle: Why, what and how, J Musculoskelet Neuronal Interact., 5(3):225-31, 2005; PMID 16172513
  13. ^ a b Binkley TL, Specker BL: Muscle-bone relationships in the lower leg of healthy pre-pubertal females and males, J Musculoskelet Neuronal Interact., 8(3):239-43, 2008; PMID 18799856
  14. ^ a b Fricke O, Weidler J, Tutlewski B, Schoenau E: Mechanography - a new device for the assessment of muscle function in pediatrics, Pediatr Res. 2006 Jan;59(1):46-9. Epub 2005 Dec 2, PMID 16327004
  15. ^ Veilleux LN, Rauch F: Reproducibility of jumping mechanography in healthy children and adults, J Musculoskelet Neuronal Interact., 10(4):256-66, 2010; PMID 21116062
  16. ^ Edouard T, Deal C, Van Vliet G, Gaulin N, Moreau A, Rauch F, Alos N: Muscle-Bone Characteristics in Children with Prader–Willi syndrome., J Clin Endocrinol Metab, ():, 2011; PMID 22162467
  17. ^ a b Rauch R, Veilleux LN, Rauch F, Bock D, Welisch E, Filler G, Robinson T, Burrill E, Norozi K: Muscle force and power in obese and overweight children., J Musculoskelet Neuronal Interact, 12(2):80-3, 2012; PMID 22647281
  18. ^ Robbins AS, Rubenstein LZ, Josephson KR, Schulman BL, Osterweil D, Fine G: Predictors of falls among elderly people. Results of two population-based studies, Arch Intern Med. 1989 Jul;149(7):1628-33, PMID 2742437
  19. ^ Cummings SR, Nevitt MC, Browner WS, Stone K, Fox KM, Ensrud KE, Cauley J, Black D, Vogt TM: Risk factors for hip fracture in white women. Study of Osteoporotic Fractures Research Group, N Engl J Med. 1995 Mar 23;332(12):767-73, PMID 7862179
  20. ^ Rittweger J, Schiessl H, Felsenberg D, Runge M: Reproducibility of the jumping mechanography as a test of mechanical power output in physically competent adult and elderly subjects, J Am Geriatr Soc. 2004 Jan;52(1):128-31, PMID 14687327
  21. ^ Tsubaki A, Kubo M, Kobayashi R, Jigami H, Takahashi HE: Normative values for maximum power during motor function assessment of jumping among physically active Japanese, J Musculoskelet Neuronal Interact., 9(4):263-7, 2009; PMID 19949284
  22. ^ Tsubaki A, Kubo M, Kobayashi R, Jigami H, Takahashi HE: Age-Related Changes in Physical Function in Community-Dwelling People Aged 50-79 Years, J. Phys. Ther. Sci, 22/1:23-27, 2010
  23. ^ Runge M, Hunter G: Determinants of musculoskeletal frailty and the risk of falls in old age, J Musculoskelet Neuronal Interact. 2006 Apr-Jun;6(2):167-73, PMID 16849828
  24. ^ Ward KA, Das G, Berry JL, Roberts SA, Rawer R, Adams JE, Mughal Z: Vitamin D status and muscle function in post-menarchal adolescent girls, J Clin Endocrinol Metab., :, 2008; PMID 19033372
  25. ^ Yanovich R, Evans R, Israeli E, Constantini N, Sharvit N, Merkel D, Epstein Y, Moran DS: Differences in physical fitness of male and female recruits in gender-integrated army basic training, Med Sci Sports Exerc., 40(11 Suppl):S654-9, 2008; PMID 18849869
  26. ^ a b Rittweger J, Felsenberg D, Maganaris C, Ferretti JL: Vertical jump performance after 90 days bed rest with and without flywheel resistive exercise, including a 180 days follow-up, Eur J Appl Physiol., 100(4):427-36, 2007; doi:10.1007/s00421-007-0443-6 PMID 17406887
  27. ^ Rittweger J, di Prampero PE, Maffulli N, Narici MV: Sprint and endurance power and ageing: an analysis of master athletic world records, Proc Biol Sci., 276(1657):683-9, 2009; PMID 18957366
  28. ^ Item F, Denkinger J, Fontana P, Weber M, Boutellier U, Toigo M: Combined Effects of Whole-Body Vibration, Resistance Exercise, and Vascular Occlusion on Skeletal Muscle and Performance., Int J Sports Med, 32(10):781-7, 2011; PMID 21870317
  29. ^ Buehring B, Belavy DL, Michaelis I, Gast U, Felsenberg D, Rittweger J: Changes in lower extremity muscle function after 56 days of bed rest., J Appl Physiol, 111(1):87-94, 2011; PMID 21527664
  30. ^ a b Anliker E, Dick C, Rawer R, Toigo M: Effects of jumping exercise on maximum ground reaction force and bone in 8- to 12-year-old boys and girls: a 9-month randomized controlled trial., J Musculoskelet Neuronal Interact, 12(2):56-67, 2012; PMID 22647278
  31. ^ Anliker E, Rawer R, Boutellier U, Toigo M: Maximum Ground Reaction Force in Relation to Tibial Bone Mass in Children and Adults., Med Sci Sports Exerc, (43):2102-9, 2011; PMID 21502901